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Geologists and Geographers Making a Difference!

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Title: Geologists and Geographers Making a Difference! Author: Eric Potter Last modified by: Ian Duncan Created Date: 1/24/2003 7:14:16 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geologists and Geographers Making a Difference!


1
The Gulf Coast Carbon Center Exploring
Synergies between gasification and CO2
Sequestration Ian J. Duncan
Bureau of Economic Geology Jackson School of
Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin
2
Bureau of Economic Geology Energy, Environment,
Education
QAd2349x
3
BUREAU OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
  • Established in 1909
  • Oldest research unit of The University of Texas
    at Austin
  • Geological Survey of Texas

4
Bureau of Economic Geology
  • Provides extensive advisory, technical, and
    informational services
  • Conducts basic and applied research
  • Energy
  • Industrial Associates
  • Basin analysis
  • Reservoir Characterization
  • Environmental and Earth Systems
  • Airborne Geophysics
  • Coastal and environmental studies
  • Geologic mapping
  • Hydrogeology
  • Geologic sequestration
  • Education and Outreach

5

6
CO2 Sequestration
  • CO2 contributes to climate change
  • Geologic sequestration is one way to reduce
    atmospheric releases of CO2
  • Critical assessment of geologic and engineering
    aspects of CO2 sequestration is needed

7
GCCC Vision Statement
  • The GCCC seeks to impact global levels of GHG
    in the atmosphere by doing science and
    engineering studies that will support reduction
    of CO2 and methane emissions and enable the
    development of an economically viable,
    multifaceted, CO2 sequestration industry in the
    Gulf Coast

8
Why the Gulf Coast?
Image shows concentrations of stationary sources
of CO2 superimposed on the thickness of the
subsurface
9
GCCC Industry Partners

NRG
10
Other GCCC Collaborators
  • DOE-NETL
  • Southeast Regional Sequestration Partnership
    (SECarb) Southwest Regional Sequestration
    Partnership
  • Environmental research, NGOs
  • Environmental Defense, National Resources Defense
    Council Houston Sierra Club
  • Other research teams
  • National labs, NETL, LBNL,LLNL, ORNL, PNL USGS
    HARC UT ESI Louisiana Geological Survey,
    Australian CO2CRC
  • Mike Moore (Falcon Environmental) GCCC
    consultant in carbon credits markets
  • UT Department of Petroleum Engineering,
    internationally recognized leaders in CO2
    enhanced oil recovery (EOR) research.

11
Core Competencies
  • Conducting large scale field projects that
    demonstrate the viability of geologic
    sequestration of CO2
  • Establishing best practices for CO2 Monitoring,
    Measurement and Verification using risk analysis
  • Economic modeling of the future CO2 value chain
    for the Gulf Coast
  • Using next generation reservoir characterization
    to optimize CO2 EOR

12
Field Demonstration - Monitoring at Frio Pilot
Gas wells
Access tubes, gas sampling
Downhole sampling U-tube Gas lift
Wireline logging

Radial VSP Cross well Seismic, EM
Tracers
13
Observation Well
Injection Well
14
Main GCCC Results to Date
  • Quantification of CO2 market for EOR in GIS
    (spatial inventory)
  • Successful field demonstration (Frio I Project)
    of monitoring and modeling techniques to measure
    subsurface storage of CO2, assure public and
    environmental safety and effectiveness of this
    process
  • Demonstration of significance of two phase
    trapping in assuring permanence of CO2 storage
  • Development of enhanced screening methodology for
    EOR prospects

15
Model for Stacked Storage in the Gulf Coast
Validation of adequacy of permitting and
monitoring protocols
Near-term and long-term sources and sinks linked
in a regional pipeline network
Linked enhanced oil and gas production to offset
development cost and speed implementation
Very large volume storage in stacked
brine formations beneath reservoir footprints
16
Message to Legislatures
  • National Energy supply benefits from applying CO2
    enhanced oil recovery processes in Texas and the
    Gulf Coast.
  • The Environment benefits from capturing and
    storing a major greenhouse gas.
  • The Economy benefits from
  • Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) including wellhead
    value, taxes, and jobs.
  • Carbon credits from around the world could come
    to the Gulf Coast owing to a unique association
    of large volume storage capacity and CO2 sources
  • Jobs created by infrastructure development
    associated with a CO2 sequestration industry

