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Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Community and Strategic Planning (CASP) Curriculum

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Title: Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Community and Strategic Planning (CASP) Curriculum


1
(No Transcript)
2
Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Community
and Strategic Planning (CASP) Curriculum
Part I Enhanced DMC Reduction Model
3
Module 1
Overview of the Training
4
Objectives of CASP Training
  • Equip participants with the following knowledge
    and skills necessary to provide training and
    technical assistance, public education,
    coordination, and outreach
  • Knowledge base to understand OJJDP enhanced DMC
    Reduction Model.
  • Ability to communicate clearly what DMC is, how
    to measure it, analyze and interpret the data.

1-1
5
Objectives of CASP Training (contd)
  • Design empirically based delinquency prevention
    and systems improvement strategies.
  • Increase state capacity to assist/guide
    localities in DMC-reduction activities.

1-2
6
How to Achieve the Objectives
  • Review OJJDPs enhanced DMC Reduction Model.
  • Trainers demonstrate the curriculum
  • Using data from an assigned county within the
    training jurisdiction, participants engage in
    facilitation exercises and practice delivery.
  • OJJDP trainers provide feedback on participant
    use of the curriculum.

1-3
7
Module 2 DMC Core Requirement
8
History of DMC
  • The original goals of the Juvenile Justice and
    Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974
  • Help state and local governments prevent and
    control juvenile delinquency and improve the
    juvenile justice system.
  • Protect juveniles in the juvenile justice system
    from inappropriate placements and from the
    physical and psychological harm that can result
    from contact with adult inmates.
  • Provide community-based treatment for juvenile
    offenders.
  • The evolution of the four JJDP Act Core
    Requirements
  • Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders
    (DSO)1974
  • Separation1974
  • Jail Removal1980
  • Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC)1988
  • Became a Core Requirement1992
  • Expanded to Disproportionate Minority Contact
    2002

2-1
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History of DMC (contd)
  • 1988 Annual Report to Congress by the Coalition
    for Juvenile Justice (then the National Coalition
    of State Juvenile Justice Advisory Groups), A
    Delicate Balance.
  • DMC as a requirement in the JJDP Act of 1974, as
    amended in 1988
  • Requiring states participating in the JJDP Acts
    Part B Formula Grants program to address efforts
    to reduce the proportion of juveniles detained or
    confined in secure detention facilities, secure
    correctional facilities, jails, and lockups who
    are members of minority groups if such proportion
    exceeds the proportion such groups represent in
    the general population.
  • DMC as a Core Requirement in the JJDP Act of
    1974, as amended in 1992
  • Twenty-five percent of that years Formula Grants
    allocation was tied to state compliance.

2-2
10
Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) as a
Core Requirement in the JJDPA of 2002
Requiring states participating in the JJDP Acts
Part B Formula Grants program to address
juvenile delinquency prevention efforts and
system improvement efforts designed to reduce,
without establishing or requiring numerical
standards or quotas, the disproportionate number
of juvenile members of minority groups, who come
into contact with the juvenile justice
system. Twenty percent of the states Formula
Grants allocation in the subsequent year is tied
to the states compliance status.
2-3
11
Purpose of the DMC Core Requirement
To ensure equal and fair treatment for every
youth in the juvenile justice system, regardless
of race and ethnicity.
2-4
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Disproportionate Minority Contact
  • Disproportionate
  • Minority
  • Contact

2-5
13
Disproportionate
A rate of contact with the juvenile justice
system among juveniles of a specific minority
group that is significantly different from the
rate of contact for whites (i.e., non-Hispanic
Caucasians) or for other minority groups.
2-6
14
Minority Race and Ethnicity Categories
Race/Ethnicity Definition
White (non-Hispanic) A person having origins in any of the original people of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
Black or African-American (non-Hispanic) A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Hispanic or Latino A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.
American Indian or Alaska Native (non-Hispanic) A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.
Asian (non-Hispanic) A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic) A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific islands.
2-7
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Using Race and Ethnicity Categories
  • Counts for all other groups should remove
    Hispanic/Latino (e.g., African-American should
    really be non-Hispanic African-American).
  • Groups MORE specific than the six major groups
    may be defined IF they may be aggregated into the
    six major groups.
  • Any of the six groups consisting of one (1)
    percent or more of the juvenile population in a
    specific jurisdiction (subject to juvenile
    justice contact and processes) should be assessed
    independently.
  • Reports should describe the categories and
    allocation rules used. Be consistent within a
    state/local report.

