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Why do wars occur?

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Why do wars occur? Nations compete over natural resources. Individuals demand greater political and economic freedom. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Why do wars occur?


1
Why do wars occur?
  • Nations compete over natural resources.
  • Individuals demand greater political and economic
    freedom.

2
We will study 3 aspects of WWII
  • The war in Europe against Germany and Italy
  • The war in Asia with Japan
  • The home front

3
What caused WWII in Europe?
  • Germany wanted back what she lost from WWI, and
    revenge
  • Appeasement Great Britain and France gave
    Hitler land w/o fighting for it.
  • Hitler was racist he used the Jews as a
    scapegoat for Germany and Europes problems.

4
Treaty of Versailles end of WWI
  • The main points of the Treaty BRAT  
  • 1.   Germany had to accept the Blame for starting
    the war
  • 2.     Germany paid Reparations for the damage
    done during the war.

5
Versailles cont. .
  • 3.     Germany was forbidden to have submarines
    or an air force.   She could have a navy of only
    six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
     

6
Versailles
  • 4.     Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe
    (see map). Germanys colonies were given to
    Britain and France.

7
Review Questions
  • How did WWI help cause WWII?

8
Depression in 1920s Europe
  • Economy was bad in Europe
  • WWI killed a lot of workers and customers
  • After years of humiliation and starvation,
    Germans looked for a strong leader.

9
NAZIs elected to power!
  • Nazis promised to build up their army and get
    revenge for the WWI
  • This is Adolf Hitler 1933.

10
Totalitarianism
Mussolini (Italy) Hitler (Germany)
11
Germany late 1930s
  • Germany escaped the Depression by militarizing.
  • This is Berlin 1936

12
The BeginningsAround the World
  • Japan invades Manchuria- 1931 (Military led
    Government- Hirohito Emperor Tojo-General)
  • 1935-Italy invades Ethiopia
  • 1936- German occupation of Rhineland
  • 1936- Germany Italy- form Axis Powers
  • 1936- Civil War in Spain- General Franco
  • 1937- Japan invades China- Rape of Nanking
  • World Response- condemn, appeasement, isolation,
    League of Nations-no power

13
The Beginnings continued
  • Hitler announces on November 5th, 1937 his plans
    to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the
    THIRD REICH or German Empire.

14
  • Hitler annexes Austria and no one in Europe stops
    him. Then, he turns his attention to
    Czechoslovakia. Demands Sudetenland be given to
    Germany

15
The Beginnings continued
  • Munich Conference was held on September 29, 1938
    tried to resolve the issue. In the end, Hitler
    was given the Sudetenland, but he had to promise
    to respect Czechoslovakias borders. Less than
    six months later, Hitler took over
    Czechoslovakia.
  • Peace in our Time

16
Appeasement Hitler wanted land, Britain and
France let him have it without war
17
  • Stalin- negotiates between Allies and Germany-
    finally signs a NON-AGRESSION PACT with Germany
    (1939)-Not attack each other and share Poland

18
World War II Begins
  • Hitler immediately invaded Poland and quickly
    took over the capital of Warsaw. France and
    Great Britain declared war on Germany on
    September 3rd, but Poland fell three week later.
    This was the beginning of another World War-
    September 1, 1939.

19
WWII started when Hitler invaded Poland 1939.
20
The Germans new plan.
  • The Germans used a new strategy called Blitzkrieg
    or a lightening war. It 1st involved airplanes,
    then tanks, followed by infantry to take over
    areas.
  • Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) maps

21
Soviets make their Move
  • Sept 1939- Soviets occupy eastern half of Poland
  • Then Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia
  • Then Finland

22
France
  • Maginot Line was known as the Great Wall of
    France It was a wall that was created to
    protect France from Germany. It was a rather
    unsuccessful attempt to protect France.

23
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24
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25
The Phony War
  • Sat and waited
  • Then Hitler invades Denmark Norway
  • Then sweeps through Holland and Belgium
  • Then to France

26
The Blitzkrieg
  • Germany is able to surprise Belgium, Holland, and
    eventually France.
  • On June 14th-22nd the Germans were able to
    overpower the French. By June 22nd France had
    fallen to the Germans.
  • Charles de Gaulle- General that resisted the
    Germans until 1940.

27
Dunkirk
28
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29
Hitler in Paris
30
Operation Sea Lion
  • Winston Churchill was the new prime minister of
    Great Britain and he faced Hitlers new plan.
  • German plan to invade Great Britain. The British
    used their Royal Air Force to combat the Germans
    Luftwaffe or the German Air Force.

