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The Civil War

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The Civil War Chapter 6 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil War


1
The Civil War
  • Chapter 6

2
Lesson 1-Breaking Away from the Union
  • The Union is another name for the United States.
  • People in the North and South disagreed on issues
    such as slavery and states rights, or the right
    to make decisions for itself.

3
North and South
  • The North and South had very different economies.
  • The North depended on small farms and
    manufacturing industries that paid workers for
    their labor.
  • Manufacturing is the process of making goods by
    hand or with machines.

4
North and South
  • Many Southern plantations depended on the labor
    of enslaved people.
  • They thought that having slaves was a way of
    life.
  • Many Northerners were abolitionists.
  • An abolitionist wanted to abolish, or end,
    slavery.

5
North and South
  • States in which people were legally allowed to
    own slaves were known as slave states.
  • States in which people could not own slaves were
    known as free states.
  • People could not agree on the issue of slavery,
    so some Southern states wanted to secede from the
    Union to protect their right to own slaves.
  • To secede means to withdraw.

6
Disagreements
  • Other disagreements between the North and South
    included
  • Transportation-North wanted the government to pay
    for it South wanted each state to pay
  • Land in the West-South was worried that the land
    would be too small and too expensive
  • Tariffs-North wanted high tariffs South wanted
    low tariffs
  • A tariff is a tax on goods that are brought into
    one country from another to be sold.

7
Abraham Lincoln
  • When Abraham Lincoln became president, it caused
    Southerners to become even more concerned.
  • Lincoln was against the spread of slavery to the
    West.
  • They were afraid he would want to end slavery in
    the South.

8
Seceding from the Union
  • In December 1860, South Carolina seceded.
  • Some Alabamians wanted to secede immediately, and
    some thought Alabama should secede only if other
    states did.
  • On January 7, 1861, delegates met in Montgomery
    to discuss whether to secede.
  • 70 out of 100 delegates had enslaved people. Why
    would this be important?
  • On January 11, the delegates voted to secede from
    the Union.

9
The Confederacy
  • By February, four more states had seceded.
  • There was a meeting in Montgomery with
    representatives from all 6 states on February 4,
    1861.
  • They organized their own government called the
    Confederate States of America, and they became an
    independent country.
  • They elected Jefferson Davis as their president.
  • Montgomery served as the first capital of the
    Confederacy, but then it moved to Richmond,
    Virginia because it had the largest population.

10
The War Begins
  • The Confederacy did not want U.S. troops in their
    forts.
  • President Lincoln wanted to protect the forts
    because he considered them U.S. property.
  • So he ordered that supplies be sent to Fort
    Sumter, South Carolina.
  • This made the Confederacy furious!
  • So they ordered troops to fire on Fort Sumter.
  • The Civil War had begun!

11
Lesson 2-Alabama in the Civil War
  • After the war broke out, many Alabamians
    volunteered for military service.
  • They formed 29 regiments, or units of soldiers.
  • African Americans also took part in the war
  • They fought with their owners on the Confederate
    side
  • Carried supplies
  • Cared for horses
  • Worked in Confederate army camps
  • Escaped from slavery and joined the Union side
  • Women served as nurses close to the battlefield.

12
African Americans and Women in the Civil War
13
Selma
  • Selma, Alabama became an important military
    supply center because it was close to mineral
    resources and had good river and rail
    transportation.
  • The Selma Arsenal made ammunition, such as
    cannons, shells, and gunpowder.
  • Ships were built at Selmas Naval Yard.

14
Fighting in the War
  • Robert E. Lee was the general for the
    Confederacy.
  • Ulysses S. Grant was the general for the Union.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg was one of the main
    battles of the war and the Union won.
  • The Union continued to win most of the battles
    for the next two years.

Lee
Grant
15
Ending the War
  • By April 1865, Confederate forces were
    outnumbered by Union troops.
  • General Lee felt he could do nothing but
    surrender.
  • Grant accepted Lees surrender at Appomattox
    Court House, Virginia on April 9, 1865.
  • The war was over.

