Egyptian%20Civilization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Egyptian%20Civilization

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Brad Berghoff Last modified by: bberghoff Created Date: 9/12/2006 3:07:35 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Egyptian%20Civilization


1
Egyptian Civilization
  • The Gift of the Nile

2
Nile River
  • Begins in heart of Africa and runs over 4,000
    miles
  • Northern part- Lower Egypt
  • Southern part- Upper Egypt
  • Flooding-Agriculture, 10 mile wide Black Land,
    Red Land
  • Natural Barriers

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Course of Egyptian History
  • Menes- king who united Upper and Lower Egypt into
    single kingdom-3100 BC
  • First Dynasty
  • First capital at Memphis

5
Old Kingdom
  • 2575 to 2130 BC age of prosperity
  • Pharaohs- absolute power and religious leader
  • Bureaucracy- departments and levels of authority
  • Vizier- steward of the whole land, chief
    minister
  • Pyramids- dedicated to the dead-mummification
  • Great Pyramids at Giza built

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Mummification Steps Announcement of Death
Embalming the Body Removal of Brain Removal of
Internal Organs Drying Out Process Wrapping of
the Body Final Procession
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11
Middle Kingdom
  • 150 yrs of anarchy- crop failures, cost of
    building pyramids, power struggles
  • 2050 to 1652 BC golden age stability
  • Expansion into Nubia, built fortresses
  • Trade with Crete
  • Hyksos came 1700 BC to occupy land. They awed the
    Egyptians with horse-drawn war chariots and
    Hyksos adopted Egyptian customs, beliefs, and
    names.

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  • Invasion by the Hyksos ended this reign

14
New Kingdom
  • 1567 to 1085 BC- new militaristic path, more
    contact with Africa and Asia
  • Hatshepsut- first female ruler
  • Thutmose III- stepson, 17 campaigns
  • Akhenaton- introduced god of sundisk
  • Tutankhamen- restored old way, boy king
  • Ramses II- 1279 to 1213 BC, fought back and
    bragged all over temples
  • Everything collapsed in 1085 BC

15
Ramses II Tomb
  • Fought with Hittites of Asia Minor but signed
    first peace treaty
  • Used gold from Nubia to pay army

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  • The Valley of the Kings is a valley in Egypt
    where, for a period of nearly 500 years tombs
    were constructed for the kings and powerful
    nobles of the New Kingdom.
  • With the 2006 discovery of a new chamber and the
    2008 discovery of 2 further tomb entrances, the
    valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers
    (ranging in size from a simple pit to a complex
    tomb with over 120 chambers)
  • The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from
    Egyptian mythology and give clues to the beliefs
    and funerary rituals of the period.
  • All of the tombs seem to have been opened and
    robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea
    of the opulence and power of the rulers of this
    time.

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19
Religion
  • Polytheistic
  • Sun God- Amon Re
  • Osiris- god of dead and Nile - prove oneself to
    him-Book of the Dead
  • Isis- taught women roles
  • Life after death- mummification-buried with
    everything they would need

20
Society in Ancient Egypt
Govnt Officials
Merchants
Peasants
21
Daily Life
  • Married Young-boys at 14, girls at 12-monogamy
  • Men
  • Women- inherit property, enter business deals,
    buy and sell goods, go to court,
    divorce-priesthood for goddesses-no govnt jobs
    or scribes
  • Concerns- family and property, produce children,
    especially sons to carry on name

22
Writing and Education
  • Hieroglyphics- pictures and forms
  • Hieratic script- simplified version, cursive-
    record keeping, business transactions, general
    needs of daily life
  • Papyrus- plant woven together
  • Boys start as early as 10 yrs old

23
Rosetta Stone
  • Early 1800s Jean Champollion discovered
  • Deciphered writings by comparing hieroglyphics,
    demotic script, and Greek

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Science and Math
  • Distinctive style
  • Geometry- buildings and surveying fields-area
    and volume
  • 365 day calendar- 12 months 30 days 5
  • Medical expertise in human anatomy-splints,
    bandages, fractures, wounds, and disease while
    giving out cures as well

27
Art and Literature
  • Gods and pharaohs much larger
  • People with heads of animals for certain traits.
    Sphinx at Giza as powerful lion-man
  • Tale of Sinuhe- how Egyptians viewed selves and
    others

28
Riddle of the Sphinx
  • The Sphinx is said to have guarded the entrance
    to the Greek city of Thebes, and to have asked a
    riddle of travelers to allow them passage.
  • Which creature in the morning goes on four legs,
    at mid-day on two, and in the evening upon three,
    and the more legs it has, the weaker it be?
  • Man
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