2-8
16
Juvenile Justice System Contact Points

2-9
17
Contact Points Standard Definitions
Contact Point Definition
Arrest Youth are considered to be arrested when law enforcement agencies apprehend, stop, or otherwise contact them and suspect them of having committed a delinquent act.
Referral When a potentially delinquent youth is sent forward for legal processing and received by a juvenile or family court or juvenile intake agency, either as a result of law enforcement action or upon a complaint by a citizen or school.
Diversion Youth referred to juvenile court for delinquent acts are often screened by an intake department (either within or outside the court). The intake department may decide to dismiss the case for lack of legal sufficiency, resolve the matter informally (without the filing of charges), or resolve it formally (with the filing of charges). The diversion population includes all youth referred for legal processing but handled without the filing of formal charges.
2-10
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Contact Points Standard Definitions (contd)
Contact Point Definition
Detention Detention refers to youth held in secure detention facilities at some point during court processing of delinquency cases (i.e., prior to disposition). The detention population may also include youth held in secure detention to await placement following a court disposition. For the purposes of DMC, detention may also include youth held in jails and lockups.
Petitioned/charges filed Formally charged (petitioned) delinquency cases are those that appear on a court calendar in response to the filing of a petition, complaint, or other legal instrument requesting the court to adjudicate a youth as a delinquent or status offender or to waive jurisdiction and transfer a youth to criminal court.
Delinquent findings Youth are judged or found to be delinquent during adjudicatory hearings in juvenile court. Being found (or adjudicated) delinquent is roughly equivalent to being convicted in criminal court.
2-11
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Contact Points Standard Definitions (contd)
Contact Point Definition
Probation Those in which a youth is placed on formal or court-ordered supervision following a juvenile court disposition. Notably, youth on probation under voluntary agreements without adjudication should not be counted here but should instead be part of the diverted population.
Confinement in secure correctional facilities Confined cases are those in which, following a court deposition, youth are placed in secure residential or correctional facilities for delinquent offenders. The confinement population should not include all youth placed in any form of out-of-home placement.
Transferred to adult court Waived cases in which a youth is transferred to criminal court as a result of a judicial finding in juvenile court. Juveniles may be transferred to criminal court through a variety of other methods, but most of these methods are difficult or impossible to track from within the juvenile justice system, including prosecutor discretion or concurrent jurisdiction, legislative exclusion, and the variety of blended sentencing laws.
2-12
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Module 3 Phase 1 Identification Measuring
the Extent of DMC
21
Phase 1. Identification
  • Answer the questions
  • Does DMC exist?
  • If so, where on the juvenile justice continuum?
  • And with what minority population?
  • To what extent?

3-1
22
Important Considerations in Measuring DMC
  • The need to compare jurisdictions and trends
    despite vast differences in the demographic
    composition of communities.
  • DMC measurement is like taking vital signs in a
    hospitalit doesnt tell you what the illness is
    or how to fix it, but it does tell you if it is
    getting better or worse and where to aim
    diagnostic resources.

3-2
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Why Measure DMC?
  • To determine the existence and extent of
    disproportionalitybetween race comparisons
    within jurisdictions and at specific decision
    points.
  • To make comparisons across multiple jurisdictions
    and select jurisdictions to receive primary
    attention.
  • For data-based targeting of assessment studies,
    identifying points of intervention, and resource
    allocation.
  • To enable monitoring/comparison of DMC trends.

3-3
24
Rates
Total number of units measured by the indicator
in relation to some base (population or volume of
activity at the juvenile justice system contact
points).
3-4
25
Relative Rate Index Formula When Compared With
White Rate (Most Frequently Used Formula)
Relative Rate Index minority rate white rate

3-5
26
Relative Rate Index Formula When Compared With
Another Minority Rate (When minority youth
comprise the majority of the youth population)
Relative Rate Index minority rate
another minority rate
3-6
27
Relationship of Data Elements for Relative Rate
Index Calculations

3- 7
28
Identifying the numerical bases for rate
calculations
Contact Point Preferred base for rate
Arrest Rate 1,000 population
Referral to juvenile court Rate per 100 arrests
Diversion (prior to adjudication) Rate per 100 referrals
Detention Rate per 100 referrals
Petition/charges filed Rate per 100 referrals
Delinquency finding Rate per 100 petitions/charges filed
Placement in probation Rate per 100 delinquency findings
Placement in secure correctional facility Rate per 100 delinquency findings
Transfer to adult court Rate per 100 petitions filed
3-8
29
A Simple Example
  • A state with nearly 1,100,000 white non-Hispanic
    youths has 22,175 arrests in 2002 involving such
    youths. What is the rate of arrests per 1,000
    white non-Hispanic youth?
  • The same state has nearly 185,000 non-Hispanic
    black or African-American youths with 12,700
    arrests in 2002,. What is the rate of arrests per
    1,000 non-Hispanic black or African-American
    youth?
  • What is the Relative Rate Index, indicating the
    relative volume of arrests involving black or
    African-American youth compared with that of
    white youth?

3-9
30
A Simple Example (contd)
  • A state with nearly 1,100,000 white
    (non-Hispanic) youths has 22,175 arrests in 2002
    involving such youths. What is the rate of
    arrests per 1,000 white non-Hispanic youth?
  • 22,175 / 1,100,000 x 1,000 20.1
  • The same state has nearly 185,000 (non-Hispanic)
    black or African-American youths with 12,700
    arrests in 2002. What is the rate of arrest per
    1,000 non-Hispanic black or African-American
    youth?
  • 12,700 / 185,000 x 1,000 68.6
  • What is the Relative Rate Index indicating the
    relative volume of arrests involving black or
    African-American youth compared with that of
    white youth?
  • RRI 68.6 / 20.1 3.41, indicating that the
    rate of arrests of black/African-American youth
    was more than 3 times higher than that for white
    non-Hispanic youth.

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A Second Example
  • In 2002, this state had 3,588 episodes of
    diversion among white non-Hispanic youth with a
    total referral activity of 22,175. What was the
    rate of diversions of per 100 referrals for white
    youth?
  • Among black or African-American youth, there
    were 1,121 episodes of diversion with a total
    referral activity of 12,681. What was the rate of
    diversion per 100 referrals for black or
    African-American youth?
  • What was the RRI, indicating the rate of
    diversion activity for black or African-American
    youth compared with that for white youth?