17
Future Trends for Fossil Energy Utilization in
the US
18
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19
THE US IS THE SAUDI ARABIA OF COAL
20
THE US IS THE SUADI ARABIA OF COAL What are the
Implications for the Oil Industry
  • High oil prices and National Security will drive
    gasification of coal and production of synthetic
    diesel for DOD
  • Environmental NGOs driving power companies to
    decarbonize fuel. CO2 sequestration
  • Cheap CO2 available for EOR

21
GULF COAST CO2 BASED ENHANCED OIL
RECOVERY SCENARIOS
22
CO2 Miscible Flooding Mechanisms
  • Large density at reservoir conditions makes the
    CO2 a good solvent for light hydrocarbons
  • The formation of a single phase diminishes the
    capillary forces
  • Miscibility with the CO2 lowers the viscosity of
    the oil and increases its mobility.

23
CO2 Flooding under Miscible Conditions
24
Selection of Candidates Suitable for CO2 Miscible
Flooding
Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) within an
achievable range
25
United States CO2 EOR
  • 2 Bcf/day (35 MMTY) of CO2 currently injected
    for EOR, largely in the Permian Basin
  • 20 of CO2 for EOR is anthropogenic ( 7 MMTY)
  • CO2 annual emissions from all fossil energy is
    6 GT
  • Annual U.S. oil consumption is 7 BSTB and annual
    oil production is 3.2 BSTB
  • Current U.S. CO2 EOR Production 206 MBOPD, 7.5
    MMBOPY
  • 4 of U.S. production, 66 active projects, 50 in
    Permian Basin

26
United States CO2 EOR
27
Converging Forces Energy, Environment, Economy
  • Energy supply benefits from applying CO2 enhanced
    oil recovery processes in Texas and the Gulf
    Coast.
  • The Environment benefits from capturing and
    storing a major greenhouse gas.
  • The Economy benefits from
  • Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) including wellhead
    value, taxes, and jobs.
  • Net positive carbon credits in Texas and the Gulf
    Coast owing to large volume storage capacity
  • Jobs created by infrastructure development
    associated with a CO2 sequestration industry

28
Why the Gulf Coast?
  • The Gulf Coast region accounts for approximately
    16 of the U.S. annual CO2 emissions from fossil
    fuels.
  • Annual emissions of CO2 in Texas, Louisiana and
    Mississippi are 1 billion metric tons (1 GT),
    and Texas alone emits 667 million metric tons of
    CO2.
  • Source-sink proximity
  • Stacked Sinks oil fields and large volume
    brine aquifers
  • Regional and local geology is well understood
  • Some infrastructure in already in place
  • Economic feedback, whereby State incentives for
    capture are recovered via taxes on CO2 EOR

29
Focus on the Gulf Coast
Anthropogenic CO2 stationary source data from
Hendriks and others, IEA Greenhouse Gas RD
Program, 2002).
30
Anthropogenic CO2 The Gulf Coast Wedge
14,000
U.S. others
Gulf Coast (TX, LA, MS)
12,000
10,000
Historical
Forecast
8,000
Annual Emissions (MM metric tons of CO
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
1980
1983
1986
1989
1992
1995
1998
2001
2004
2007
2010
2013
2016
2019
2022
2025
2028
2031
2034
2037
2040
2043
2046
2049
2052
Historical and Forecast of U.S. and Gulf Coast
region CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (Data from
CDIAC and EIA websites).
31
Converting CO2-EOR to Storage
  • Permanently store CO2 in reservoir after EOR has
    been completed
  • Reservoir characterization and simulation for
    longterm storage
  • Longterm measurement, monitoring, and
    verification (MMV) systems.

