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Basic Geography Skills

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World Time Zones Basic Geography Skills Before we begin to study the regions of the world, we need to have a basic understanding of the geography of the world. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Geography Skills


1
Basic Geography Skills
  • Before we begin to study the regions of the
    world, we need to have a basic understanding of
    the geography of the world.

2
  • As you look at a globe, how much of the world do
    you see at one time?

3
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4
  • Hemi is the Greek word for half
  • Hemisphere means half of a sphere
  • The imaginary line that divides the world into
    the northern and southern hemisphere is called
    the Equator.
  • The imaginary line that divides the world into
    eastern and western hemisphere is called the
    Prime Meridian.

5
  • To locate places north or south of the Equator,
    geographers use lines of latitude.

6
  • The Equator is at 0 degrees latitude

7
What is the lowest latitude and the highest
latitude?
  • 0 degrees equator
  • 90 degrees poles (but what poles)

8
It is necessary to add N or S, so that its clear
whether you are north or south of the equator
9
  • Some latitude lines have special names. They
    divide the earth into regions according to the
    amount of direct sunlight they receive.

Arctic Circle
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn
Antarctic Circle
10
Each degree north or south of the equator
represents approximately 69 miles
11
Lets try a few locations
  • If Im at 10 degrees North, how many miles am I
    from the equator and in which direction?
  • If Im at 45 degrees North, where am I?
  • The problem with LATITUDE alone is that I can
    tell how far from the equator I am, but I cant
    tell where I am on that latitude. I could be at
    45 degrees north and be in the Atlantic, Pacific,
    Europe, Asia or the United States.
  • In order to pinpoint a location you need..

12
  • To locate places east or west of the Prime
    Meridian, lines of longitude are used.
  • The Prime Meridian is at 0 degrees longitude.
  • Lines of longitude begin and end at the North and
    South Poles

13
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14
DEGREES OF LONGITUDE
  • The Earth was divided up by 360 evenly spaced
    lines running from pole to pole. These are
    called DEGREES OF LONGITUDE.
  • If I start at ZERO and go one degree EAST, I am
    at ONE DEGREE EAST LONGITUDE. If I go 90 degrees
    to the west, or one fourth of the way around the
    world, I am at NINETY DEGREES WEST LONGITUDE
  • So, now, to identify my location, I simply have
    to give a longitude and a latitude. If I am 20
    degrees north of the equator and 20 degrees east
    of the Prime Meridian, I describe myself at 20N,
    20E.

15
Latitude and Longitude together will give you the
absolute location of a place
16
Some interesting things
  • If I go halfway around the world from the prime
    meridian, I get to a line identified as 180
    degrees of longitude. It is BOTH 180 EAST AND
    180 WEST. The highest line of longitude,
    therefore, is 180.
  • The highest line of latitude is 90.
  • This line of 180 degrees is also known as the
    International Date Line it marks a time zone
    change, but it also marks a date change

17
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18
World Time Zones
  • Prior to the late 19th century, time keeping was
    done locally. Each town would set their clocks to
    noon when the sun reached its zenith each day. A
    clockmaker or town clock would be the "official"
    time and the citizens would set their pocket
    watches and clocks to the time of the town.
    Travel between cities meant having to change
    one's watch upon arrival.
  • Once railroads began to operate and move people
    rapidly across great distances, time became much
    more critical. In the early years of railroads,
    the schedules were very confusing because each
    stop was based on a different local time.

19
  • In 1878, Canadian Sir Sanford Fleming proposed
    the system of worldwide time zones that we use
    today. He recommended that the world be divided
    into twenty-four time zones, each spaced 15
    degrees of longitude apart. Since the earth
    rotates once every 24 hours and there are 360
    degrees of longitude, each hour the earth rotates
    one-twenty-fourth of a circle or 15 of
    longitude.
  • United States railroad companies began utilizing
    Fleming's standard time zones in 1883. In 1884 an
    International Prime Meridian Conference was held
    in Washington D.C. to standardize time and select
    the Prime Meridian. The conference selected the
    longitude of Greenwich, England as zero degrees
    longitude and established the 24 time zones based
    on the Prime Meridian.

20
World Time Zones
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