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Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 18

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Gender Psychology Lecture 18 Two multiple choice items from the midterm exam were not properly scored by the scantron machine. David is in the process of correcting ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology 320: Gender Psychology Lecture 18


1
Psychology 320 Gender Psychology Lecture 18
2
Announcement
Two multiple choice items from the midterm exam
were not properly scored by the scantron machine.
David is in the process of correcting the
errors. None of the grades decreased as a result
of the correction students grades remained
unchanged or increased by 1-2 points. The
revised mean on the exam is 67 (SD16,
range24-97). I will post the revised grades
on the course website as soon as they are
available and notify the class via e-mail.
3
Psychodynamic Explanations of Gender Differences
1. How does psychodynamic theory explain gender
development? (continued)
4
How does psychodynamic theory explain gender
development? (continued)
2. Anal Stage
  • 18 months 3 years.
  • Erogenous zone Anus.
  • Sexual impulses are largely expressed through
    defecation.

5
  • Main conflict at this stage occurs when the
    child is toilet trained.
  • Fixation occurs if the child is subjected to
    strict and rigid toilet training practices.
  • Two personality types result from fixation at
    this stage the anal retentive character and the
    anal expulsive character.

6
3. Phallic Stage
  • 3 5 years.
  • Erogenous zone Genital region.
  • Sexual impulses are largely expressed through
    self-stimulation of the genital organs.
  • Main conflict at this stage is referred to as
    the Oedipus Complex for boys and the Electra
    Complex for girls.

7
  • Oedipus Complex
  • Boys experience a desire to achieve sexual
    union with their mothers.
  • This desire leads boys to perceive of their
    fathers as rivals who will retaliate against
    them by castrating them.

8
  • This fear of castration (i.e., castration
    anxiety) forces boys to identify with their
    fathers.
  • Through identification with their fathers, boys
    resolve the conflict, internalize the values of
    their fathers, and gain vicarious satisfaction
    of their sexual impulses towards their mothers.
  • Boys emerge from the Oedipus complex with a
    fear of or contempt for women due to the trauma
    associated with their attraction to their
    mothers. Moreover, boys perceive females as
    inferior and devalue females because they lack a
    penis.

9
  • Electra Complex
  • Girls, too, begin life with a strong attraction
    towards their mothers.
  • However, when they realize that both they and
    their mothers do not have penises, they develop
    contempt and blame their mothers for their
    perceived deficiency.

10
  • As their contempt grows, girls shift their
    affection towards their fathers. Girls develop
    envy for their fathers penis and, ultimately,
    experience a desire to achieve sexual union
    with their fathers.
  • Through identification with their mothers,
    girls resolve the conflict, internalize the
    values of their mothers, and gain vicarious
    satisfaction of their sexual impulses towards
    their fathers.
  • Girls emerge from the Electra complex with a
    sense of inferiority because they lack a penis
    and have feelings of contempt for other women
    because they, too, are deficient.

11
  • Fixation at this stage occurs if the child is
    unable to identify with the same-sex parent.
  • Fixation results in distinct personality types
    for males and females and poor moral development
    in males and females.
  • Freud argued that females are more likely than
    males to become fixated at this stage because
    they do not experience castration anxiety.

12
She has seen it and knows she is without it and
wants to have it . The hope of someday obtaining
a penis in spite of everything and so the hope
of becoming like a man may persist to an
incredibly late age and may become a motive for
the strangest and otherwise unaccountable
actions. Or again, a process may set in which
might be described as a denial a woman may
refuse to accept the fact of being castrated, may
harden herself in the conviction that she does
possess a penis and may subsequently be compelled
to behave as though she were a man. (Freud,
1925/1974, p. 31-32)
13
We shall not be very surprised if a woman
analyst who has not been sufficiently convinced
of her own desire for a penis also fails to
assign an adequate importance to that factor in
her patients. (Quoted in Garrison, 1981)
14
4. Latency Stage
  • 6 years puberty.
  • Erogenous zone Genital region.
  • Sexual impulses, however, are less pronounced
    during this stage. Children direct their energy
    toward learning and peer group activities.
  • There are no specific conflicts at this stage.
    The stage is one of relative calm, in which
    little psychological growth occurs.

15
5. Genital Stage
  • Puberty adulthood.
  • Erogenous zone Genital region.
  • Sexual impulses are largely expressed through
    mutually gratifying sexual interactions with
    other individuals.
  • There are no specific conflicts at this stage.
    Freud described the stage as an ideal, as the
    stage of psychosexual maturity.

16
Psychodynamic Explanations of Gender Differences
1. How does psychodynamic theory explain gender
development? (continued)
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