32
Optimizing CO2 Storage
50
45
40
Maximum storage capacity
35
(kgm/m3)
CO2 bulk volume residual
30
25
20
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
Depth (ft)
33
Screening Criteria for CO2 Storage/EOR
  • Minimum miscibility pressure
  • Cumulative and current annual oil production
  • Storage potential (metric tons of CO2)
  • Distance from CO2 source
  • Reservoir Geology
  • Cultural character (Urbanization, Unitization)

34
Oil-reservoir database
Cumulative production gt 1 MMSTB
No
DECISION TREE FOR SCREENING CANDIDATE RESERVOIRS
Rejected
Yes
Minimum miscibility pressure (depth, temp.,
pressure, oil character)
No
Yes
Rejected
Unknown
No
Yes
Reservoir depth gt 6000 ft
Candidate for secondary recovery
Yes
No
Has reservoir been waterflooded?
No
Does reservoir have water- drive mechanism?
Candidate reservoirs
Yes
Rejected
35
Past Gulf Coast CO2 EOR
  • Water-alternating gas (WAG)
  • Example Quarantine Bay, Chevron 1991
  • Results 16.9 recovery of OOIP, 188 Mstb
    recovered
  • CO2 utilization 2.57 Mcf/stb recovered
  • Gravity stable flood
  • Example Weeks Island, Shell ( Johnston, 1988)
  • Results 64 of starting oil volume, 261 Mstb
  • Design 24 pore-volume CO2 w/ 6 CH4
  • CO2 utilization 7.9 Mcf/stb with recycle

36
Areas With Miscible CO2-EOR Potential
37
Residual Oil Resources in Texas (Non Permian
Basin)
Total gt 38 Billion STB
Gulf Coast
Texas Cretaceous Margin
East Texas
North Central Texas
38
Residual Oil Resources in Texas (Non Permian
Basin)
15 Recovery Total 5.7 billion STB
39
Pipelines
40
Coal Resources and Mines
41
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42
Economics Anthropogenic CO2-EOR
  • Competes with natural source CO2, priced at
    10-15/Ton, delivered at pressure.
  • High purity (95) CO2 preferred.
  • Cost of compression and transportation to sinks
    are significant.
  • Near-term opportunities for low-cost capture and
    CO2-EOR are offered by high concentration CO2
    sources.
  • Production of additional domestic oil is value
    added benefit.
  • EOR and carbon tax incentives will provide
    economic incentives for CO2-EOR for sequestration.

43
Storage Volumes
  • Annual production in Gulf Coast (37,000 km3) is
    1 GT CO2 with emissions doubling over 50 years
  • Total EOR CO2 storage is 0.7 GT
  • Brine filled storage is 222 GT CO2 in only 1
    of brine-filled volume in sandstones from 4000
    ft-12,000 ft

44
Technical Advances Since the 1980s to Improve
EOR Results
  • 3D seismic for delineating fault blocks
  • Directional drilling for placing wells
  • Reservoir characterization for designing flood
  • Improved knowledge of CO2 flooding

45
The Size of the Prize
State Revenue /bbl Wellhead Taxes Other
Taxes 30 15 billion 11 billion 40 19
billion 14 billion 50 24 billion 19 billion
60 30 billion
22billion State Incentives for Capture Cost _at_
70/ton capture 51 billion _at_ 20/ton capture
15 billion
We may be closer than we think!
46
Thanks!
For more information www.gulfcoastcarbon.org
47
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48
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49
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50
Anthropogenic CO2 in the Gulf Coast Region
Historical and forecast U.S. and Gulf Coast CO2
emissions from fossil fuels Data from CDIAC and
EIA websites
51
Selection of Candidates Suitable for Miscible
Flooding
52
Selection of Candidates Suitable for Miscible
Flooding
  • Temperature gradient non-linear regression used
    for the Frio Plays 5, 6, 7, and 10
  • Non-linear regression for the molecular weight of
    the C5

Temp 0.015Depth 77.45
53
Selection of Candidates Suitable for Miscible
Flooding
  • Non-linear Multiple Regression for the Minimum
    Miscibility Pressure, MMP
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