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DNA%20Technology%20and%20its%20Applications

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Title: DNA Technology Author: e200510595 Last modified by: Jason Created Date: 1/9/2008 4:48:18 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DNA%20Technology%20and%20its%20Applications


1
DNA Technology and its Applications
2
Objective
  • SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits
    are passed on to successive generations.
  • f. Examine the use of DNA technology in
    forensics, medicine, and agriculture.

3
We are going to study the following DNA
technologies and their real-world applications
  • DNA extraction
  • Recombinant DNA
  • Gel Electrophoresis
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Gene Sequence Analysis
  • Cloning
  • Gene Therapy

4
DNA EXTRACTION
5
How is DNA extracted from living things?
  • In class, we extracted DNA from a banana.
    Scientists and researchers use more elaborate
    techniques when extracting DNA
  • Click on the following link to extract DNA from a
    human http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/
    extraction/

6
Recombinant DNA Transgenic Organisms
7
What is recombinant DNA?
  • Click on the following link to learn about
    recombinant DNA
  • http//www.bioteach.ubc.ca/TeachingResources/Appli
    cations/GMOpkgJKloseGLampard2.swf

8
Practical applications of recombinant DNA
  • Recombinant Vaccines (ie. Hepatitis B)
  • Prevention and cure of sickle cell anemia
  • Prevention and cure of cystic fibrosis
  • Production of clotting factors
  • Production of insulin
  • Production of recombinant pharmaceuticals
  • Germ line and somatic gene therapy

9
Another Major Application of Recombinant DNA
  • Using the technology of recombinant DNA, we are
    able to introduce specific genes from one
    organism into another.
  • A transgenic organism is an organism that has
    been genetically engineered to contain 1 or more
    genes

10
Applications of Transgenic Organisms
  • Transgenic Livestock
  • Farm animals that are genetically altered to
    synthesize marketable proteins.
  • Mice that urinate human growth hormone (HGH)
  • Goats that produce the malaria antigen for use in
    vaccines
  • Cows that produce a human protein in their milk
  • Pigs that are genetically altered so their organs
    can be transplanted into a human without
    rejection

11
Applications of Transgenic Organisms
  • Transgenic Plants
  • Plants that produce their own insecticides
  • Crops that have increased drought and heat
    resistance

12
Genetic Engineering GMO
13
Genetic Engineering is
  • The technique of removing, modifying, or adding
    genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the
    information it contains. By changing this
    information, genetic engineering changes the type
    or amount of proteins an organism is capable of
    producing, thus enabling it to make new
    substances or perform new functions.

14
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
  • Often, the label GMO and the term "transgenic"
    are used to refer to organisms that have acquired
    novel genes from other organisms by laboratory
    "gene transfer" methods.

15
News Worthy
  • http//www.science.org.au/nova/009/009key.html
  • http//www.science.org.au/policy/gene-tech.htm
  • http//www.aaemonline.org/gmopost.html
  • http//www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/biotec
    hnology/ucm346030.htm
  • http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/science/gmf
    oods/

16
Gel Electrophoresis
17
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
  • Click on the following link DNA Interactive to
    answer questions about gel electrophoresis.

18
What are the practical applications of gel
electrophoresis?
  • DNA fragments produced by the gel electrophoresis
    can be used in other technologies like PCR,
    cloning and DNA sequencing
  • Or, the DNA fragments can be used by forensic
    scientists, conservation biologists, taxonomists,
    evolutionary biologists, etc.

19
How is gel electrophoresis used by scientists?
  • Human DNA can be analyzed to
  • Provide evidence in criminal cases
  • Diagnose genetic diseases
  • Solve paternity cases
  • Samples of DNA can be obtained from tissue and
    body fluid
  • Cheek cells
  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Blood
  • Semen

20
What are the practical applications of gel
electrophoresis?
  • Conservation biologists use DNA to determine
    genetic similarity among populations and
    individuals
  • Taxonomists use DNA to help distinguish species
  • Evolutionary biologists use DNA profiles to
    compare similarities and differences to construct
    family trees

21
PCR
22
What is PCR?
  • Click on the following link to learn about
    Polymerase Chain Reactions, make sure you scroll
    down to see the information
  • www.dnalc.org/ddnalc/resources/pcr.html

23
What are the practical applications of PCR?
  • PCR creates high amounts of pure DNA, enabling
    analysis of DNA samples even from very small
    amounts of starting material to be used in other
    DNA technologies.

24
DNA/Gene Sequencing
25
What is Gene Sequence Analysis?
  • Click on the following link to learn about gene
    sequencing

http//www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome
/faq/seqfacts.shtml
26
Applications of DNA Sequencing
  • Click on the following article review
  • http//www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles
    /31354.aspx
  • Cost Article 1 (read the whole article)
  • Baby Sequencing Cost
  • DNA Fingerprinting
  • http//www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/ar
    ticle/dalyacolumn8.htm/
  • If you have time, solve a crime
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sheppard/analyze.html

27
Cloning
28
What is cloning?
  • Click on the following link to learn about
    cloning
  • http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/wha
    tiscloning/

29
What are the practical applications of cloning?
  • Click on the following link to look at the
    practical applications of cloning

http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/why
clone/
30
Gene Therapy
31
What is Gene Therapy?
  • Click on the following link to learn about gene
    therapy
  • http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/genetherapy
    /gtintro/

32
What are the practical applications of gene
therapy?
  • potential to eliminate and prevent hereditary
    diseases such as
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • hemophilia
  • heart disease,
  • AIDS
  • cancer

There's a fair amount of risk involved in
trials of this kind of therapy, and to date, only
children who are seriously ill or have illnesses
incurable by conventional means have been
involved in clinical trials using gene therapy.
33
Current Events Connecting DNA Technology to the
Real World
  • Back to our original objective
  • Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics,
    medicine, and agriculture.
  • You need to find a current event/article/activit
    y that relates to at least one aspect of this
    question. Use the directions on the next slide
    to help you find an article.

34
Finding an article
  • Open up the internet explorer
  • Go to http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/
  • Explore an area of genetics in forensics,
    medicine, or agriculture not covered in this
    power point and tell me about it.

35
Other Links
  • Cloned Meat-FDA
  • http//www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?story
    Id6692091
  • http//www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/conten
    t/mar2008/db2008033_119633.htm
  • Is Cloned Meat Safe to Eat?
  • http//www.newsweek.com/id/95962
  • DNA Forensics
  • http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/science/for
    ensics/
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