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Air Pollution

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: you Last modified by: Barber, Wendy Created Date: 6/12/2007 12:19:41 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Air Pollution


1
Air Pollution
  • Chapter 18

2
18-4 Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem
  • Developing countries
  • Indoor burning
  • Poor suffer the greatest risk
  • Few, if any, regulations
  • Is the most serious air pollution problem
  • Developed countries
  • Indoor air pollution poses a greater threat than
    outdoor air pollution.

3
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem
  • Why?
  • 11 of the common air pollutants are at higher
    levels inside than outside
  • Greater inside vehicles than outside
  • Health risks magnified people spend 7098 of
    their time is indoors or inside cars

4
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem
  • Who is at greatest risk from indoor air
    pollution?
  • Children under 5 and the elderly
  • Sick
  • Pregnant women
  • People with respiratory disorders or heart
    problems
  • Smokers
  • Factory workers

5
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem
  • Four most dangerous indoor air pollutants
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Formaldehyde(CH2O) found in plywood, particle
    board, paneling, drapes, furniture, carpet and
    wallpaper adhesives)
  • Radioactive radon-222 gas- underground rock
    deposits
  • Very small particles

6
  • Sources of these pollutants-brought in on shoes,
    pesticides, paints, sprays, living organisms
    (bugs), mold
  • Human health risks-sore throat, headache, chronic
    breathing problems, rash (flu-like systems)

7
Indoor Air Pollution Is a Serious Problem
  • Other possible indoor air pollutants
  • Pesticide residue
  • Pb particles
  • Living organisms and their excrements
  • E.g., Dust mites and cockroach droppings
  • Airborne spores of molds and mildews
  • Sick-building syndrome

8
Some Important Indoor Air Pollutants
9
Radioactive Radon Gas
  • Colorless, odorless, radioactive gas
  • Sources natural radioactive decay of Uranium-238
    (rocks and soil)
  • Human health risks-damage to lung tissue-cancer
  • Testing for radon - detectors
  • Correcting a radon problem
  • Sealing cracks in walls and foundation, increase
    ventilation

10
Sources and Paths of Entry for Indoor Radon-222
Gas
Its a fantastic house with the exception of the
radon gas.
11
Your Bodys Natural Defenses against Air
Pollution Can Be Overwhelmed
  • Respiratory system protection from air pollutants
  • Role of cilia, mucus, sneezing, and coughing
  • Effect of smoking and prolonged air pollution
    exposure
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • 6 of people in US suffer from asthma

12
Major Components of the Human Respiratory System
Lung Attack
13
Air Pollution Is a Big Killer
  • 3 Million deaths per year world-wide
  • Mostly in Asia
  • Main causes-indoor air pollution
  • In US more than 150,000 die each day from air
    pollution
  • EPA proposed stricter emission standards for
    diesel-powered vehicles
  • Reduce emission by 90
  • Car makers hope they can delay
  • Link between international trade and air
    pollution
  • Cargo ships and pollution

14
Premature Deaths from Air Pollution in the U.S.
15
Laws and Regulations Can Reduce Outdoor Air
Pollution
  • United States
  • Clean Air Acts 1970, 1977, and 1990
  • EPA
  • National ambient air quality standards (NAAQs)
    for 6 outdoor criteria pollutants
  • Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide,
    ozone, lead, and suspended particulate matter
  • Primary Standard-Human health
  • Secondary Standard-environmental and property
    damage

16
  • National emission standards for 188 hazardous air
    pollutants (HAPs)
  • Mainly toxic metals, VOCs, and chlorinated
    hydrocarbons
  • Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)-for power plants,
    refineries

17
Laws and Regulations Can Reduce Outdoor Air
Pollution
  • Good news in U.S.
  • Decrease in emissions 49 from 1980-2006
  • Use of low-sulfur diesel fuel
  • Cuts pollution
  • Developing countries
  • More air pollution

18
We Can Use the Marketplace to Reduce Outdoor Air
Pollution
  • Emission trading or cap-and-trade program
  • Pollution Credits
  • Mixed reactions to program
  • SO2 emissions down significantly
  • NO2 will be tried in the future
  • Mercury from coal plants-does not break down-must
    set limits

19
There Are Many Ways to Reduce Outdoor Air
Pollution
  • 1980 2006
  • SO2 emissions from U.S. electric power plants
    decreased by 66
  • NOx emissions by 41
  • Particulate emissions by 28
  • Older plants not governed by the same regulations
  • New cars have better emissions

20
Reducing Indoor Air Pollution Should Be a Priority
  • Greater threat to human
  • health than outdoor pollution
  • What can be done?
  • Prevention
  • Cleanup

21
We Need to Put More Emphasis on Pollution
Prevention
  • Output approaches
  • New shift to preventing outdoor and indoor
    pollution
  • Pressure from citizens

22
  • http//esa21.kennesaw.edu/activities/smog-city/epa
    -smog-hurts.pdf

23
Air Pollution
  • Global climate change, ozone depletion, acid
    rain, photochemical smog, and indoor air
    pollution are some of the most significant
    environmental problems faced by humanity. All of
    these problems/issues emphasize how important a
    healthy atmosphere is.

24
ON THE AP EXAM
  • Dont just state something causes pollution. At
    least state that the activity causes air
    pollution or water pollution. Most likely,
    though, graders will want more specific
    information such as this activity releases
    sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere.
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