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Aggressors on the March

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Aggressors on the March The Final Years before WWII – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aggressors on the March


1
Aggressors on the March
  • The Final Years before WWII

2
  • How do the totalitarian governments of Hitler,
    Stalin, and Mussolini lead to WWII?

3
Add to your timeline
  • Europe
  • 1922 Mussolini March on Rome
  • 1924 Nazi Party becomes an official German
    political party
  • 1929 Stalin becomes dictator of USSR
  • Great Depression hits
  • Pacific
  • 1922 Japan signs a treaty to respect Chinas
    borders
  • 1928 Kellogg Briand Pact

4
Japan
  • Even though Japan was not considered a
    totalitarian country, they had some similarities
  • They also were one of the key leaders in starting
    WWII

5
Japans Democracy
  • 1920s Japan signed agreements to not use war as
    a policy tool (Kellogg-Briand Pact)
  • But Japans government had little control over
    the military
  • When the Great Depression hit, the Government was
    blamed and military leaders took control of the
    nation

6
How were they like other Totalitarian systems?
  • Japan was
  • Ultra-Nationalistic
  • Militaristic
  • Wanted to conquer neighbors (China) to end
    economic crisis
  • Wanted room for the Japanese people at the
    expense of others

7
Invasion of Manchuria (Chinas Northeastern
Province)
  • Why??
  • Manchuria wasRich in Coal and Iron
  • 1931
  • Japans Military occupied the province and set up
    a Puppet Government
  • League of Nations protested this violation of
    international peace but did nothing to stop Japan
  • Soin 1933 Japan withdrawals from the League of
    Nations

8
Japan invades China
  • On the border of Manchuria and China shots are
    fired between the Japanese Army and the Chinese
    Army (it was faked by the Japanese Army to start
    the war)
  • Chinas large army was no match for the better
    trained and equipped Japanese forces

9
  • The Chinese civil war between the nationalist and
    the communists is put on hold as all of China
    unites to fight the Japanese.
  • In less than 6 months Beijing and Nanking are
    captured by Japan
  • The Rape of Nanking, where 300,000 to 600,000
    civilians were killed by the Japanese Army

10
  • Read Rape of Nanking

11
1935 Mussolini attacks Ethiopia
12
1935 Mussolini attacks Ethiopia
  • Why? revenge for Italys loss in 1889 and to
    build an empire
  • Ethiopian army is no match for Italian tanks,
    airplanes and poison gas
  • Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia (previous
    advisor to Menelik II), asks League of Nations
    for help
  • League does nothing, Selassie warns It is us
    today. It will be you tomorrow.

13
Hitler defies the Versailles Treaty
14
Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
  • 1935 announces that Germany is rebuilding Armed
    Forces
  • 1936 German Troops occupy the Rhineland
  • part of Germany
  • but demilitarized after WWI
  • buffer zone between Germany/France
  • Scared of starting a world war France does
    nothing!

15
Alliances are formed
  • 1936, Hitler, Mussolini and Japan form an
    alliance called the Axis Powers.

16
1936 Civil War in Spain
  • Nationalist (Fascists) under General Francisco
    Franco rebels against the Republicans (Liberals
    and Socialists)
  • Germany and Italy send airplanes and soldiers to
    help Franco and test new weapons.
  • France, the UK, and the US do nothing to support
    the Republicans.
  • Only the Soviet Union sends equipment and
    advisors.

17
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18
GuernicaPablo Picasso, 1937
  • Picasso was a famous Spanish painter, 1881-1973.
  • The canvas is very large, 11x 25 feet

19
  • Depicts the bombing of Guernica, a historical
    Spanish Basque town, by the Nazis.
  • Killed a thousand people, one out of eight
    people.

20
What were the Causes of the Spanish Civil War?
  • tensions between industrial democratic peoples
    and supporters of agrarian feudalism
  • regional independence movements (especially in
    Catalonia and Basque territory) vs. nationalism
  • dispute over the role of the Catholic Church

21
Spanish Civil War1936-1939
  • Until 1931 Spain was a monarchy
  • In 1931 a republic was established, run by
    socialist and liberals (called Republicans).
  • Spain was facing many problems, especially during
    the economic depression.
  • 1936 a revolt began in favor of
  • a fascist government, led by
  • General Francisco Franco and
  • supported by army leaders.

22
Support from the outside
  • Western democracies and the Allied Powers were
    reluctant to get involved in the civil war. Only
    the Soviet Union sent aid (to the Republicans).
  • 2,000 Americans unofficially volunteered to help
    the Republican side (Lincoln Brigade)

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vURtWFEKHsvssafety_
modetruepersist_safety_mode1
23
Support from the outside
  • Hitler and Mussolini sent weapons, tanks, air
    planes and troops to aid the Nationalist. The
    Spanish Civil war became a weapons testing ground
    for the Axis Powers of WWII.

