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Chapter 2 Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases

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Title: Chapter 2 Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases Subject: Margaret W. Matlin's The Psychology of Women, 7e Author: Lucinda DeWitt Description – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender Biases


1
Chapter 2 Gender Stereotypes and Other Gender
Biases
The Psychology of Women
2
Biased Representations of Women and Men
  • Terminology
  • Stereotypes
  • Prejudice
  • Discrimination
  • Gender Bias
  • Androcentrism
  • Normative-Male Problem

3
Biased Representations of Women and Men
  • Gender Biases in Religion and Mythology
  • 1. Women are evil.
  • 2. Women are terrifying sorceresses.
  • 3. Women are virtuous.

4
Biased Representations of Women and Men
  • Gender Biases in Language
  • Terms Used for Women
  • non-parallel terms
  • negative terms
  • infantilizing terms

5
Biased Representations of Women and Men
  • Gender Biases in Language
  • The Masculine Generic
  • masculine generic terms are not gender neutral
  • Gastil's research on mental images
  • research on career choices
  • shifting to gender-neutral language

6
Biased Representations of Women and Men
  • Gender Biases in the Media
  • Stereotyped Representations
  • 1. Women are relatively invisible.
  • 2. Women are relatively inaudible.
  • 3. Women are seldom shown working outside the
    home.
  • 4. Women are shown doing housework.
  • 5. Women and men are represented differently.

7
Biased Representations of Women and Men
  • Gender Biases in the Media
  • Stereotyped Representations (continued)
  • 6. Womens bodies are used differently from mens
    bodies.
  • 7. Women of color are underrepresented, and they
    are often shown in a particularly biased way.
  • 8. Lower-social-class women are underrepresented,
    and they are often shown in a particularly biased
    way.

8
Biased Representations of Women and Men
  • Gender Biases in the Media
  • The Effects of Stereotyped Representations
  • Reflecting and influencing reality
  • Behaviors and beliefs
  • Gender-role attitudes
  • Cognitive performance

9
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • The Content of Stereotypes
  • Communion Agency
  • Stereotypes About Women and Men From Different
    Ethnic Groups
  • gender and ethnicity combine to create a variety
    of gender stereotypes.
  • subtypes within gender-ethnicity categories

10
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • The Content of Stereotypes
  • Subject Variables That Could Influence
    Stereotypes
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity
  • Culture
  • Class
  • Ableism

11
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • Implicit Gender Stereotypes
  • Explicit vs. Implicit Gender Stereotypes
  • Implicit Association Test (IAT)
  • stereotype-consistent pairings vs.
    stereotype-inconsistent pairings

12
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • Attitudes Toward Womens Competence
  • Womens competence is likely to be devalued
  • when males are doing the evaluating
  • when the participants have traditional attitudes
  • when little information is available about a
    persons qualifications
  • bias may be strongest when a woman is acting in a
    stereotypically masculine fashion
  • --Victoria Brescolls Double Bind work

13
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • Attitudes Toward Womens Pleasantness
  • Women men
  • Women feminists
  • Ambivalent Sexism (Glick Fiske, 1996, 2001)
  • Hostile sexism
  • Benevolent sexism
  • Ambivalent sexism and gender equality

14
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • Gender Discrimination in Interpersonal
    Interactions
  • Discrimination in North America
  • Laboratory research
  • Real-life gender discrimination
  • gender-stereotyped remarks
  • demeaning comments and behaviors
  • sexual comments and behaviors
  • Other forms of interpersonal gender discrimination

15
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • Heterosexism
  • Heterosexism a belief system that devalues
    lesbians, gay males, and bisexualsor any group
    that is not exclusively heterosexual
  • Sexual prejudice a negative attitude toward
    someone because of her or his sexual orientation

16
Peoples Beliefs About Women and Men
  • Heterosexism
  • Examples of Heterosexism
  • Lack of family acceptance
  • Verbal abuse
  • Physical assault
  • Institutional discrimination
  • Factors Correlated with Heterosexism
  • Men more negative than women
  • More negative attitudes toward gay men than
    toward lesbians

17
The Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes
  • Gender Stereotypes and Cognitive Errors
  • Social Cognitive Approach stereotypes are belief
    systems that guide the way we process information
  • Categorization
  • Errors
  • Exaggerating the Contrast Between Women and Men
  • Gender polarization

