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Chapter%20Twenty-One%20Between%20the%20World%20Wars

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Title: Chapter%20Twenty-One%20Between%20the%20World%20Wars


1
Chapter Twenty-OneBetween the World Wars
  • Culture and Values, 6th Ed.
  • Cunningham and Reich

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3
The Great War and Its Significance
  • Drastic loss of life
  • Sociopolitical consequences
  • October Revolution
  • Hitlers National Socialist movement
  • Cultural consequences
  • Transportation, communication
  • Entertainment

4
Literary Modernism
  • Modernist temper
  • T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)
  • Necessity of cultural continuity
  • The Wasteland ? Four Quartets
  • James Joyce (1882-1941)
  • Cultural stability found through art
  • Epiphany, autobiography
  • Alienated artist

5
Literary Modernism
  • Franz Kafka (1883-1924)
  • Kafkaesque
  • Guilt, loss, oppression, violence
  • Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
  • Writer, critic (Bloomsbury Group)
  • Social, economic, and intellectual discrimination
    against women

6
Revolution in Art Cubism
  • Analytical Cubism
  • Geometric qualities, flat planes, 2-d linearity
  • Picassos Les Demoiselles dAvignon (1907)
  • Braques Violin and Palette (1909-1910)
  • Synthetic Cubism
  • Post-war color, vitality, expressiveness
  • Picassos Three Musicians (1921)

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Revolution in Art Cubism
  • Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
  • Marc Chagall (1889-1985)
  • Rufino Tamayo (1899-1991)
  • Women of Tehuantepec (1939)
  • Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
  • Expressionist, non-objective art

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Freud, the Unconscious, and Surrealism
  • Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
  • Id, ego, superego
  • Dreams and the unconscious mind
  • Psychoanalysis as philosophy
  • Human and cultural behaviors
  • Surrealism
  • Bretons Manifesto of Surrealism (1924)

13
Freud, the Unconscious, and Surrealism
  • Dalís The Persistence of Memory (1931)
  • Kahlos Self-Portrait (1937)
  • René Magritte (1898-1967)
  • Influence of film
  • Dalí and Buñuel, Jean Cocteau
  • Paul Klee (1879-1940)
  • Cubist, Expressionist, Surrealist

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17
The Age of Jazz
  • African-American experience, heritage
  • Intonations, rhythms
  • Spirituals
  • Blue note / the Blues
  • Ragtime
  • From New Orleans to Chicago
  • Black Jazz in Anglo culture
  • Symphonies, operas, swing

18
The Age of Jazz
  • George Gershwin (1898-1937)
  • Jazz in symphonic, operatic works
  • Rhapsody in Blue (1924)
  • Porgy and Bess (1935)
  • Duke Ellington (1899-1974)
  • Orchestra virtuoso, prolific composer
  • Extended jazz idiom to larger arena

19
The Harlem Renaissance
  • African American writers, artists, intellectuals,
    musicians
  • Themes of African American experience
  • Roots, racism, culture, religion
  • W.E.B. Dubois (1868-1963)
  • African American self-identity, cultural
    identity, racial identity

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Ballet Collaboration in Art
  • Artistic integration
  • setting, movement, music, narrative
  • Serge Diaghilevs Ballet Russe (1909)
  • Vast musical commissions
  • Parade (1917)
  • Diaghilev, Cocteau, Satie, Picasso

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Art as Escape Dada
  • Protest against war
  • Nonsense language, dissonant music, anarchic
    irreverence
  • Tristan Tzaras Dada manifesto (1918)
  • Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)
  • Mobiles, ready-mades
  • L.H.O.O.Q. (1919)

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Art as Protest Guernica
  • Picassos protest against inhumanity
  • Hope in the face of horror
  • Inspired by destruction of war
  • Social, pivotal document
  • Expressionistic, Cubist
  • Technical experimentation

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Art as Propaganda Film
  • Propaganda as high art
  • Radio, film
  • Educate, persuade, shape public opinion
  • Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948)
  • Strike! (1924), Ivan the Terrible (1944, 1946)
  • Class struggle, the working class, socialism
  • Alexander Nevsky with Prokofiev (1938)
  • Potemkin and the October Revolution (1925)

28
Art as Propaganda Film
  • Leni Riefenstahl (1902-2003)
  • Triumph of the Will (1936)
  • Documentary of 1934 Nazi congress
  • Glorification of Nazi virtues
  • Olympia (1938)
  • Documentary of the 1936 Berlin Olympics
  • Homage to Hitler vs. beauty of sport

29
Photography
  • Increased mobility, immediacy of image
  • Man Ray (1890-1976)
  • László Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946)
  • The f/64 Group
  • Direct, nonmanipulative pictures
  • Images from the Great Depression
  • Commissioned by FSA and USDA

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Art as Prophecy From Futurism to Brave New World
  • Futurists
  • Valued industrialization, urbanization
  • Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944)
  • Lewiss Babbitt (1922)
  • a chicken in every pot
  • Mindless materialism
  • Huxleys Brave New World (1932)
  • Technology as tool for totalitarian control

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Chapter Twenty-One Discussion Questions
  • What aspects of the modernist temper can be
    found in the works of the Harlem Renaissance
    writers and African American Jazz musicians? What
    are the personal and cultural expressions found
    behind these artistic forms? Explain, citing
    specific examples.
  • In light of the modernist temper, why were
    Freuds theories so popular? In what sense does
    psychoanalytical theory abandon the explanation
    of human motivation that has been long held by
    Western Europeans? What does this shift in
    understanding signal about the twentieth century?
    Explain.
  • Consider the ways in which film was used in the
    early twentieth century as propaganda. In what
    ways does the cinematic medium continue to serve
    in this way? What types of cultural, social, and
    political values are asserted through popular
    film and other visual media of the twenty-first
    century? Explain.
  • To what extent do you agree or disagree with
    Huxleys assertion that technology makes
    individuals dependent on totalitarian forces? Do
    you feel that our dependency on technology puts
    us at risk as a culture? as a free people?
    Explain.
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