31
Battle of Britain
  • This battle ended on May 10, 1941--The Royal Air
    Force was so powerful that the Germans had to
    resort to night attacks, but it wasnt enough to
    succeed.
  • Radar-and Enigma- keys to success

32
Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
33
  • English Channel protected England
  • Britain resisted German air force

34
Terms to Know
  • B.R.A.T.-Treaty of Versailles-
  • Fascism
  • Nazis
  • Totalitarianism
  • Hitler, Mussolini, Hirohito and Tojo, Stalin, FDR
  • Appeasement
  • Anti-Semitism

35
Terms to know
  • Non-Aggression Pact
  • Munich Conference
  • Maginot Line
  • Luftwaffe
  • RAF
  • Operation Sea Lion
  • Battle of Britain

36
Terms to know
  • League of Nations
  • September 1, 1939
  • Blitzkrieg
  • Phony War
  • Radar
  • Enigma
  • Dunkirk

37
Mussolini enters the picture
  • The Suez Canal was key to having the Middle
    Easts oil, so Mussolini attacks the British in
    the region of the Suez Canal. Mussolinis troops
    are not strong enough to fight the British, so
    the Italians lose.

38
Hitler sends in back up
  • General Erwin Rommel is known as the desert fox
    and Hitler sends him to Libya to win for the
    Italians.
  • Rommel is able to surprise attack the British,
    who then re-treat and re-group.
  • Within 6 months of the British regrouping,
    Rommel is able to overpower the British one last
    time and take Tobruk. This was a major blow to
    the Allies.

39
War in the Balkans
  • Hitler attacks the Balkans (which include
    Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary). He is able to
    take over the region quickly because Bulgaria,
    Romania, and Hungary all give up and cooperate
    with Hitler in 1941.
  • By April of 1941, Greece and Yugoslavia fall
    within 17 days of each other to the Germans.

40
Fortress Europa
  • In no time, Germany conquered most of Europe with
    tanks, planes, railroads.

41
Hitler breaks a promise
  • Hitler invades the USSR-Hitlers plan to invade
    USSR was called Operation Barbarossa.
  • On June 22, 1941 Germany invaded the USSR. The
    Red Army was not prepared or strong enough and
    within 1 week the Germans were able to get 500
    miles of territory in the Soviet Union.

42
Hitler invades USSR
  • The Soviets use the scorched earth policy that
    they used before when Napoleon invaded. This
    plan helped to slow down the Germans a little
    bit
  • For 2 more years the Soviets fought the Germans
    and eventually they were able to push them out of
    their country.

43
Tough cold winters killed many NAZI troops in
USSR.
  • Russian people are tough! 21 million dead, yet
    no surrender!

44
Meanwhile, in the USA. . .
45
US Isolationism
  • Americans wanted to stay out of Europes wars.
  • FDR wanted to help Britain anyway

46
USA had 2 oceans to protect them (sort of).
47
The U.S. sticks one foot in the water.
  • Neutrality Acts -Initially, the U.S. Congress
    passes these acts that make it illegal to sell
    arms or to lend to nations at war.
  • Land Lease -Roosevelt suggests a new plan to lend
    or lease arms to countries vital to U.S.
    interests. (lend a hose to a neighbor if his
    house was burning-FDR)

48
Lend Lease continued
  • U.S. Navy ships escorted British ships carrying
    U.S. arms. Hitler found out about this and
    ordered his subs to sink any cargo ships they
    encountered.

49
Lend Lease Act
  • FDR sent war materials to Britain and the USSR.
  • This is a Sherman tank

50
  • Atlantic Charter -Roosevelt and Churchill
    secretly meet in Newfoundland on Aug 9th to make
    a free trade among nations and they agree to
    allow countries to choose their own governments.
    Atlantic Charter becomes basis for the United
    Nations

51
  • Sept 4th, 1941U-Boat fires on a U.S. Naval ship
    and Roosevelt orders the navy to respond, but war
    is not called.

52
End of Section 1
53
Terms to Know
  • B.R.A.T.-Treaty of Versailles-
  • Fascism
  • Nazis
  • Totalitarianism
  • Hitler, Mussolini, Hirohito and Tojo, Stalin, FDR
  • Appeasement
  • Anti-Semitism

54
Terms to know
  • Non-Aggression Pact
  • Munich Conference
  • Maginot Line
  • Luftwaffe
  • RAF
  • Operation Sea Lion
  • Battle of Britain

55
Terms to know
  • League of Nations
  • September 1, 1939
  • Blitzkrieg
  • Phony War
  • Radar
  • Enigma
  • Dunkirk

56
Meanwhile, in Asia. . .
57
Japan wanted China and the USSR.
  • Japan is an island nation, and not a big one.
  • They wanted more living space and resources for
    their superior people.