16
After the War
  • Alabama suffered between 30,000 and 40,000
    casualties in the war.
  • A casualty is a person who is injured, killed, or
    captured during a war.
  • President Lincoln signed and issued the
    Emancipation Proclamation during the war, which
    freed enslaved people in Confederate states.
  • In 1865, the 13th Amendment became part of the
    U.S. Constitution, which abolished slavery
    throughout the country.

17
Lesson 3-Rebuilding After the War
  • When the soldiers came home, they saw that
    Alabamas infrastructure had been heavily
    damaged.
  • Infrastructure is the basic systems a society
    needs in order to function.
  • Plantations and farms had been set on fire.
  • Confederate troops had burned thousands of bales
    of cotton to stop the Union troops from taking
    them.
  • Cities were in ruins, rail cars, rail track, rail
    stations, and steamboats were destroyed.
  • Alabama and other states in the South faced a
    long period of rebuilding, known as
    Reconstruction.

18
Rejoining the Union
  • The U.S. government in Washington, D.C. helped
    many states rebuild.
  • President Andrew Johnson appointed temporary
    governors for the Southern states.
  • Johnson became President after Lincoln was
    assassinated.
  • He chose Lewis E. Parsons of Talladega to be the
    temporary governor of Alabama.

Johnson
Parsons
19
Rejoining the Union
  • Parsons began by bringing back all of the laws
    that Alabama had before the war, except for the
    laws on slavery.
  • Then, President Johnson outlined the steps that
    all the Southern states had to take in order to
    rejoin the Union
  • 1. A percentage of voters in each Southern state
    had to take an oath of loyalty to the U.S.
  • 2. Each state had to write a new constitution.

20
Rejoining the Union
  • Alabama followed President Johnsons steps,
    including a new constitution.
  • However, Alabama was not immediately allowed back
    into the Union. Why?
  • Because they had passed a series of laws known as
    black codes.
  • Black Codes were laws that limited the rights of
    African Americans.

21
Rejoining the Union
  • Congress passed a Reconstruction act, or law,
    saying that the Southern states had to write new
    constitutions.
  • These new state constitutions had to give African
    Americans the right to vote.
  • In November 1867, delegates met again in
    Montgomery to write a new constitution.
  • Alabama rejoined the Union in 1868!

For the first time in Alabama history, there were
African American delegates who helped write the
new constitution.
22
The Freedmens Bureau
  • The Freedmens Bureau helped African Americans
    who once had been enslaved.
  • They helped feed thousands of Alabamians by
    providing food to them.
  • They treated patients in hospitals.
  • It opened schools for African Americans who had
    not been allowed to read and write when they were
    slaves.
  • They also helped some African Americans get land
    of their own.

23
Sharecroppers
  • After the war many people had no money, land,
    animals, goods, etc.
  • Because of this, some people became
    sharecroppers.
  • Sharecroppers farmed land that belonged to
    someone else.
  • A landowner would provide seeds, supplies, food,
    and shelter. In exchange, the landowner would
    receive a part of the crop.
  • Many sharecroppers and their families were poor.

24
Alabama African Americans in Government
Benjamin Turner U.S. House of Representatives U.S.
Congress
Jeremiah Haralson State House of
Representatives State Senate U.S. Congress
James T. Rapier State House of Representatives Sta
te Congress
25
Reconstruction
  • Scalawags were Southerners who supported
    Reconstruction.
  • Carpetbaggers were mostly Northerners who had
    moved to the South and supported Reconstruction.
  • The Ku Klux Klan and the Bourbon Redeemers were
    against Reconstruction and did not want equality
    for African Americans.

26
Reconstruction Ends
  • Some members of the Bourbon Redeemers group were
    elected to powerful positions in the state
    government.
  • They wanted to bring back the pre-1868
    Constitution and told voters that they would save
    Alabama from the rule of African Americans.
  • They wrote a new constitution to replace the
    Reconstruction constitution and this marked the
    end of Reconstruction in Alabama.
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