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Road to Revolution

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Road to Revolution 1763-1776 Results of French and Indian War On Colonies Gained self-confidence and military experience Saw need for unity Removal of French made ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Road to Revolution


1
Road to Revolution
  • 1763-1776

2
Results of French and Indian War
  • On Colonies
  • Gained self-confidence and military experience
  • Saw need for unity
  • Removal of French made them less dependant on
    mother country (Britain)
  • On England
  • Colonies had not helped enough
  • Should pay for cost of fighting Had taken on
    massive debt fighting the French and Indian/Seven
    Years War

3
Britains New Policy
  • Place colonies under strict economic control no
    more Salutary neglect
  • Began to enforce Navigation Acts
  • Compel colonists to show respect
  • Make colonies pay cost of maintaining British
    Empire

4
Old Laws Newly Enforced
  • Navigation Acts (mercantilism)
  • Transport good only on British ships
  • Export some items (tobacco, sugar, indigo, furs)
    only to Britain
  • Purchase goods only from Britain (or from a
    European ship that had paid British taxes
  • Writs of Assistance
  • Authorized British officials to search colonial
    homes for smuggled goods

5
New Taxes
  • Sugar Act 1764
  • On sugar and molasses
  • Actually reduced existing taxes, but was strictly
    enforced
  • Stamp Act 1765
  • Stamps on printed materials (wills, mortgages,
    almanacs, pamphlets, and newspapers)
  • Mostly affected lawyers, clergymen, printers,
    etc
  • No taxation without Representation
  • Townshend Acts 1767
  • Taxed imports of paper, glass, paint, and tea
  • Colonists accused of not paying were tried in
    Admiralty (military) courts without a jury

6
More New Taxes
  • Proclamation of 1763
  • Colonists cannot settle west of Appalachians
  • Goal was to protect fur trade and halt Native
    American revolts (like Pontiacs)
  • Also kept colonists from settling beyond reach of
    British Government
  • Quartering Act of 1765
  • Required colonists to provide food and living
    space for British soldiers

7
Opposition
  • Three forms
  • Economic boycotts
  • Intellectual protest
  • Violent intimidation
  • Smuggling and continued settlement west
  • Colonial Cooperation
  • Albany Plan of Union 1754 failed, but sparked
    idea of cooperation
  • Stamp Act of Congress 1765
  • Delegates from nine colonies met in NYC
  • Initiated a boycott of British goods
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • Samuel Adams began this as a way for colonies to
    organize opposition to British policies
  • 250 throughout the colonies

8
More Opposition
  • Sons of Liberty
  • Organization of patriots enforced boycott on
    British goods
  • 1770 Britain repealed the Townshend Acts
  • Boston Massacre
  • Colonists frequently demonstrated against
    Redcoats (British soldiers)
  • March 1770
  • Colonists threw rocks at soldiers
  • soldiers fired upon and unarmed crowd and killed
    five men

9
Boston Tea Party
  • Tea Act 1773
  • England stopped taxing tea from British East
    India Company
  • became cheapest tea ever to colonies (cheaper
    than smuggled tea, even with tax)
  • Saw this as a trick to force them to pay the tax
  • Colonial merchants could no longer compete
  • Colonists still had to pay tax under Townshend
    Acts
  • NY and PA colonists would not allow English Tea
    ships to unload
  • 12/16/1773 Boston, colonists disguised as Native
    Americans boarded the English ships and dumped
    the tea in the harbor

10
Intolerable Acts
  • Britain determined to punish Massachusetts
  • Coercive Acts
  • Closed Boston Harbor until colonists paid for tea
  • Increased power of royal governor and sent
    British Warships to enforce
  • Agendas of town meeting had to be approved by
    royal governor
  • Many elected officials now appointed by crown
  • Authorized quartering of troops in any town
  • British officials accused of crimes would be
    tried in Britain

11
Intolerable Acts
  • The Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act were known
    by the colonists as the Intolerable Acts
  • Quebec Act 1774
  • Quebec officially Roman Catholic
  • Royal governor given wide power
  • Extended Quebecs border to Ohio river and west
    to Mississippi blocking colonial expansion

12
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13
First Continental Congress 1774
  • Because of Intolerable Acts, delegates from 12
    colonies met in Philadelphia
  • Wrote a grievance to King George III asking him
    to redress wrongs and repeal the Intolerable Acts
  • Voted to boycott British Goods
  • Patrick Henry wrote his Give me liberty or give
    me death speech
  • After this, colonists began stockpiling supplies
    and training militia for war

14
Outbreak of American Revolution
  • Concord, Massachusetts, British General Thomas
    Gage, ordered arrest of colonial leaders John
    Hancock and Samuel Adams, believed to be in
    Lexington
  • Paul Revere road and forewarned the minutemen,
    Mass.s militia
  • Fighting broke out Battle of Lexington and
    Concord
  • Shot heard round the world
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