58
Japan wanted oil reserves
  • Japan wanted more oil to invade China.
  • America embargoed their oil in Indonesia
  • Japan considered this an act of war.

59
Japan joins Axis Powers
  • Germany was sick of the U.S. helping Britain with
    its lend lease program. Japan agreed to attack
    Pearl Harbor and distract the U.S. from Europe
    war.

60
Axis Powers
  • Germany and Italy declared war immediately after
    Pearl Harbor.
  • Germany, Italy and Japan made a deal to help each
    other in case one was attacked.

61
Allied Powers
  • The Allies were the USA, Great Britain, and the
    Soviet Union (USSR). These are called the big
    three.
  • In addition were the colonies and territories of
    these countries.
  • These include China, Canada, Australia, France,
    Poland and others.

62
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. America enters
WWII.December 7, 1941
63
Pearl Harbor
  • Pearl Harbor-Japan saw the U.S. as preventing
    them from taking over Southeast Asia. They saw
    the U.S. fleet in the Pacific as the dagger
    pointed at our throats

64
Pearl Harbor
  • On Dec 7th 1941, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor (the
    U.S. knew that the Japanese were planning an
    attack they didnt know where though it would
    happen) The U.S. navy was not prepared and within
    2 hours 18 ships were sunk, over 2400 Americans
    were killed, and over 1000 were injured.

65
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66
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67
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68
Pearl Harbor
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vNt13c3olXkUNR1
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vSv1niwxQgoYfeature
    related

69
Japan Takes Guam and Wake Island
  • This was located in the Western Pacific
  • Japan attacked the Philippines in January 1942.
  • Later in April, the Japanese attacked the Bataan
    Peninsula
  • They also took Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore,
    and Burma.
  • The Japanese took over 1 million square miles of
    Southeast Asia.

70
Bataan Death March
  • April 1942-This was the Japanese movement of
    P.OW.s which included American and Chinese.
  • During the 100 mile march to a new concentration
    camp, the POWs were abused and treated cruelly.
  • http//history.acusd.edu/gen/st/ehimchk/death_mar
    ch.html

71
Battle Midway
  • U.Sgt head of Pacific Fleet-Admiral Chester Nimitz
    prepared an ambush on Japan at Midway. He
    allowed the Japanese to attack them 1st and then
    U.S. Carrier planes attacked the shipsThe US was
    able to destroy 332 Japanese Planes. 4 Aircraft
    carriers, and 1 support ship. Yamamoto, head of
    Japans fleet.
  • Yamamato, the head of Japans fleet, withdrew his
    ships from the Midway. The Japanese -The
    Americans avenged Pearl Harbor and the Turning
    Point in Pacific.

72
Battle for Midway Island
  • If won, Japanese could have bombed Hawaii more
    from here.
  • Major turning point

73
Douglas MacArthur
  • Douglas MacArthur- He was the commander of Allied
    land forces in the Pacific. He created the plan
    called island hopping
  • His plan would use air power to cut the supply
    lines and starve Japanese troops.

74
Island Hopping US fought to gradually reach
Japan
75
Battle of Guadalcanal
  • U.S. learned about Japans plan for an airfield
    on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. At dawn
    Aug 7th, 1942, 19,000 U.S. Marines caught the
    Japanese off guard.
  • After 6 months of fighting on land sea, 23,000
    out of 36,000. Japan was forced to abandon, the
    island of death.

76
Section 3- The Holocaust
77
Holocaust
  • The planned Genocide of the Jewish population and
    other Undesirables by the Nazis in World War
    II.
  • Anti-semitism prejudice against Jewish people
  • Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass
  • Ghettos, Concentration Camps, Death Camps (FINAL
    SOLUTION)

78
Kristallnacht
79
Concentration Camps
80
Concentration Camps
81
German Citizen Forced see the Horrors of the NAZIS
82
Nuremberg Trials
83
The Holocaust
  • One Survivor Remembers

84
North Africa
  • Bernard Montgomery-British General who launched
    the battle of El Alamein in Africa. He
    successfully defeated German Gen. Rommel.
  • Operation Torch- Nov 42- Eisenhower led the
    attack on Rommel in Morocco and Algeria and he
    was able to push Rommel out of Africa-May 1943.

