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Leukemia/Lymphoma

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation - Week 10: Leukemia Author: JABSOM Last modified by: Sherry Created Date: 7/22/2003 1:25:53 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leukemia/Lymphoma


1
Leukemia/Lymphoma
2
Components and General Properties of Blood
  • Seven kinds of formed elements
  • Erythrocytes red blood cells (RBCs)
  • Platelets (thrombocytes) (clotting cells)
  • Cell fragments from special cell in bone marrow
  • Leukocytes white blood cells (WBCs)-5 kinds

3
Components and General Properties of Blood
  • Five leukocyte types divided into two categories
  • Granulocytes (with granules)
  • 3)Neutrophils
  • 4)Eosinophils
  • 5)Basophils
  • Agranulocytes (without granules)
  • 6)Lymphocytes
  • 7)Monocytes

4
Components and General Properties of Blood
Monocyyte
Small lymphocyte
Neutrophil
Platelets
Eosinophil
Small lymphocyte
Erythrocyte
Young (band) neutrophil
Neutrophil
Monocyte
Large lymphocyte
Neutrophil
Basophil
5
Leukocytes
  • Least abundant formed element
  • 5,000 to 10,000 WBCs/?L
  • Protect against infectious microorganisms and
    other pathogens
  • Conspicuous nucleus
  • Spend only a few hours in the bloodstream before
    migrating to connective tissue
  • Retain their organelles for protein synthesis
  • Granules
  • All WBCs have lysosomes called nonspecific
    (azurophilic) granules inconspicuous so
    cytoplasm looks clear
  • Granulocytes have specific granules that contain
    enzymes and other chemicals employed in defense
    against pathogens

6
Types of Leukocytes
  • Granulocytes
  • Neutrophils (60 to 70) polymorphonuclear
    leukocytes
  • Barely visible granules in cytoplasm three- to
    five-lobed nucleus
  • Eosinophils (2 to 4)
  • Large red-orange granules
  • Basophils (less than 1)
  • Large, abundant, violet granules

7
  • Agranulocytes
  • Lymphocytes (25 to 33)
  • Variable amounts of bluish cytoplasm (scanty to
    abundant) ovoid/round, uniform dark violet
    nucleus
  • Monocytes (3 to 8)
  • Largest WBC generally ovoid, kidney-, or
    horseshoe-shaped nucleus

8
Granulocytes
  • Neutrophilsincreased numbers in bacterial
    infections
  • Phagocytosis of bacteria
  • Release antimicrobial chemicals
  • Eosinophilsincreased numbers in parasitic
    infections, collagen diseases, allergies,
    diseases of spleen and CNS
  • Phagocytosis of antigenantibody complexes,
    allergens, and inflammatory chemicals
  • Release enzymes to destroy large parasites

9
  • Basophilsincreased numbers in chickenpox,
    sinusitis, diabetes
  • Secrete histamine (vasodilator) speeds flow of
    blood to an injured area
  • Secrete heparin (anticoagulant) promotes the
    mobility of other WBCs in the area

10
Agranulocytes
  • Lymphocytesincreased numbers in diverse
    infections and immune responses
  • Destroy cells (cancer, foreign, and virally
    infected cells)
  • Present antigens to activate other immune cells
  • Coordinate actions of other immune cells
  • Secrete antibodies and provide immune memory

11
Agranulocytes
  • Monocytesincreased numbers in viral infections
    and inflammation
  • Leave bloodstream and transform into macrophages
  • Phagocytize pathogens and debris
  • Present antigens to activate other immune
    cellsantigen-presenting cells (APCs)

12
The Leukocyte Life Cycle
  • Leukopoiesisproduction of white blood cells
  • Pluripotent stem cells (PPSCs)
  • Myeloblastsform neutrophils, eosinophils,
    basophils
  • Monoblastsform monocytes
  • Lymphoblasts give rise to all forms of
    lymphocytes

13
Leukopoiesis
Pluripotent stem cell
Colony-forming units (CFUs)
Precursor cells
Mature cells
leaves
Eosinophilic myelocyte
Eosinophilic promyelocyte
Eosinophilic myeloblast
Eosinophilic CFU
Eosinophil
Basophilic CFU
Basophilic myeloblast
Basophilic promyelocyte
Basophilic myelocyte
Basophil
Neutrophilic CFU
Neutrophilic myeloblast
Neutrophilic promyelocyte
Neutrophilic myelocyte
Neutrophil
Monoblast
Promonocyte
Monocyte
Monocytic CFU
B lymphocyte
B prolymphocyte
T lymphocyte
T prolymphocyte
Lymphoblast
Lymphocytic CFU
NK cell
NK prolymphocyte
14
What Is Leukemia?
  • Cancer of the white blood cells
  • Acute or Chronic
  • Affects ability to produce normal blood cells
  • Bone marrow makes abnormally large number of
    immature white blood cells called blasts

