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The History of Early Childhood Education

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Education D - 9.01 - History * D - 9.01 - History * Sociocultural Theory- Implications for Teachers Incorporate each child s family and culture into the school. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The History of Early Childhood Education


1
The History of Early Childhood Education
2
Who are you?
  • How did you grow to become the unique person you
    are today?

3
What do you remember about your childhood?
  • Earliest memory
  • Memory you expect to keep throughout life

4
Other Memories . . .
  • Most embarrassing moment?
  • Happiest experience?
  • Scariest experience?

5
The Importance of History
  • Why is it important to know about the history of
    early childhood education?

6
Knowing about ECE History
  • Provides a sense of support and perspective
  • Serves as a source of inspiration
  • Helps teachers develop creative expression
  • Helps teachers develop better methods of teaching
  • Creates awareness and understanding of changes in
    education
  • Helps individuals get in touch with their own
    early childhood experiences
  • Helps individuals develop a philosophy of teaching

7
Many people have contributed to our understanding
of child development
8
John Locke
Philosopher
1632-1714
  • Founder of modern educational philosophy
  • Theory based on scientific method, study of mind
    and learning
  • Believed that each child is born with a clean
    slate (tabula rasa) on which their experiences
    are written


Tabula rasa
9
Environmentalism
John Locke
  • The environment, not innate characteristics,
    determines what children will become
  • The environment forms the mind

10
Your Views - John Locke
  • What do Lockes beliefs and his work mean to you?
  • What do you think about his clean slate theory?

11
Friedrich Froebel
1782 - 1852
  • Coined the word kindergarten
  • Started the first kindergarten in Germany in 1837
  • Emphasized teacher-directed learning
  • Advocated freedom, initiative, and relevant
    curriculum


"Father of the Kindergarten"
12
Friedrich Froebel --- Father of the Kindergarten
  • In German, the word kindergarten means
    childrens garden.
  • Association between flower buds opening and
    children going through a natural unfolding process

13
Your Views Friedrich Froebel
  • What do Froebels beliefs and his work mean to
    you?
  • What do you remember about being in kindergarten?
  • Did your kindergarten experiences affect the
    person you are today?

14
Sigmund Freud
1856-1939
Neurologist
Psychoanalyst
  • A childs personality develops through a
    predictable pattern of psychosexual stages.
  • Many emotional and psychological problems of
    adults are connected to how their parents and
    care providers met their basic needs as children.

15
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego Sigmund Freud
16
Your Views Sigmund Freud
  • What do Freuds beliefs and his work mean to you?
  • How well were your needs met as a child?

17
John Dewey
1858 - 1952
  • First real American influence on American
    education
  • Founder of progressive movement
  • His theory progressivism
  • Advocated child-centered learning in groups


Progressivist
18
Deweys Pedagogic Creed
  • Education, therefore, is a process of living and
    not a preparation for future living.
  • -John Dewey

19
Your Views - John Dewey
  • How much of education do you believe is
    preparation for future living, and how much is
    the actual process of living?
  • Do you feel that learning should be centered
    around the subject or around the child?

20
Margaret McMillan
1860 - 1931
  • Margaret and her sister Rachel extended concern
    beyond education to medical and dental care for
    children
  • Created open-air nursery in a slum
  • Developed the McMillan theory of fresh air,
    sleep, and bathing

Pioneer

21
The McMillan Sisters
  • Margaret and Rachel McMillan crusaded to improve
    child care in English slums.
  • Many people credit the creation of nursery
    schools to these sisters.
  • Margaret created the name nursery school ---
    nursery to focus on the goal of nurturing good
    health, and school to focus on educating young
    children.

22
Your Views Margaret McMillan
  • How important are fresh air, sleep, and bathing
    to the health and well-being of children?
  • Have you ever known a situation where a child did
    not receive adequate physical care? What were
    the results?

23
Rudolph Steiner
ART
1861 - 1925
  • Founded Waldorf Schools
  • Interdisciplinary, multi-sensory curriculum with
    emphasis on the arts
  • Emphasized the whole child begin where the
    learner is.
  • Promoted self-regulation and self-discipline


Philosopher
Scientist
Artist
24
Rudolph Steiner
  • Steiner believed that experiences for young
    children need to be carefully selected. He
    believed that fairy tales helped them learn
    important truths.
  • Modern-day followers of Waldorf philosophy
    believe that TV-viewing for children should be
    limited.

25
Your Views Rudolph Steiner
  • What are your views on children and television?

26
Patty Hill
1868 - 1946
  • Founded the National Association for the
    Education of Young Children
  • Originated large-muscle equipment and materials
    for climbing and construction.
  • Wrote the song Happy Birthday


Progressive
27
Patty Hill
  • Her ideas about unifying kindergarten and
    first-grade work became the focus of modern
    kindergarten practice.

28
Your Views Patty Hill
  • Do you believe it is important for kindergarten
    and first-grade learning experiences to be
    unified?

29
Maria Montessori
1870 - 1952
First female physician in Italy
Child copies reality, rather than constructs it.
  • Education begins at birth
  • The early years are very important as children go
    through sensitive periods. Their curiosity
    makes them ready to learn certain things at
    certain times.
  • Goals of education the formation of the child
    and development of character


30
Maria Montessori
  • Elements of early childhood programs that are
    attributed to Montessori
  • A prepared environment (the teachers
    responsibility)
  • Self-correcting and sequential materials (usually
    tactile-touch)
  • Teaching based on observation
  • Trust in childrens inborn drive to learn

31
Your Views Montessori
  • Which of Maria Montessoris philosophies ring
    true for you?
  • Were you ever enrolled in a Montessori school as
    a child, or have you ever visited one?

32
Lev Vygotsky
1896-1934
  • Focuses on the child as a whole
  • Incorporates culture and values into child
    development
  • Sociocultural Theory A childs development is
    influenced by more than personal experiences.

Russian Psychologist
33
VygotskysSociocultural Theory
  • Important influences on a childs development
    include
  • Family
  • Community
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Culture

34
Sociocultural Theory-Implications for Teachers
  1. Incorporate each childs family and culture into
    the school.
  2. The relationship between teacher and child is
    very important to learning.
  3. Use the tools of the society to help children
    learn.
  4. Play is an important part of learning.
  5. Its very important to note individual
    differences among learners.

35
Lev Vygotsky
  • Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
  • (the distance between the actual developmental
    level and the level of potential development)

ZPD
36
Your View Vygotsky
  • Can you think of an area of skill in which your
    ZPD is large --- that is, the distance between
    your actual level of skill and your potential
    skill level is very great?
  • You have a long way to go!

37
Loris Malaguzzi
1920 - 1994
  • Founded Reggio Emilia Schools
  • Schools have teachers, a pedagogista, and an
    aterlierista
  • All children capable of learning
  • Children construct their own learning
  • Documenting childrens work is essential for
    success of the program

Founder

38
Loris Malaguzzi
  • The family and community are important parts of
    the amiable school.

39
Your Views Malaguzzi
  • What do you think should be the role of the
    family in an early childhood classroom?
  • The role of the community?

40
Imagine what our world would have been like
without . . .
  • Kindergarten
  • Nursery school
  • Montessori schools
  • Child-centered learning
  • Medical/dental care for children?

41
What do you think the contributions of these
leaders will mean to you as you work with young
children?
42
Stay tuned for more . . .
  • Objective 3.01
  • Recognize the importance of and contributions of
    leaders in the history of early childhood
    education.
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