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Biotechnology

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Title: Biotechnology


1
Biotechnology Genetic Engineering
2
What is biotechnology?
  • Biotechnology the use of organisms and their
    genetics in industry to make products
  • EX. Insulin medicine for people with
    insulin-dependent diabetes is produced using
    bacteria

3
  • Genetic Engineering making changes in the DNA
    of an organism to produce new traits in that
    organism
  • EX. Inserting a gene into a tomato plant that
    slows the ripening process

4
How is genetic engineering possible?
  • The genetic code is universal
  • Because all living organisms have DNA, by moving
    DNA from one organism to another, it is possible
    to transfer traits from one organism to another
  • Genetic engineers use plasmids and restriction
    enzymes as tools to change an organisms DNA

5
  • Plasmid a small, circular piece of DNA found in
    some bacteria that can be used to carry DNA from
    one organism to another
  • Restriction Enzymes proteins used to cut DNA
    in specific places

Plasmid
6
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7
How is a gene from one organism moved into
another organism?
  1. Scientists identify the gene in an organism that
    is responsible for the specific trait they want
    to transfer into the new organism
  2. Restriction enzymes are used to cut the gene out
    of the DNA strand and to cut open a plasmid from
    a bacteria cell

8
  • The cut out gene is inserted into the plasmid
    (gene splicing)
  • Recombinant DNA DNA that has been
    artificially created by combining DNA from
    different organisms

9
  1. Transformation - The recombinant DNA plasmid is
    inserted into an embryonic cell of the organism
    that is going to get the new trait
  2. If the process works, the cell will make the DNA
    plasmid a part of its own DNA and the newly
    introduced foreign gene will begin making its
    protein and causing a new trait
  3. When the original cell divides, it copies the
    foreign gene along with its own DNA so the
    organism that develops from the original cell has
    a copy of the new gene in all of its cells

10
What is a transgenic organism?
  • Transgenic Organisms organisms that have genes
    from another species

11
  • Transgenic bacteria are used to produce human
    insulin for diabetes, clotting factor for people
    with blood clotting disorders like hemophilia,
    and human growth hormone
  • EX. The human gene responsible for insulin
    production is cut from human DNA and inserted
    into a plasmid to make recombinant DNA. The
    recombinant DNA is inserted into bacteria cells
    which are transformed and begin producing insulin.

12
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13
  • Transgenic mice have been produced with human
    genes that make their immune systems similar to
    humans, which allows scientists to study the
    affects of disease on human immune systems
  • Transgenic livestock have been produced with
    extra copies of growth hormone genes that make
    them grow faster and produce more meat

14
  • Transgenic fish have been produced using genes
    from a type of fluorescent coral. Glo Fish were
    originally created to help detect environmental
    pollutants.

15
  • Transgenic plants have been produced that contain
    genes which produce natural insecticides
    (insect-killing chemicals), or are resistant to
    weed-killing chemicals, or have better flavor or
    texture

16
F.D.A. Approves Drug From Gene-Altered Goats
(from New York Times 2/6/09)
  • the Food and Drug Administration on Friday
    approved the first drug produced by livestock
    that have been given a human gene.

17
What is genetically modified food and is it good
or bad?
  • Genetically Modified Food (GMF) food changed
    through biotechnology (sometimes seen as GMO,
    which means genetically modified organism)
  • Genetically modified food has only been around
    since 1992, so the long term health effects of
    eating GMFs are not well studied

18
  • Right now there is no U.S. federal law requiring
    a company to let you know if their product has
    been genetically modified. Some states, however,
    have proposed legislation requiring it.
  • Currently, no legislation has been proposed in MS.

19
Examples of GMFs
  • Soybeans modified to resist weed-killing
    chemicals (herbicides)
  • A herbicide resistant gene is taken from a
    bacteria and inserted into the soy plant
  • Allows farmers to spray high doses of
    weed-killing chemicals on soy fields without
    harming the soy plants
  • 89 of soy grown in the US is GMF
  • A company called Monsanto makes both the
    herbicide resistant soy plants AND the herbicide
    they are resistant to (Roundup)

20
But I dont eat soy
  • According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of
    America, Soy has become one of the most frequent
    and common food additives in the modern diet.
  • As of 2014, 80 or more of all US corn is GM
  • Try finding a processed food product that does
    not contain corn or soy

21
Doritos Ingredient List
22
Some Brands That May Contain GM Ingredients
  • Mazola
  • Crisco
  • Heinz
  • Kraft
  • Peter Pan Skippy
  • Eggo
  • Lean Cuisine
  • Progresso
  • Chef Boyardee
  • Campbells Soups
  • Oreos
  • Ritz
  • Teddy Grahams
  • Triscuit
  • Wheat Thins
  • Keebler
  • Hostess
  • Frito Lay
  • Lipton
  • Aunt Jemima
  • Betty Crocker
  • Pillsbury
  • General Mills
  • Kelloggs
  • Coca-Cola
  • Pepsi
  • Gatorade
  • Kool Aid

23
Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether
or not they could, they didnt stop to think if
they should. --Jurassic Park
Assignment Create a Pro/Con list for genetically
modified organisms (plants and/or animals)
24
There are many pros and cons to the GMF issue
Pros
Cons
  • Produce more food on less land
  • Can eliminate the need for chemical pesticides
  • May someday be an inexpensive source of
    medicines, fuels, and plastics
  • Long-term health effects of eating GMFs is
    unknown
  • GM crops could pose a risk to the environment
  • Hard to stop GM crops from mixing with non-GM
    crops
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