3-11
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A Second Example (contd)
  • In 2002, this state had 3,588 episodes of
    diversion among white non-Hispanic youth, with a
    total referral activity of 22,175. What was the
    rate of diversions per 100 referrals for white
    non-Hispanic youth?
  • 3,588 / 22,175 x 100 16.18
  • Among black or African-American youth, there
    were 1,121 episodes of diversion with a total
    referral activity of 12,681. What was the rate of
    diversion per 100 referrals for black or
    African-American youth?
  • 1,121 / 12,681 x 100 8.84
  • What was the RRI, indicating what the rate of
    diversion activity for black or African-American
    youth compared with that for white youth?
  • RRI 8.84 / 16.18 0.55 indicating that the
    rate of diversion for black/African-American
    youth is a little more than half the rate of
    diversion for white non-Hispanic youth.

3-12
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Five Steps of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI
Values to Drive Decision-Making
Step 1. Statistical significance Step 2.
Magnitude of RRI Step 3. Volume of
activity Step 4. Comparison with other
jurisdictions Step 5. Contextual Considerations
(Examining the local context)
3-13
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Step 1 of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI Values
to Drive Decision-Making
  • Step 1. Statistical significance
  • Statistically significant does not mean that a
    difference is big or important.
  • A statistically significant difference does mean
    that there is statistical evidence that a
    difference in rates is unlikely to have occurred
    by chance. In other words, we can have confidence
    that 95 times out of 100 (contingent upon the
    significance level chosen) the difference was not
    random.

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Anywhere County Raw Data

Anywhere County Total Youth White Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Hawaiian Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
1. Population at risk (age 10 through 17) 176,115 115,605 15,622 13,238 26,368 0 1,824 3,458 60,510
2. Juvenile Arrests 6,492 4,236 1,630 0 456 0 170 0 2,256
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court 9,641 5,166 2,636 700 860 0 228 51 4,475
4. Cases Diverted 3,625 2,147 816 258 323 0 63 18 1,478
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention 2,902 1,316 1,055 212 211 0 96 12 1,586
6. Cases Petitioned (Charge Filed) 4,368 2,149 1,425 327 322 0 134 11 2,219
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings 2,755 1,355 889 192 222 0 89 8 1,400
8. Cases Resulting in Probation Placement 1,634 862 477 109 145 0 38 3 772
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 1,125 460 427 96 104 0 34 4 665
10. Cases Transferred to Adult Court 41 13 20 3 5 0 0 0 28
3-15
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Analysis Based on Statistical Significance
DataAnywhere County Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests 2.85 NA 0.47 NA 2.54 1.02
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court 1.33 NA 1.55 NA 1.10 1.63
4. Cases Diverted 0.74 0.89 0.90 NA 0.66 0.85 0.79
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention 1.57 1.19 0.96 NA 1.65 0.92 1.39
6. Cases Petitioned (Charge Filed) 1.30 1.12 0.90 NA 1.41 0.52 1.19
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings 0.99 0.93 1.09 NA 1.05 1.00
8. Cases Resulting in Probation Placement 0.84 0.89 1.03 NA 0.67 0.87
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 1.41 1.47 1.38 NA 1.13 1.40
10. Cases Transferred to Adult Court 2.85 NA 2.09
Group meets 1 percent threshold Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

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Five Steps of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI
Values to Drive Decision-Making (contd)
  • Step 2. Magnitude of RRI
  • Step 3. Volume of activity
  • Step 4. Comparison with other jurisdictions
  • Step 5. Contextual Considerations (i.e. examining
    the local context)

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Step 2 of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI Values
to Drive Decision-Making
Step 2 Magnitude of RRI (i.e. the effect
size) The size of the RRI based on the magnitude
of the index values. Statistical equality in
processing should generate an RRI value of
1.0. To what extent does each stage generate a
value substantially different from 1.0? Values
under 1.0 reflect disparities as well Step 3
Volume of activity Step 4 Comparison with other
jurisdictions Step 5 Examining the local context
3-18
39
Magnitude How much RRI is above or below 1.0
Area of concern Decision stage or contact points
More than 1.00 Arrests Referrals to Juvenile Court Cases involving secure detention Cases petitioned Cases resulting in delinquency findings Cases resulting in confinement in secure juvenile correctional facilities Cases transferred to adult court
Less than 1.00 Cases diverted Cases resulting in probation placement
Note RRI values that cause DMC concern can be greater than 1 or less than 1. Note RRI values that cause DMC concern can be greater than 1 or less than 1.
3-19
40
Analysis Based on Magnitude of RRI
The greatest statistically significant
disparities are at the arrest stage for Blacks
and Native Americans and the adult court transfer
stage for Black youth.
DataAnywhere County Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests 2.85 NA 0.47 NA 2.54 1.02
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court 1.33 NA 1.55 NA 1.10 1.63
4. Cases Diverted 0.74 0.89 0.90 NA 0.66 0.85 0.79
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention 1.57 1.19 0.96 NA 1.65 0.92 1.39
6. Cases Petitioned (Charge Filed) 1.30 1.12 0.90 NA 1.41 0.52 1.19
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings 0.99 0.93 1.09 NA 1.05 1.00
8. Cases Resulting in Probation Placement 0.84 0.89 1.03 NA 0.67 0.87
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 1.41 1.47 1.38 NA 1.13 1.40
10. Cases Transferred to Adult Court 2.85 NA 2.09
Group meets 1 percent threshold Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