15
History
  • Means white blood in Greek
  • Discovered by Dr. Alfred Velpeau in France, 1827
  • Named by pathologist Rudolf Virchow in Germany,
    1845

16
Leukocyte Disorders
  • Leukemiacancer of hemopoietic tissue that
    usually produces an extraordinary high number of
    circulating leukocytes and their precursors
  • Myeloid leukemia uncontrolled granulocyte
    production
  • Lymphoid leukemia uncontrolled lymphocyte or
    monocyte production

17
Acute vs Chronic Leukemia
  • Acute leukemia appears suddenly, progresses
    rapidly, death within months blasts found in
    peripheral blood
  • Chronic leukemia undetected for months, survival
    time average of 3 years
  • Effects normal cell percentages disrupted
    impaired clotting opportunistic infections

18
Main Types
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
  • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

19
Demographics of Leukemia Patients (2001 Data)
CLLChronic Lymphocytic ALLAcute
Lymphocytic CMLChronic Mylogenous AMLAcute
Mylogenous
Total Reported Cases 31,500
20
Pictures Of Blood
21
Development of Leukemia in the Bloodstream
Legend
White Cell
Red Cell
Platelet
Blast
Germ
22
Causes
  • High level radiation/toxin exposure
  • Viruses
  • Genes
  • Chemicals
  • Mostly unknown

23
Signs and Symptoms of AML
  • Insidious nonspecific onset
  • Pallor due to anemia
  • Febrile (fever) due to ineffective WBC
  • Petechiae (skin bruising) due to thrombocytopenia
  • Bone pain
  • Petechiae

24
Typical Labs of AML
  • Leukocytosis
  • Blastemia
  • Leukemic hiatus
  • Auer rods only found in myelocytic blasts
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Anemia
  • gt20 blasts in Bone Marrow

25
Auer Rods
Auer Rod
26
CD Markers
  • The cluster of differentiation (cluster of
    designation) (often abbreviated as CD) is a
    protocol used for the identification and
    investigation of cell surface molecules providing
    targets for immunophenotyping of cells.
  • The CD markers can be used to identify the type
    of cell.

27
Other Findings
  • CD 13 and CD 33 in flowcytometry
  • Cytochemistries-stains that can be used to
    differentiate leukemias
  • Myeloperoxidase
  • Sudan black B
  • Choloroacetate esterase (specific)
  • Nonspecific esterase

28
Flow Cytometry
Large clustering of CD 33s shows presence of
blasts
29
FAB (1976) Classification
  • M0 -- Undifferentiated AML
  • M1 -- AML without maturation
  • M2 -- AML with maturation
  • M3 -- Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
  • M4 -- Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia
  • M5 -- Acute Monocytic Leukemia
  • M6 -- Erythroleukemia (DiGuglielmos)
  • M7 -- Megakaryoblastic Leukemia

30
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31
Myeloperoxidase (MPO)
p-Phenylene diamine Catecol H2O2
MPO gt Brown black deposits Brown deposits
considered to be a positive test-differentiates
AML from other leukemias
32
M1 and M2
33
M3
M4
M5
34
Chloracetate (Specific) Esterase Myeloid Cell
Line
Naphthol-ASD-chloracetate CAE gt Free
naphthol compounds Stable diazonium salt (eg,
Fast Corinth) gt Red deposit
35
Non-Specific Esterase Monocytic Line
? Naphthyl acetate ANAE gt Free naphthyl
compounds Stable diazonium salt (eg,
Fast blue RR) gt Brown deposits
36
FAB vs WHO Classifications of Hematologic
Neoplasm
  • FAB criteria
  • Morphology
  • Cytochemistry
  • WHO criteria
  • Morphology
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Genetic features
  • Karyotyping
  • Molecular testing
  • Clinical features

37
WHO Classification of AML
  • AML with recurrent cytogenic translocations
  • AML with multi-lineage dysplasia
  • AML and myelodysplasia, therapy related
  • AML, not otherwise categorized

38
AML with Recurrent Cytogenetic Translocations
(WHO 1995)
  • t(821) -- some maturation of neutrophilic line
    rare in older patients AML1/ETO fusion protein
    gt90 FAB M2
  • t(1517) -- APL (granular and microgranular
    variants) retinoic acid receptor (RAR)
    leukemias middle aged adults DIC
  • inv(16) or t(1616) -- monocytic and
    granulocytic abnormal eosinophilic component
  • 11q23 -- monocytic children most common is
    t(911)