85
Montgomery, Rommel, Eisenhower
86
  • Eisenhower-He was the American General who became
    the Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe.
  • Battle of Stalingrad- Germany controlled 90 of
    the city in Nov 42 and the Russians appeared to
    have lost the city to the Germans. The Russians
    counterattacked the Germans by cutting off German
    supplies. By Feb 43 90,000 German troops
    surrendered because of the harsh conditions. The
    Germans were put on the defensive and eventually
    the Russians were able to push them out of the
    USSR.

87
Germany start to lose
  • Germany invaded the Soviet Union and lost a
    million troops due to the cold and Russian
    bravery.
  • Germany spent too many resources trying to kill
    Jews and not supporting their troops
  • Germans fought Russians in the east and Americans
    and Brits in the West.

88
Italy
  • Invasion of Italy-Brits and the U.S. attack
    Sicily in June 43 and they eventually invade
    Italy mainland by Aug 43. By September 43
    Italy surrendered. The Germans continued to
    fight in Italy until the war ended in 45.

89
Mussolini
  • Mussolini was found trying to escape Italy
    disguised as a German soldier. He was found,
    shot, and then hung in a square in Milan.

90
The United States
  • The Homefront

91
USAs contribution was production, not blood.
92
Women in workforce
93
Rosie the Riveter
94
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95
People rationed goods for war use.
96
The Army was segregated, but African Americans
served.
97
Tuskegee Airmen
98
Women in the Forces
99
Women in Forces
100
How did USA pay for this war?
101
FD Roosevelt Harry Truman


102
Internment of Japanese Americans
  • USA was afraid if Japan were to attack the
    Pacific coast, Japanese Americans would help
    them.
  • The Government ordered them to move to camps.

103
Internment camp
104
Internment Camps
  • Nisei-Japanese Americans who were placed in
    internment camps in Feb42. They were seen as a
    threat to the country because of Pearl Harbor.
  • Korematsu vs. US- The lawsuit brought to the
    Supreme Court where the court decided that it was
    constitutional to have internment.

105
Strangely, Japanese Americans served in the Army
106
Invasion of Normandy, France
107
D-Day June 6th-1944
  • D-Day Invasion-Operation Overlord occurred on
    June 6th. British, American, French, and
    Canadian troops invade Normandy Beach. Hitler
    thought the Allies would attack Calais (the
    Allies had set up a fake headquarters in order to
    make them believe it). By Aug 25th, the Allies
    were able to take Paris and by September France,
    Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands belonged
    to the Allies.

108
D-Day
109
Operation Fortitude
110
  • Saving Private Ryan
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vxpDCrMVtVI0feature
    related
  • Actual footage-following D-Day
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vlvZCDfhoNxAfeature
    player_embedded

111
Battle of the Bulge
  • Battle of Bulge-Allies move toward Germany and
    Germans are able to counterattack. They take
    advantage of a weakness in the American line in
    Ardennes. Allies push them back and win known as
    B.B. because of the shape it made when the
    Germans attacked the line.

112
VE Day
  • Hitler-married Eva Braun on April 29th, 1945.
    She had lived as Hitlers mistress for over 10
    years and when he finally married her she died
    less than 24 hours later.
  • V.E. Day-Victory in Europe DayMay 8, 1945-the
    war against the Germans in over and the U.S. can
    focus on the war in Japan.

113
Germany surrenders April 45
114
Iwo Jima
  • Iwo Jima- American Marines take the island of Iwo
    Jima, which is 660 miles from mainland Japan. By
    April the allies take over Okinawa and by June
    22nd the land battle ends.

115
Battle for Iwo Jima
  • Island hopping became fact of the war with Japan.
  • Died 6800 US 20000 Japanese.
  • This flag raising was a serious morale boost to
    soldiers on the island.

116
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117
Kamikaze attacks
118
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119
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120
Manhattan Project
  • Manhattan Project- This is the name of the Atomic
    bomb project in the U.S. Truman was told the war
    in mainland would cost over 500,000 U.S. soldiers
    so Truman decided to use the new A-bomb, created
    by Oppenheimer, if the Japanese refused to
    surrender. The Japanese refuse to surrender and
    on Aug 6th, 1945 Hiroshima (73000) is bombed and
    3 days later Nagasaki(37,500) is bombed.