3-20
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Analysis Based on Magnitude of RRI
The RRIs for Black and Native American youth at
the detention stage show the next greatest
magnitude of disparity.
DataAnywhere County Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests 2.85 NA 0.47 NA 2.54 1.02
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court 1.33 NA 1.55 NA 1.10 1.63
4. Cases Diverted 0.74 0.89 0.90 NA 0.66 0.85 0.79
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention 1.57 1.19 0.96 NA 1.65 0.92 1.39
6. Cases Petitioned (Charge Filed) 1.30 1.12 0.90 NA 1.41 0.52 1.19
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings 0.99 0.93 1.09 NA 1.05 1.00
8. Cases Resulting in Probation Placement 0.84 0.89 1.03 NA 0.67 0.87
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 1.41 1.47 1.38 NA 1.13 1.40
10. Cases Transferred to Adult Court 2.85 NA 2.09
Group meets 1 percent threshold Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

3-21
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Analysis Based on Magnitude of RRI
The smallest RRI values below 1.00 are found for
Black and Native American youth at the diversion
stage. They receive the benefit of diversion at a
considerably lower rate than White youth.
DataAnywhere County Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests 2.85 NA 0.47 NA 2.54 1.02
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court 1.33 NA 1.55 NA 1.10 1.63
4. Cases Diverted 0.74 0.89 0.90 NA 0.66 0.85 0.79
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention 1.57 1.19 0.96 NA 1.65 0.92 1.39
6. Cases Petitioned (Charge Filed) 1.30 1.12 0.90 NA 1.41 0.52 1.19
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings 0.99 0.93 1.09 NA 1.05 1.00
8. Cases Resulting in Probation Placement 0.84 0.89 1.03 NA 0.67 0.87
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 1.41 1.47 1.38 NA 1.13 1.40
10. Cases Transferred to Adult Court 2.85 NA 2.09
Group meets 1 percent threshold Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes

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Step 3 of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI Values
to Drive Decision-Making
Step 3 Volume of activity The amount of
activity at each contact point. In which stages
(among the ones showing significant RRIs) are the
most youth involved? Focus on the groups and
stages that will have the impact on the largest
numbers of youth. Step 4 Comparison with other
jurisdictions Step 5 Examining the local context
3-23
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Volume of Activity by Race and Contact Point
  Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests 1,630 NA 456 0 170 0 2,256
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court 2,636 700 860 0 228 51 4,475
4. Cases Diverted 816 258 323 0 63 18 1,478
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention 1,055 212 211 0 96 12 1,586
6. Cases Petitioned (Charge Filed) 1,425 327 322 0 134 11 2,219
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings 889 192 222 0 89 8 1,400
8. Cases Resulting in Probation Placement 477 109 145 0 38 3 772
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 427 96 104 0 34 4 665
10. Cases Transferred to Adult Court 20 3 5 0 0 0 28

3-24
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Step 4 of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI Values
to Drive Decision-Making
Step 4 Comparison with other jurisdictions How
the county compares with other counties across
the country with available data (900
counties). Step 5 Examining the local context
3-25
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Compare Your Date With the National Data
  • Using the National DMC Databook and/or the RRI
    Comparison Tool
  • Examine basic rates and RRI values for Black,
    Native and Asian youth (not Hispanic yet)
  • Explore trends over time and for differing crime
    categories
  • View sample text interpretations for the RRI
    values.
  • www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/dmcdb/asp/sources.asp

3-26
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Comparison With Other Jurisdictions
  • The Basis for Comparison
  • 900 jurisdictions with data entered into the
    OJJDP Web site during 2006-07
  • Grouped according to the size of the total
    juvenile population
  • 1. Under 5,000 total youth
  • 2. 5,000 through 19,999 youth
  • 3. 20,000 or more total youth
  • 4. All jurisdictions
  • Used to show the jurisdictions RRI value for a
    particular decision stage and race/ethnicity
    group in percentile terms compared with other
    similar jurisdictions.
  • Using the DMC Local Data Comparison tool
  • On the Web from the OJJDP DMC tools web page
    (http//ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/dmc/tools/index.html)
  • Using an Excel spreadsheet downloaded from the
    OJJDP Web site

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Comparison With Other Jurisdictions
County Name ANYWHERE County ANYWHERE County ANYWHERE County  
Select County size for Comparison 1 (1 Large, 2 Medium, 3 Small , 4 comparison to all counties) (1 Large, 2 Medium, 3 Small , 4 comparison to all counties) (1 Large, 2 Medium, 3 Small , 4 comparison to all counties) (1 Large, 2 Medium, 3 Small , 4 comparison to all counties) (1 Large, 2 Medium, 3 Small , 4 comparison to all counties) (1 Large, 2 Medium, 3 Small , 4 comparison to all counties)
Comparison to be used Compared with Jurisdictions reporting in 2006-7 and having 20,000 youth or more Compared with Jurisdictions reporting in 2006-7 and having 20,000 youth or more Compared with Jurisdictions reporting in 2006-7 and having 20,000 youth or more Compared with Jurisdictions reporting in 2006-7 and having 20,000 youth or more Compared with Jurisdictions reporting in 2006-7 and having 20,000 youth or more Compared with Jurisdictions reporting in 2006-7 and having 20,000 youth or more  
  Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders American Indian or Alaska Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests 5.67 1.13 0.52 1.45 2.40
3. Refer to Juvenile Court 0.83 0.95 1.01 1.16 0.87
4. Cases Diverted 0.90 1.06 0.82 0.90 0.93
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention 1.28 0.96 1.05 1.86 1.22
6. Cases Petitioned 1.40 1.54 1.70 1.72 1.46
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings 0.93 0.84 1.23 0.93
8. Cases resulting in Probation Placement 1.00 1.05 1.02 1.01
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities 1.12 0.74 1.07
10. Cases Transferred to Adult Court 1.79 2.88 2.03

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Step 5 of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI Values
to Drive Decision-Making
  • Step 5 Examining the local context
  • Is the agency involved in that decision point
    amenable to change?
  • Have there been recent events (public relations
    issues) that make a change in DMC patterns more
    or less likely?
  • Are funds or resources available that might
    assist (or hinder, if lacking) the DMC effort at
    this decision point?
  • Is strong leadership available that is committed
    to addressing DMC issues?

