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Stem cell research

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Stem cell research Bryan Spiegelberg bspiegel_at_gac.edu http://homepages.gac.edu/~bspiegel/ x7651 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem cell research


1
Stem cell research
  • Bryan Spiegelberg
  • bspiegel_at_gac.edu
  • http//homepages.gac.edu/bspiegel/
  • x7651

2
True/False
  • President Bush declared research on embryonic
    stem cells illegal in the U.S.

3
True/False
  • Embryonic stem cell research is not funded by
    Federal money

4
True/False
  • President Bush created new restrictions on the
    use of Federal funds for embryonic stem cell
    research.

5
True/False
  • The widespread use of stem cells in medical
    treatments is a long way off.

6
True/False
  • The widespread use of embryonic stem cells in
    medical treatments is a long way off.

7
True/False
  • Most major religions officially oppose research
    on embryonic stem cells.

8
True/False
  • It is necessary to destroy an embryo to obtain
    embryonic stem cells.

9
True/False
  • Embryonic stem cell research might lead to human
    cloning.

10
Cloning
  • Production of multiple genetically identical
    organisms

11
True/False
  • Routine cloning of organisms is stuff of science
    fiction.

12
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13
True/False
  • OK, but higher organisms cant be cloned.

14
Dolly (1996-2003) genetically identical to her
adult mother Since mice, cats, pigs,
cattle, ratsno primates, yet
15
True/False
  • No human clones exist.

16
(No Transcript)
17
True/False
  • Most Americans support research on embryonic stem
    cells

18
  • ABC News poll
  • Legality of stem cell research
  • 58 pro/30 con
  • Funding SCR
  • 60 pro/31 con

19
  • International Communications Research (ICR) poll
  • Support stem cell research if it means an
    embryo is destroyed?
  • 24 pro/70 con

20
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21
CYTOPLASM -energy production -biomolecule
factories -etc.
NUCLEUS -genetic material information
storage -info helps define cells
characteristics shape, rate of growth,
etc.
22
  • Nucleus/Genetic information
  • Link between a cell and its ancestor
  • Information
  • DNA ? book
  • chromosomes ? chapters
  • genes ? words

23
DNA vs. Proteins
  • Words ? dont mean much without action
  • PROTEINS ? main actors derived from and
    taking direction from the DNA

Individuality derives ultimately from the DNA
24
Cells ? Tissues ? Organs ? Organisms
  • 10-100 trillion (1014) total cells in your
    average human
  • 200 types of specialized cells

Blood cells
Neuron
25
  • Blood cells/neurons, etc. are
  • terminally differentiated
  • (a.k.a. post-mitotic)
  • Typically stop dividing/growing
  • Focus on specialty
  • When lost ? damage/old age
  • Often need to be replaced How?
  • Like cells dividing
  • OR
  • Stem cell progenitors

ADULT Stem CellsWhy?
26
STEM CELL Undifferentiated
Cell division
TWO DAUGHTER CELLS Two different fates
  • UNDIFFERENTIATED
  • Self-renewal
  • DIFFERENTIATED
  • Replace lost cell

27
Stem cells by definition
  • Non-terminally differentiated cell that can give
    rise to specialized cells
  • Able to divide without limit
  • Self-renewal
  • Undergo asymmetric cell division

28
A Stem cell B Progenitor cell C Specialized
cell
29
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30
EMBRYONIC Stem Cells What? Why?
  • Single cell ? Fertilized egg/zygote
  • 10 trillion adult cells
  • PROLIFERATION
  • 200 specialized types of cells
  • SPECIALIZATION

31
Founding cell must be a totipotent stem cell

FERTILIZED EGG Is it human?
etc.
Nervous system
Placenta
Skin cells
Germ cells
32
  • Totipotent unlimited potency
  • Able to generate all cells of the developing
    organism placenta, somatic cells, germ line
  • Pluripotent some loss of potency
  • eg. potential progenitor of somatic cells, germ
    line, but not the placenta
  • Multipotent limited potency
  • only generate related specialized cells
  • eg. hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into
    red/white blood cells, platelets, etc.
  • Unipotent
  • generate a single type of cell (but still
    self-renewing)

33
Development
ZYGOTE
2-3 days in mice
BLASTOCYST (internal cavity)
MORULA
34
Blastocyst
UTERINE WALL mom
BLASTOCOEL
INNER CELL MASS toti/pluripotent
TROPHECTODERM placenta
35
Inner cell mass highly potent
  • Formation of a teratoma upon injection
  • monster tumor
  • disorganized differentiation upon implantation
  • Skin, bones, glandular tissues, hair, etc.
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