18
Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes
  • Gender Stereotypes and Cognitive Errors
  • The Normative Male
  • Making Biased Judgments about Females and Males
  • Judgments fall back on stereotypes
  • Attributions for success
  • Memory for Personal Characteristics
  • Gender-consistent and gender-inconsistent
    information
  • Multitasking and strong stereotypes

19
Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes
  • Gender Stereotypes and Behavior
  • Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  • Stereotype Threat
  • --Claude Steele

20
Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes
  • Internalizing Gender Stereotypes
  • Assessing Self-Concepts about Gender
  • Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI)
  • Androgynous
  • Problems with androgyny
  • Internalizing Gender Stereotypes
  • Variety of gender-related characteristics
  • Social categories
  • Social context

21
Personal Consequences of Gender Stereotypes
  • Internalizing Gender Stereotypes
  • Are Gender Stereotypes Personally Important?
  • Conclusions About Internalizing Gender
    Stereotypes
  • Flexible self-concepts about gender
  • Views about gender-related characteristics
  • Confronting your "-ISMS"

22
Chapter 3 Infancy and Childhood
The Psychology of Women
23
Background on Gender Development
  • Peoples Responses to Infant Girls and Boys
  • Parental Preferences About Sex of Children
  • North America
  • Cultural differences
  • People's Stereotypes About Infant Girls and Boys
  • Parents' ratings of infant sons and daughters
  • Strangers' judgments
  • Greeting cards
  • Social constructionism

24
Background on Gender Development
  • Theories of Gender Development
  • The Social Learning Approach
  • Children are rewarded for "gender-appropriate"
    behavior, and they are punished for
    "gender-inappropriate" behavior
  • Children watch and imitate the behavior of other
    people of their own gender

25
Background on Gender Development
  • Theories of Gender Development
  • The Cognitive Developmental Approach
  • Children develop powerful gender schemas
  • Children use gender schemas to evaluate
    themselves, other people, and other things
  • Gender schemas
  • Gender identity

26
Background on Gender Development
  • Theories of Gender Development
  • General Comments about Theories of Gender
    Development
  • Childrens behaviors are important
  • Childrens thoughts are important

27
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • Parents
  • Infants vs. Toddlers
  • Gender-Typed Activities
  • Chores
  • Toys
  • Discouraging gender-inappropriate activity
  • Different messages to girls vs. boys
  • Messages from male adults

28
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • Parents (continued)
  • Conversations About Emotions
  • Daughters vs. sons
  • Different emotions discussed
  • Attitudes About Aggression
  • Research inconsistent
  • Imitation
  • Power dynamics
  • Attitudes about Independence

29
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • Parents (continued)
  • Individual Differences in Parents' Gender Typing
  • parents vary widely
  • ethnicity
  • social class
  • nontraditional gender beliefs

30
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • Peers
  • Peer group
  • Rejection of Nontraditional Behavior
  • Gender Segregation
  • entitlement
  • Gender Prejudice
  • preference for own gender
  • verbal harassment
  • physical hostility

31
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • Peers (continued)
  • Differential Treatment (for Girls and Boys)
  • attractiveness
  • prosocial behavior
  • physical aggression

32
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • School
  • Teachers' Behavior
  • girls as invisible
  • provide boys with more positive feedback and
    attention
  • Students' Characteristics and Teachers' Treatment
  • ignore girls of color
  • discourage girls' assertiveness and
    responsibility
  • social class

33
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • School (continued)
  • Encouraging Change in North American Schools
  • teacher training in gender and ethnic diversity
  • de-emphasize gender schemas
  • pay equal attention to girls
  • reduce inappropriate stereotypes about gender

34
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • School (continued)
  • Gender and Education on the International Level
  • schooling
  • literacy rates
  • employment
  • birth rates and infant mortality

35
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • The Media
  • Television and Videogames
  • frequency of exposure
  • gender stereotypes
  • males more visible
  • males and females perform different activities
  • correlation between TV viewing and gender
    stereotyping
  • parental controls and involvement

36
Factors That Shape Gender Typing
  • The Media (continued)
  • Books
  • main characters
  • activities
  • stereotyped roles

37
Childrens Knowledge About Gender
  • Infants' Basic Information About Gender
  • Children's Usage of Gender Labels
  • Childrens Stereotypes About Activities and
    Occupations
  • Reactions to Gender Inconsistent Activities
  • Choosing Activities Toys
  • Gender Schemas Occupations

