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Multiple%20Alleles,%20Polygenic%20Traits,%20and%20Pedigrees

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Multiple Alleles, Polygenic Traits, and Pedigrees Wednesday, October 25, 2011 Genetic Diseases Good foods: Pedigrees Who can come to the board and remind us what the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Multiple%20Alleles,%20Polygenic%20Traits,%20and%20Pedigrees


1
Multiple Alleles, Polygenic Traits, and Pedigrees
  • Wednesday, October 25, 2011

2
Multiple Alleles
  • Sometimes, there are more than just two alleles
    that affect a trait.

3
Multiple Alleles
  • Sometimes, there are more than just two alleles
    that affect a trait.
  • What trait have we talked about in class that has
    more than two alleles?

4
Multiple Alleles
  • Sometimes, there are more than just two alleles
    that affect a trait.
  • What trait have we talked about in class that has
    more than two alleles?
  • Blood types! IA IB i

5
Multiple Alleles
  • Sometimes, there are more than just two alleles
    that affect a trait.
  • What trait have we talked about in class that has
    more than two alleles?
  • Blood types! IA IB i
  • Can you think of two other traits in a human that
    might have more than one allele?

6
Polygenic Inheritance
  • Sometimes, there is more than one gene that
    affects a trait.

7
Polygenic Inheritance
  • Sometimes, there is more than one gene that
    affects a trait.
  • For example, there are many genes that affect
    human HEIGHT.

8
Polygenic Inheritance
  • Sometimes, there is more than one gene that
    affects a trait.
  • For example, there are many genes that affect
    human HEIGHT.
  • There is not just one tall gene or short
    gene. Your height is caused by a combination of
    different genes.

9
Polygenic Inheritance
  • Sometimes, there is more than one gene that
    affects a trait.
  • For example, there are many genes that affect
    human HEIGHT.
  • There is not just one tall gene or short
    gene. Your height is caused by a combination of
    different genes.
  • A sign that a certain trait is affected by more
    than one gene is when there is a RANGE OF
    PHENOTYPES.

10
Genetic Diseases
  • ________________ Disease where hemoglobin (the
    protein in red blood cells that carries OXYGEN)
    is distorted and causes RED BLOOD CELLS to have a
    sickle or crescent shape.

11
Genetic Diseases
  • Sickle Cell Anemia Disease where hemoglobin (the
    protein in red blood cells that carries OXYGEN)
    is distorted and causes RED BLOOD CELLS to have a
    sickle or crescent shape.

12
Genetic Diseases
  • Sickle Cell Anemia Disease where hemoglobin (the
    protein in red blood cells that carries OXYGEN)
    is distorted and causes RED BLOOD CELLS to have a
    sickle or crescent shape.
  • Causes shortness of breath, fatigue, and joint
    pain, among other symptoms.
  • Caused by an autosomal recessive mutation for
    beta-hemoglobin.

13
Genetic Diseases
  • Sickle Cell Anemia

14
Genetic Diseases
  • Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickled red blood cell
Normal red blood cells
15
Genetic Diseases
  • _____________________ Disease in which someone
    cannot tell the difference between certain colors.

16
Genetic Diseases
  • Colorblindness Disease in which someone cannot
    tell the difference between certain colors.

17
Genetic Diseases
  • Colorblindness Disease in which someone cannot
    tell the difference between certain colors.
  • Is caused by a mutation on the X chromosome, so
    it is sex-linked.

18
Genetic Diseases
  • ______________________ Disease that affects
    muscle coordination and leads to gradual
    decreases in brain functioning.

19
Genetic Diseases
  • Huntingtons Disease Disease that affects muscle
    coordination and leads to gradual decreases in
    brain functioning.

20
Genetic Diseases
  • Huntingtons Disease Disease that affects muscle
    coordination and leads to gradual decreases in
    brain functioning.
  • Is caused by a DOMINANT mutation on an autosomal
    (non-sex) chromosome.

21
Genetic Diseases
  • ______________________ Disease in which a
    persons blood does not clot properly patients
    can easily bleed to death.

22
Genetic Diseases
  • Hemophilia Disease in which a persons blood
    does not clot properly patients can easily bleed
    to death.

23
Genetic Diseases
  • Hemophilia Disease in which a persons blood
    does not clot properly patients can easily bleed
    to death.
  • Caused by a mutation on the X chromosome, so it
    is sex-linked.

24
Genetic Diseases (this ones not genetic, though!)
  • _____________________ Disease transmitted
    through blood carried by mosquitoes.

25
Genetic Diseases (this ones not genetic, though!)
  • Malaria Disease transmitted through blood
    carried by mosquitoes.

26
Genetic Diseases (this ones not genetic, though!)
  • Malaria Disease transmitted through blood
    carried by mosquitoes.
  • Causes high fever, joint pain, and vomiting.

27
Genetic Diseases (this ones not genetic, though!)
  • Malaria Disease transmitted through blood
    carried by mosquitoes.
  • Causes high fever, joint pain, and vomiting.
  • Patients heterozygous for the sickle cell
    mutation are resistant to malaria.

28
Genetic Diseases
  • ______________________ Disease in which a person
    cannot metabolize (break down) the amino acid
    phenyalanine.

29
Genetic Diseases
  • Phenylketonuria (aka PKU) Disease in which a
    person cannot metabolize (break down) the amino
    acid phenyalanine.

30
Genetic Diseases
  • Phenylketonuria (aka PKU) Disease in which a
    person cannot metabolize (break down) the amino
    acid phenyalanine.
  • If left untreated, it can cause brain damage,
    resulting in mental retardation and seizures.

31
Genetic Diseases
  • Phenylketonuria (aka PKU) Disease in which a
    person cannot metabolize (break down) the amino
    acid phenyalanine.
  • If left untreated, it can cause brain damage,
    resulting in mental retardation and seizures.
  • Caused by an autosomal recessive mutation.

32
Genetic Diseases
  • Phenylketonuria (aka PKU) Disease in which a
    person cannot metabolize (break down) the amino
    acid phenyalanine.
  • If left untreated, it can cause brain damage,
    resulting in mental retardation and seizures.
  • Caused by an autosomal recessive mutation.
  • No cure, but can be managed by strict dietary
    guidelines.

33
Genetic Diseases
  • Avoid high-protein foods, like

Milk Eggs
Nuts Cheese
Soybeans Fish
Beans Chocolate
Chicken Peas
Steak and beef
34
Genetic Diseases
  • Good foods

35
Pedigrees
  • Who can come to the board and remind us what the
    symbols for a pedigree are?

36
Pedigrees
  • Who can come to the board and remind us what the
    symbols for a pedigree are?
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