121
This plane dropped an atom bomb on Hiroshima-
Enola Gay
122
Atomic bomb
123
Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945
124
Victims in Hiroshima
125
Why drop the Atomic Bomb?
  • The Japanese had shown they would fight to the
    last man, woman and child.
  • The atomic bomb saved as many as 1 million U.S.
    lives, and possibly many Japanese.
  • Harry Truman said he dropped the bomb to end the
    war.

126
V-J Day
  • August 14, 1945-Surrender
  • Sept. 2, 1945-Official Surrender

127
Japan surrenders 1945
128
Devastation of Europe Japan
  • Cost 60 Million lives
  • Billions of dollars
  • 2/3rd of the causalities- civilians
  • Post war- starving, homeless, unemployed, famine,
    death continues

129
World War II deaths
  • USSR 22 million
  • China 11 million
  • Germany 7 million
  • Poland 7 million
  • U.S. 0.5 million
  • Great Britain 0.3 million
  • Japan 1.5 million

130
  • Effects of defeat in Japan-
  • 1. US occupies Japan under MacArthurs
    leadership. 2. MacArthur demilitarizes Japan.
    3. MacArthur puts Hideki Tojo (Japanese leader)
    on trial 4. Creates a new constitutional
    monarchy 5. After 6 months of occupation, the
    Americans leave Japan to run themselves.

131
  • Yalta- Feb. 1945 Conference where the Allies met
    to decide on how to divide Germany into zones of
    occupation. Germany would also give to USSR
    for loss of life and property. Each country
    would have its own zone. Also, the Soviets
    agreed to war against Japan.
  • Potsdam Conference Aug 1945 Truman met with
    Stalin here and told him about his new
    extraordinarily strong new weapon.

132
  • Yalta Conference-
  • Feb 1945
  • Potsdam Conference
  • Aug-1945

133
  • United Nations- The union of 50 countries in NYC.
    It had a General Assembly, which is a town
    meeting, Security Council (Britain, China,
    France, U.S. and the USSR-permanent members)

134
  • Russias satellite nations- The USSR created
    communist countries along the Eastern European
    border-Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, Romania, and
    Poland.
  • Iron Curtain-Division in Germany between
    Eastern Germany (Communist controlled) and
    Western Germany (Democracy).
  • Containment Policy-The U.S govt plan to contain
    expansion of communists. They wanted to stop it
    from spreading.

135
  • Truman Doctrine- Plan to aid countries so that
    communism wouldnt spread in their countries.
  • Marshall Plan- Under Sec of State Marshall it
    gave to countries in Europe who needed money
    to help repair them from the war. Goal was to
    prevent communism from spreading.

136
Improve your knowledge
Divided Berlin
  • The Russians took very high casualties to capture
    Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early
    occupation trying to take over all zones of the
    city but were stopped by German democrats such as
    Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the
    Russians had to admit the Americans, French and
    British to their respective zones.

137
Iron Curtain A term used by Winston Churchill
to describe the separating of Those
communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Divided Germany
138
Peep under the Iron curtain March 6, 1946
139
Berlin Wall
  • Berlin is Germanys capital city.
  • The Soviets built the wall to keep communists
    from escaping to the American sector.

140
Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
141
Berlin Blockade Airlift (1948-49)
142
  • Berlin Blockade- France, Britain, and the U.S.
    allow their 3 individual zones to form one
    nation. The USSR wanted to keep Germany weak and
    they were angry about the union. So, Soviets
    decided to cut off the western sector from
    supplies. They hoped the west would eventually
    give up Western Berlin and they wouldnt want to
    unify Germany.

143
  • The Berlin Airlift- Americans and British flew
    food and supplies into West Berlin for 11 months.
    By the end of the 11 months, the Blockade ended.
  • NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization- The
    European and U.S/Canadian agreement to join
    together to fight any country that attacked
    another NATO country.

144
  • WARSAW PACT- USSR, Romania, Poland, East Germany,
    Czech, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Albania joined
    together in union.
  • Brinksmanship-Pres. Eisenhower appoints John
    Foster Dulles (Sec of State) who said if USSR or
    its supporters attacked US interests then the
    U.S. would immediately attack the USSR. U.S.
    began to build up its air force and nuclear arms.
    USSR makes nuclear bombs.
  • U-2 Incident- CIA authorized spy planes to fly
    over and spy on the USSR. One of the U-2s is
    shot down and the Soviets capture the pilot who
    they try and hold for 10 months then release.

145
Quiz (European front)
  • 1. How was WWI a cause of WW2?
  • 2. Define totalitarianism
  • 3. Define appeasement
  • 4. Name 2 countries that Germany invaded.
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