38
Childrens Knowledge About Gender
Children's Stereotypes About Personality Factors
Related to Children's Gender Stereotypes
  • Sex of the Child
  • Ethnicity
  • Social Class
  • Family Views
  • Age of the Child
  • Flexibility
  • Individual Differences

39
Cognitive Abilities
  • Explaining the Gender Comparisons
  • Biological Explanations
  • 1. Genetic explanations
  • 2. Hormonal explanations
  • 3. Brain organization explanations
  • Lateralization

40
Cognitive Abilities
  • Explaining the Gender Comparisons
  • Experience as an Explanation
  • 1. Different experiences with mathematics and
    spatial activities outside school
  • 2. Parents and teachers may provide different
    experiences for males and females
  • 3. Lack of positive images role models

41
Cognitive Abilities
  • Explaining the Gender Comparisons
  • Attitudes as an Explanation
  • 1. Parents and teachers attitudes and
    childrens self-confidence
  • 2. Boys perceive themselves as more competent in
    math than girls do, even though boys may actually
    receive lower grades
  • 3. Students believe that math, computers, and
    science are associated with males
  • 4. Stereotype threat

42
Attitudes About Achievement
  • Confidence in Your Own Achievement and Ability
  • Self-Confidence and Evaluation Provided by Others
  • Womens self-confidence is influenced by comments
    from other people mens self-confidence is less
    likely to change based on comments from other
    people.
  • Women are more likely than men to use the
    information from other peoples evaluations in
    assessing their own performance, even when the
    evaluations are not accurate

43
Chapter 6 Gender Comparisons in Social and
Personality Characteristics
The Psychology of Women
44
Introduction
  • Theoretical Background
  • Social Constructionist Approach We construct or
    invent our own versions of reality, based on
    prior experiences, social interactions, and
    beliefs.

45
Introduction
  • Theoretical Background (continued)
  • Social-Setting Factors Related to Size of Gender
    Differences in Social and Personality
    Characteristics
  • 1. Gender differences are usually largest when
    other people are present.
  • 2. Gender differences are generally largest when
    gender is prominent and other shared roles are
    minimized.
  • 3. Gender differences are usually largest when
    the behavior requires specific gender-related
    skills.

46
Communication Patterns
  • Verbal Communication
  • Talkativeness
  • Interruptions
  • Status
  • Language Style
  • The Content of Language

47
Communication Patterns
  • Nonverbal Communication
  • Personal Space
  • Body Posture
  • Gaze
  • Facial Expression
  • Smiling
  • Anger
  • Decoding Ability
  • Facial Expressions
  • Vocal Cues

48
Communication Patterns
  • Nonverbal Communication (continued)
  • Facial Expression
  • Smiling
  • Anger
  • Decoding Ability
  • Facial Expressions
  • Vocal Cues

49
Communication Patterns
  • Potential Explanations for Gender Differences in
    Communication
  • Power and Social Status Explanations
  • Social Learning Explanations
  • Conclusions

50
Characteristics Related to Helping and Caring
  • Altruism
  • Hypothetical Scenarios
  • Heroism
  • Social Role
  • Nurturance
  • Who finds babies interesting and engaging?
  • Operational Definitions

51
Characteristics Related to Helping and Caring
  • Empathy
  • 1. Females and males are equally empathic when
    the operational definition requires physiological
    measures.
  • 2. Females and males are equally empathic when
    the operational definition requires nonverbal
    measures.
  • 3. Females are more empathic than males when the
    operational definition is based on self-report.

52
Characteristics Related to Helping and Caring
  • Friendship
  • The Nature of Girls' and Boys' Same-Gender
    Friendships
  • Individuals
  • Groups
  • Self-disclosure

53
Characteristics Related to Helping and Caring
  • Friendship
  • The Nature of Womens and Mens Friendships
  • What friends do
  • Intimacy self-disclosure
  • Qualities important for an intimate friendship
  • How Women and Men Help Their Friends

54
Characteristics Related to Aggression and Power
  • Gender and Aggression The Social Constructionist
    Perspective
  • The Language of Aggression
  • Cultural Constructions of Aggression

55
Characteristics Related to Aggression and Power
  • Physical Aggression Versus Relational Aggression
  • Physical Aggression
  • Relational Aggression
  • Preschoolers

56
Characteristics Related to Aggression and Power
  • Other Factors Related to Gender and Aggression
  • 1. Gender differences are relatively large when
    measuring spontaneous aggression.
  • 2. Gender differences are relatively large when
    the individuals know each other.
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