3-29
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Step 5 of Interpreting and Analyzing RRI Values
to Drive Decision-Making (continued)
  • Are best practices models for this decision point
    available and applicable?
  • Is there support for DMC reduction within the
    affected minority group and within the political
    leadership of that group?
  • Are there issues with the affected minority group
    regarding media attention at this decision point
    (e.g., potentially high visibility events that
    could generate support or resistance for DMC)?

3-30
51
DMC Data Common Issues
  • Missing data elements
  • Inability to find Hispanic data for arrest
  • Data definitions that dont match the OJJDP
    recommendations
  • Small numbers
  • Racial minority may actually be the statistical
    majority
  • Homogenous communities in which there are few
    white youth

3-31
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Sample RRI Analysis Tracking Sheet
Key S Statistically Significant
MMagnitude of RRI VVolume of Activity
CComparative with other jurisdictions
CContextual Considerations
State Any State, County Any County Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander American Indian or Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests S,M,V,C,C N/A S,M,V N/A S,M,V,C,C
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court S, M,V, C N/A S,M,V N/A S,M,V S,M,V,
4. Cases Diverted S, M,V, C S,M,V S,M,V N/A S,M S,M,V,C
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention S,M,V,C,C S,M,V N/A S,M S,V,C
6. Cases Petitioned (Charges Filed) S,M,V S,M,V S,M,V N/A S,M S,M S, V
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings S,M,V N/A S,M
8. Cases resulting Probation Placement S,M,V S,M,V N/A S,M,V,
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities S,M,V S,M,VC,C S,M,V N/A S,M S,M,V,
Cases Transferred to Adult Court S,M,V,C,C N/A

3-32
53
Small Group Exercise 5 Step RRI Analysis
Please answer the following questions in
writing and complete the RRI Analysis and
Tracking Sheet based on the data from (Insert
State Here) targeted jurisdictions. You will be
asked to explain your answers. 1. Statistical
Significance Is there statistical significance
at any juvenile justice system contact points? If
so, what are they? 2. Magnitude of RRI Values
Which of these statistically significant RRIs
are also of a considerable magnitude (i.e. how
much greater or lower than 1.0)?
3-33
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Small Group Exercise 5 Step RRI Analysis
(continued)
3. Volume of Activity Among these significant
RRIs of large magnitude, which are also
associated with a large volume of cases? 4.
Comparison of other jurisdictions How does this
jurisdiction(s) compare to other communities in
the state (urban, suburban, rural, etc.)? 5.
Contextual Considerations Are there any
contextual considerations that could act as
barriers to addressing DMC in this community?
3-34
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RRI Analysis Tracking Sheet
Key S Statistically Significant
MMagnitude of RRI VVolume of Activity
CComparative with other jurisdictions
CContextual Considerations
State Any State, County Any County Black or African-American Hispanic or Latino Asian Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander American Indian or Native Other/ Mixed All Minorities
2. Juvenile Arrests
3. Referrals to Juvenile Court
4. Cases Diverted
5. Cases Involving Secure Detention
6. Cases Petitioned (Charges Filed)
7. Cases Resulting in Delinquent Findings
8. Cases resulting Probation Placement
9. Cases Resulting in Confinement in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities
Cases Transferred to Adult Court

3-35
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DMC-Reduction Planning Worksheet
DMC-REDUCTION ACTIVITIES  JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT
DMC-REDUCTION ACTIVITIES  Arrest Referral Diversion Detention Petitioned/ Charges Filed Delinquent Findings Probation Confinement in Secure Correctional Facilities Transferred to Adult Courts
Identification                  
Assessment/ Diagnosis                  
Intervention Strategies (Including Staffing, Funding, and Timelines)                  
Evaluation/ Performance Measurement                  
Monitoring
3-36
57
Module 4 Phase 2 Assessment/Diagnosis What
Possible Factors/Mechanisms Contribute to DMC?
58
Phase 2. Assessment
  • Answers the questions
  • Given the knowledge we have about our community,
    what probable explanations may be generated about
    DMC in the areas of focus?
  • What are the types of data and patterns of
    results needed to support the possible
    explanations generated?
  • What are the sources of the needed data?
  • Based on analyses of data obtained, what are the
    most likely mechanisms creating DMC in the areas
    of focus based on data analysis?
  • What are the mechanisms that the community
    decides to address with intervention strategies?