39
Lymphocytic Leukemias
  • Can involve T or B lymphocytes
  • B lymphs mature in bone marrow
  • Responsible for making antibodies
  • T lymphs go to thymus to mature
  • Are cytotoxic cells of immune system

40
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43
FAB Classification of ALL
  • L1 Small homogeneous blasts mostly in children
  • L2 Large heterogeneous blasts mostly in adults
  • L3 Burkitt large basophilic B-cell blasts with
    vacuoles

44
L3
L2
45
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46
Periodic Acid Schiff
Periodic acid Glycogen oxidation gt Aldehyde
Schiff reagent (para-rosaniline, Na
metabisulfite) gt Red deposit
47
ALL Cytochemistries
  • Oil Red O stains L3 vacuoles
  • Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt) DNA
    polymerase in early lymphoblasts
  • Cell surface markers (CDs)
  • Cytoplasmic and surface immunoglobulins B-cell
    line
  • T-cell receptor (TCR)

48
WHO Classification of Lymphoproliferative
Syndromes
  • Precursor B Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma
    (ALL/LBL) -- ALL in children (80-85 of childhood
    ALL) LBL in young adults and rare FAB L1 or L2
    blast morphology
  • Precursor T ALL/LBL -- 15 of childhood ALL and
    25 of adult ALL
  • Burkitt Leukemia/Lymphoma (FAB L3)

49
Prognosis
Indicators Favorable Poor
WBC lt 50,000/?L ? 50,000/?L
Age 1 - 10 lt 1 or ?10
Gender Female Male
Blast B-cell T-cell and mixed
Karyotype Hyperploidy Trisomy 4, 10, 17 t(1221) (TEL/AML1) Hypoploidy Trisomy 5 t(119 (E2A/PBX1) Mixed lineage leukemia T(922) (Ph)
BM blast count during induction Mkd reduction at day 7 Mild reduction at day 7
50
Burkitts Lymphoma
51
CML
52
Typical Labs in CML
  • Leukocytosis with blastemia
  • Thrombocytosis
  • Basophilia
  • Micro-megakaryocytes
  • Low LAP score (intermediate if infected)
  • About 10 blasts in BM
  • Philadelphia chromosome

53
Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy
54
  • Conventionally, a leukocytosis exceeding 50,000
    WBC/mm3 with a significant increase in early
    neutrophil precursors is referred to as a
    leukemoid reaction.

55
  • Serum leukocyte alkaline phosphatase is normal or
    elevated in leukemoid reaction, but is depressed
    in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

56
  • Leukemoid reactions are generally benign and are
    not dangerous in and of themselves, although they
    are often a response to a significant disease
    state

57
  • Historically, various clues including the
    leukocyte alkaline phosphatase score and the
    presence of basophilia were used to distinguish
    CML from a leukemoid reaction. However, at
    present the test of choice in adults to
    distinguish CML is an assay for the presence of
    the Philadelphia chromosome, either via
    cytogenetics and FISH, or via PCR for the BCR/ABL
    fusion gene.

58
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase (LAP)
Naphthol AS-MX phosphate LAP at
pH8.6 gt Naphthol AS-MX Diazonium
salt (eg, Fast blue RR) gt
Insoluble pigment
59
LAP Score
  • Count 100 consecutive segmented neutrophils and
    bands
  • Score
  • 0 no granules
  • 1 occasional diffuse granules
  • 2 moderate number of granules
  • 3 many strongly positive granules
  • 4 confluent strongly positive granules

60
0
1
2
3
4
61
LAP Score
Example 0 x 35 cells 0 1 x 30 cells
30 2 x 20 cells 40 3 x 10 cells 30 4 x 5
cells 20 120 LAP Score
62
Philadelphia Chromosome
  • 9 22 translocation almost specific to CML
  • Karyotype to visualize Ph chromosome
  • Produces BCR/c-abl fusion oncogene
  • Gene product p190 is a hyperactive tyrosine
    kinase
  • Ph chromosome seen in ALL produces p210 and
    chronic neutrophilic leukemia produces p230

63
Karyotype 46,XX,t(922)(q34q11.2) -- Ph
chromosome
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65
FISH showing the BCR (green), ABL (orange), and
BCR-ABL fusion signals (arrow) Apositive
(contains a residual ABL signal), Bnormal
66
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Exclusive in elderly
  • Lymphocytosis unrelated to viral infection
  • Hyper-mature lymphocytes with highly condensed
    nuclei
  • Smudge cells

67
CLL PB and BM
Smudge cell
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70
Bone Marrow
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