24
Support from the outside
  • Non-government groups sent aid
  • Ford, Texaco, Firestone, and General Motors sent
    tires, trucks, etc.

25
Hitler sent his famous Condor Legion. This was
a group of skilled pilots with new planes that
were skilled at dive bombing..
26
They bombed the city of Guernica and slaughtered
the inhabitants. Women and children were killed.
27
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28
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29
The Bull in the painting is a symbol of Spain.
The bull observes the destruction in front of
him.
30
The fallen warrior is laid out in a crucifix
position
31
There are terrible imagesa woman holding a dead
child.
32
A person burning in a fire
33
Some say that Picasso painting an open door so
that he could escape from the violence.
34
Picasso
  • Picasso was a supporter of the Republican Party
    and disliked Franco and his Fascist party, who
    was supported by the Nazis.
  • Made a series of prints leading up to his
    masterpiece Guernica which expressed his dislike
    of Franco.
  • Guernica was shown throughout the world to
    protest war
  • Picasso said that it should not return to Spain
    until after Francos death

35
Child refugees from Spain
36
  • The civil war lasted three years, the Republicans
    could not defeat the Nationalist Francos
    professional army.
  • 500,000-600,000 people lost their lives
  • Franco became Spains dictator.

37
Lessons Learned (that lead to WWII)
  • Hitler learns Britain and France were not
    prepared to oppose aggressive military action
  • Stalin feels Britain and France may not honor the
    Locarno Pact and aid Soviet Union if Hitler
    attacks
  • - helps push Stalin to sign Non-Aggression Pact
    with Hitler in mid-1939
  • Italy and Germany closer together

38
Franco remained neutral during WWII, so Spain did
not go through the devastation of World War
II.Franco died in 1975.
39
Credits
  • This Spanish Civil War PowerPoint was adapted
    from one created by Mrs. Sigrid Olsen at Sprague
    High School in Salem,
  • OR
  • http//sprague2.net/staff/olsen_sigrid/pp_links.ph
    p

40
Read article (eye-witness account)
  • The Tragedy of Guernica
  • Town Destroyed In Air Attack
  • http//www.spanish-fiestas.com/art/Picasso-guernic
    a.htm

41
United States Isolates itself from the World
  • Many in the US argued that it was a mistake to
    enter WWI
  • Want to avoid future wars
  • Passed 3 Neutrality Acts that banned loaning or
    selling weapons to nations at war

42
Hitler creates a Greater Germany (the Third Reich)
  • What is the Third Reich?
  • 1st ReichHoly Roman Empire
  • Brought to an end by Napoleon
  • 2nd Reich German Empire brought to power by
    Prussia
  • Brought to an end after WWI
  • 3rd ReichHitlers Empire

43
Hitler creates a Greater Germany (the Third Reich)
  • Hitler starts invading countries
  • Openly breaking the Versailles Treaty
  • Hitler orders German troops into Austria
  • absorbs the nation into Germany

44
Appeasement and the Munich Conference
  • Britain and France were preparing for war when
    Mussolini called for a meeting to settle the issue

45
  • Britain, France, Italy and Germany met in Munich
    to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia (who was
    threatened by Germany)
  • the Czechs were not invited
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
  • believed that by giving in to Hitler world war
    would be avoided
  • this policy is called appeasement
  • Hitler promises to be satisfied with the
    Sudetenland
  • In less than six months Hitler occupies the rest
    of Czechoslovakia

46
Mussolini takes Albania
  • Jealous that Hitler has gained so much without
    firing a shot
  • Mussolini kicks out King Zog of Albania (one of
    the poorest nations in Europe)
  • Makes it part of Italy

47
  • Hitler continues his push for a greater Germany
    and claims the port city of Memel from Lithuania
  • Cancels nonaggression pact he had with Poland

48
Poland
  • Hitler, encouraged by all his success without war
    eyes Poland as his next conquest.
  • ButInvading Poland would anger the Soviet Union
    and might even risk war.
  • Hitler is confident that France and Britain would
    do nothing like before

49
Nazis and Soviets at Peace????
  • In August of 1939, Hitler and Stalin sign a
    public nonaggression pact promising not to attack
    one another.

50
  • Secretly
  • Poland is divided between the two.
  • Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland are given
    to the Soviet Union for future conquest
  • Germany gives USSR plans for naval vessels, subs,
    airplane engines
  • USSR will supply Germany with many raw goods

51
Hitler ignores the pact!
  • Hitler betrays Stalin
  • Ignores the Pact
  • Invades Poland
  • WWII begins!
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