4-1
59
Mechanisms Leading to DMC Differential Treatment
  • Is DMC caused by intentional or
    unintentional bias? Intentional bias is overt
    and operates on stereotypes and assumptions.
    Unintentional bias is typically indirect and
    operates through legitimate criteria but
    disadvantages minority youth.
  • For example, are more minority youth referred to
    secure detention based on indirect effects?
  • Suggested data sources
  • Case files
  • Surveys of youth and staff
  • Detention Risk Assessment Instruments

4-2
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Differential Behavior
  • In offenses reported to the police, do
    descriptions of an offenders race indicate that
    minorities and non minorities commit offenses at
    different rates?
  • How does this difference lead to the DMC numbers
    that we see? Do we have differences in
    drug-related offenses, violence offenses, gang
    offenses, and/or recidivism offenses per age
    groups?
  • Suggested data sources
  • Arrest records (police records)
  • Self-reported delinquency reports (Youth Risk
    Behavior Survey)
  • Incident-based crime reports (National
    Incident-Based Reporting System)
  • Aggregated crime statistics (State Statistical
    Analysis Centers)

4-3
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Mobility
  • Is there an influx of juveniles that temporarily
    changes the demographic composition of the
    population?
  • For example, is this a summer destination or
    spring break destination?
  • What is the relationship between the youths
    legal residence and the location/jurisdiction of
    apprehension?
  • Suggested data sources
  • Arrest data (police reports)
  • Court referral data

4-4
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Indirect Effects
  • What are the risk factors for involvement in the
    juvenile justice system?
  • To what extent do risk factors differ for kids of
    color, and does it explain RRI?
  • Suggested data sources
  • OJJDP Model Programs Guide community indicators
  • Self-report data on alcohol, tobacco, and other
    drug use
  • Community-level income data
  • Community-level unemployment rate
  • Community-level demographic data
  • Area-level school attendance data

4-5
63
Mechanisms Leading to DMC Differential
Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment
  • Do minorities and non-minorities have the same
    access to services in terms of the service
    programs location, fees, other requirements, and
    the like?
  • Are minorities and non-minorities offered
    prevention and early intervention programming at
    the same rate?
  • If minority youth are more involved in particular
    offenses, are prevention and treatment services
    available to address those types of behavior?
  • What is the rate at which minorities are admitted
    to community-based programs for first-time
    offenders compared with the rate at which they
    are confined in secure detention? How do these
    rates compare with the rates for non-minorities?

4-6
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Differential
Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment
(continued)
  • What is the rate at which minorities are enrolled
    in prevention programming for at-risk youths? How
    does this rate compare with the rate at which
    non-minorities are being admitted?
  • What is the minority participation in existing
    prevention programs? What is the effectiveness of
    the programs?
  • Suggested data sources
  • Prevention program availability, enrollment, and
    participation data
  • Court disposition data

4-7
65
Mechanisms Leading to DMC Differential Handling
or Inappropriate Decision-Making Criteria
  • What are the bases or criteria on which
    decisions are made?
  • Are those criteria applied consistently across
    all groups of youth?
  • Are the criteria structured in a manner that
    places some groups at a disadvantage?
  • Are minorities and non-minorities treated
    similarly by the justice system?
  • Are minorities and non-minorities treated
    similarly when charged with the same type of
    offense?
  • How do the rates at which minorities and
    non-minorities are adjudicated for the same
    offenses differ?
  • How do the rates at which minorities and
    non-minorities are offered programming compare?

4-8
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Differential Handling
or Inappropriate Decision-Making Criteria
  • Do youths reports of interaction between youth
    and those who work in the juvenile justice system
    differ across races and ethnicities? How?
  • How do arrest rates compare with incident-based
    crime reports for minorities and non-minorities?
  • What factors are putting youths at risk of
    offending?
  • What factors are protecting them?
  • Suggested data sources
  • NIBRS data (where available)
  • Periodic client surveys

4-9
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Justice by Geography
  • To what extent, do different neighborhoods,
    communities, or regions have different rates of
    arrest, different sensitivity to types of
    offenses, different definitions of severity or
    other juvenile justice decisions?
  • Do those differences coincide with different
    racial and ethnic composition?
  • Suggested data sources
  • Arrest data by neighborhood, region, county, or
    state

4-10
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Legislation,
Policies, and Legal Factors with DMC Impact
  • What rules exist for releasing youths after the
    initial hearing? Do these rules
    disproportionately affect minorities?
  • What policies are in place to regulate behavior
    among youths at the area schools? Do these
    disproportionately affect minority youths?
  • Does enforcement deployment differ?
  • What procedures exist for providing youth with
    indigent defense? Do these procedures
    disproportionately affect minority youths?
  • Suggested data sources
  • State and/or local code
  • Administrative rules regarding handling of youths
    in the juvenile justice system

4-11
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Accumulated
Disadvantage
  • Simple accumulation
  • Do small to moderate differences at each stage
    compound into a disadvantage for minority youth?
  • Impacts on later decisions
  • Do decisions made at earlier stages affect
    outcomes at later stages, in particular, judicial
    disposition?
  • Suggested data sources
  • RRI-level data
  • Transactional data including race/ethnicity and
    the outcomes of multiple decisions within the
    juvenile justice system

4-12
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Mechanisms Leading to DMC Statistical Aberrations
  • Counting issues
  • Do census estimates provide substantial
    undercounts of specific groups?
  • Do classification and recording issues related to
    racial/ethnic identification lead to substantial
    uncertainty about the rates of system activity?
  • Statistical issues
  • Do small numbers in specific groups or small
    numbers within a jurisdiction for a year make it
    difficult to identify statistically significant
    patterns?
  • Possible solutions (as noted earlier) aggregate
    data over multiple jurisdictions or multiple
    years.
  • Possible data source other service system data

4-13
71
Assessment Exercise Name That Mechanism

Name That Mechanism

4-14
72
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-15
73
Name That Mechanism
Youth who appear with a private attorney are
diverted at a higher rate than those with public
defenders.
4-16
74
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-17
75
Name That Mechanism
The County juvenile diversion programs are only
for first-time offenders
4-18
76
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-19
77
Name That Mechanism
The Police Department has decided that all
juvenile felony cases must go directly to Court
and by-pass Intake Screening
4-20
78
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-21
79
Name That Mechanism
The Latin Kings street gang
4-22
80
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-23
81
Name That Mechanism
Bobby gets in trouble so often because his
father has been in prison for the past five years
4-24
82
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-25
83
Name That Mechanism
The Central City School District has Zero
Tolerance for fights participants must be
arrested
4-26
84
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-27
85
Name That Mechanism
In Anywhere County, each of the suburban
communities has a Youth Court diversion program,
but the Central City doesnt
4-28
86
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-29
87
Name That Mechanism
New York City Times Square Memphis Beale
Street New Orleans Bourbon Street San Francisco
Haight Ashbury
4-30
88
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-31
89
Name That Mechanism
Some prefer powder cocaine, while others prefer
crack cocaine
4-32
90
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-33
91
Name That Mechanism
Bobbys Mom has three jobs
4-34
92
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-35
93
Name That Mechanism
Gang members are not allowed at the Central City
Girls and Boys Club
4-36
94
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-37
95
Name That Mechanism
Poverty is the reason we have Disproportionate
Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System
4-38
96
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-39
97
Name That Mechanism
When non-secure group home residents go AWOL, an
arrest warrant is issued. When the residents are
eventually arrested, the warrant prescribes they
be taken directly to secure detention.
4-40
98
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-41
99
Name That Mechanism
The Anywhere County Family/Juvenile Court does
not have any Spanish-speaking staff
4-42
100
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-43
101
Name That Mechanism
There is an 80 re-arrest rate among juveniles
who are released from long-term residential
correctional placement
4-44
102
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-45
103
Name That Mechanism
The Suburban Town Police Chief reports that the
Super Mall, which is on the City busline, has a
big shoplifting problem, mostly involving Central
City juveniles
4-46
104
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-47
105
Name That Mechanism
The Anywhere County Probation Departments
Juvenile Electronic Monitoring Program charges
clients 10 a day for their electronic ankle
bracelet
4-48
106
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-49
107
Name That Mechanism
Anywhere County Department of Juvenile Justice
Criminal History Name Bobby Jones DOB
06/13/1997 5/18/2007 - Truancy
Petition 10/18/2007 - Truancy Petition 10/20/2007
- Shoplifting 11/15/2007 - Adjudicated PINS, 6
months Probation 12/07/2007 - Larceny
3rd 12/07/2007 - Admitted Secure
Detention 12/10/2007 - Probation Violation,
Probation extended 12 months 12/26/2007 -
Burglary 2nd 12/26/2007 - Admitted Secure
Detention 3/15/2008 - Placed in Juvenile
Corrections, 6 months
4-50
108
Differential Offending Mobility Indirect Effects
Differential Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment Name That Mechanism Differential Handling
Justice by Geography Legislation, Policy, and Legal Factors Accumulated Disadvantage
4-51
109
Discussing Mechanisms Leading to DMC
  • Generate a list of probable explanations.
  • Discuss each probable explanation.
  • Questions to ask or data to collect to determine
    if this explanation stands.
  • Suggested data sources to check out this
    explanation.

4-52
110
Analyzing the Data and Determining the Most
Likely Mechanism(s) Creating DMC
  • What process will the community use to identify
    the mechanisms?
  • Who is going to be brought into the process to
    understand and accept the data?
  • Who is going to be brought together to bring
    ideas?
  • Identify possible mechanisms that contribute to
    the differences at contact point, such as
    arrests.
  • Suggest data or other information that would
    help decide which of the alternative mechanisms
    should be studied.
  • What organizations and individuals should be
    involved in gathering this information?
  • Who is going to do the analysis?
  • Does the mechanism have the hypothesized
    relationship to race/ethnicity?
  • Does the mechanism have the expected relationship
    to the juvenile justice contact point that is
    being explained?
  • If the impact of that mechanism is held constant,
    does the strength of the relationship of
    race/ethnicity at that same contact point become
    markedly reduced?

4-53
111
Assessment Data Collection Strategies
  • Informational interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Review court and other agency case-level records
  • State and national risk factor data (e.g.,
    census data, alcohol and drug abuse data, school
    data)
  • Specialized surveys

4-54
112
DMC-Reduction Planning Worksheet
DMC-REDUCTION ACTIVITIES  JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT JUVENILE JUSTICE POINTS OF CONTACT
DMC-REDUCTION ACTIVITIES  Arrest Referral Diversion Detention Petitioned/ Charges Filed Delinquent Findings Probation Confinement in Secure Correctional Facilities Transferred to Adult Courts
Identification                  
Assessment/ Diagnosis                  
Intervention Strategies (Including Staffing, Funding, and Timelines)                  
Evaluation/ Performance Measurement                  
Monitoring
4-55
113
Module 5 Phase 3 Intervention Developing
Data-Based Strategies to Reduce DMC
114
Phase 3. Intervention
  • Answer the following questions
  • What direct services are available?
  • Is there training and technical assistance
    available?
  • What systems change activities are needed?

5-1
115
Intervention Strategies
Intervention Type
Direct services -Prevention and early intervention -Diversion -Alternatives to secure confinement -Advocacy
Training and technical assistance -Cultural competency training and program development -Culturally competent staffing practices
Systems change -Legislative reforms -Administrative, policy, and procedural changes -Structured decision-making
5-2
116
Direct Services Prevention and Early Intervention
  • Prevention is proactive and aimed at youth who
    exhibit risk factors for delinquency but who have
    not been adjudicated delinquent. Intervention is
    reactive and aimed at youth already juvenile
    justicesystem involved.
  • Examples family therapy, parent training,
    cognitive behavioral treatment, mentoring,
    academic skills enhancement, afterschool
    recreation, vocational/job training, and
    wraparound services.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed differential offending,
    mobility effects, indirect effects, and
    differential opportunities for prevention and
    treatment.

5-3
117
Direct Services Diversion
  • Specialized subset of interventions that
    typically serve youth who are at risk or have
    been arrested or referred to the juvenile court
    for status offenses or non-serious delinquent
    offenses.
  • Examples community service, informal hearings,
    family group conferences, victim impact panels,
    victimoffender mediation, mentoring, teen
    courts, restitution, and other restorative
    justice strategies.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed indirect effects,
    differential opportunities, differential
    processing, justice by geography.

5-4
118
Direct Services Alternatives to Secure
Confinement
  • Alternatives keep less-serious or nonviolent
    offenders at home or in their home communities
    with greater access to needed resources without
    endangering the community, and at much less
    expense.
  • Examples home confinement (or house arrest), day
    (or evening) treatment facilities, shelter care,
    specialized foster care, attendant or holdover
    care, and intensive supervision programs.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed indirect effects,
    differential opportunities, differential
    processing, and justice by geography.

5-5
119
Direct Services Advocacy
  • Advocacy connects youth and families with a
    variety of social networks and service providers
    to integrate services that multiple agencies
    provide, to ensure continuity of care, and to
    facilitate the development of a youths social
    skills. It promotes the coordination of human
    services for, opportunities for, or benefits that
    help juvenile justice systeminvolved youth and
    families.
  • Examples Detention advocacy programs, minority
    family advocacy programs in Colorado.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed indirect effects,
    differential opportunities, and differential
    processing.

5-6
120
Training and Technical Assistance Cultural
Competency Training and Program Development
  • Cultural competency training and culturally
    competent programs engender a deeper awareness of
    cultural factors (e.g., differences in
    communication styles, body language and demeanor,
    language use, beliefs about the family, attitudes
    toward authority figures) among staff,
    administrators, and the public that typically
    influence decision-making about youth.
  • Examples training in cultural differences for
    law enforcement/juvenile justice practitioners,
    Strengthening Families Program, and Syracuse
    Family Development Research Program. Programs
    need to be tailored to the culture and population
    served.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed indirect effects,
    differential opportunities, differential
    processing, accumulated disadvantage, and justice
    by geography.

5-7
121
Training and Technical Assistance Culturally
Competent Staffing Practices
  • Hire, promote, and retainat all levels
    qualifiedculturally competent personnel who
    belong to the minority groups that these agencies
    serve.
  • Examples minority internship programs,
    interpreters, translators, minority recruitment
    programs, language-appropriate materials, and
    community-based neighborhood prosecution.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed differential
    opportunities, differential processing,
    accumulated disadvantage, legislation, policies,
    and legal factors.

5-8
122
Systems Change Legislative Reforms
  • Legislative reforms that promote systems change
    can be an effective strategy for addressing DMC
    because of the enormous potential for producing
    broad-based change in every aspect of the system.
  • Examples monitoring bills concerning juvenile
    justice issues to ensure they do not result in
    statutes that could fuel overrepresentation or
    bias justice officials decision-making enacting
    laws to establish standards for decision-making
    at certain stages of the juvenile justice
    process.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed differential
    processing legislation, policies, and legal
    factors with disproportionate impact accumulated
    disadvantage.

5-9
123
Systems Change Administrative, Policy, and
Procedural Changes
  • Altering the way an organization operates can
    provide the impetus for administrative, policy,
    and procedural changes that can reduce DMC.
  • Examples sentencing guidelines, diversion
    guidelines, probation classification systems,
    detention release criteria.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed differential
    opportunities differential processing
    legislation, policies, and legal factors with
    disproportionate impact accumulated
    disadvantage.

5-10
124
Systems Change Structured Decision-Making
  • Uses statistical risk classification (i.e., a
    risk assessment instrument) to objectively
    classify youth according to level of risk and to
    reassess level of risk at different stages in the
    juvenile justice process.
  • Examples detention screening instruments, risk
    assessment instruments, needs assessment
    instruments.
  • DMC mechanisms addressed differential
    processing accumulated disadvantage.

5-11
125
Intervention Strategies and Contributing
Mechanisms
Direct Services Training Technical Assistance Systems Change
Differential Offending X
Mobility X X X
Indirect Effects X X
Differential Opportunities X X X
Differential Handling/ Inappropriate Criteria X X
Justice by Geography X X
Accumulated Disadvantage X X X
Legislation, Policies, legal factors X X
Statistical Aberrations X X
Contributing Mechanisms
5-12
126
Exercise Name That Intervention

Name That Intervention

5-13
127
Prevention Diversion Alternatives to Secure Confinement
Advocacy Name That Intervention Culturally Competent Practices
Legislative Reforms Administrative, Policy, and Procedural Changes Structured Decision Making
5-14
128
Name That Intervention
The County will implement a Risk Assessment
Instrument to screen all possible admissions to
the Juvenile Detention Center
5-15
129
Prevention Diversion Alternatives to Secure Confinement
Advocacy Name That Intervention Culturally Competent Practices
Legislative Reforms Administrative, Policy, and Procedural Changes
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