Principles of Immunology Cytokines 2/2/06 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Principles of Immunology Cytokines 2/2/06

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Title: Principles of Immunology Cytokines 2/2/06


1
Principles of Immunology Cytokines 2/2/06
  • Live simply so others can simply live.
  • Anonymous

2
Word List
  • Autocrine
  • Endocrine
  • Immunoglobulin superfamily
  • Interleukin
  • Paracrine
  • Pleiotropy
  • Stem cell factor

3
Chemical Structure
  • Low molecular weight proteins, lt30kD
  • High affinity for receptors
  • Active in picomole amounts

4
Chain of Cytokine Action
  • StimulusgtCytokine-producing cellgt
  • CytokinegtTarget cellgtReceptorgt
  • Biological effect(s)

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Names of Cytokines
  • Source
  • e.g.,Lymphokines
  • Function
  • e.g.,Chemokines
  • Intercellular action
  • e.g., Interleukins

7
Action of Cytokines
  • Autocrine
  • Affects the generating cell (self)
  • Paracrine
  • Affects cells in the immediate vicinity
  • Endocrine
  • Affects cells remote from the secreting cell

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Action of Cytokines
  • Pleiotropy
  • Affects multiple cell types
  • Redundancy
  • Multiple cytokines affects cells of the same type
  • Synergy
  • Cytokines acting in concert on the same cell
  • Antagonism
  • Competing actions
  • Cascading
  • Cytokines acting sequentially

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Cytokine-generating Cells
  • Innate immunity
  • Macrophages
  • Endothelial cells
  • Fibroblasts
  • Adaptive immunity
  • T lymphocytes
  • Macrophages
  • NK cells

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Cytokine Receptors
  • Ig super family
  • Class I- hematopoietin
  • Class II-interferon
  • TNF
  • Chemokine

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19
Cytokine Receptors
  • Multimeric receptors
  • Common signal-transducing subunits
  • Unique high affinity subunits
  • High affinity subunits associated with activation
    of target cell

20
Signal Transduction
  • Initiated by cytokine binding
  • Activates JAK (Janus kinase)
  • Phosphorylation of tyrosine
  • Binding of STAT(Signal transducers and activators
    of transcription)
  • Translocation of STAT to cells DNA
  • Transcription of specific target genes

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22
Role of Cytokines in Hematopoiesis
  • SCF (Stem cell factor)
  • GM-CSF (Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating
    factor)
  • IL-3 (Interleukin 3)
  • IL-5 (Interleukin 5)
  • IL-7 (Interleukin 7)
  • IL-11(Interleukin 11)

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Cytokines in the Immune Response
  • Innate immune response
  • IL 1-(Macrophage)-fever, capillary effects
  • IL 6-(Macrophage)-adaptive immunity via B cells
  • IL 12(Macrophage)-adaptive immunity via T helper
    cells
  • TNF (Macrophage)-capillary effects, activates
    neutrophils
  • IFN alpha (Macrophage)-multiple effects
  • IFN beta (Fibroblasts)-multiple effects

25
Cytokines in the Immune Response
  • Adaptive immune response
  • IL 2-(T cells)-multiple effects)
  • IL 4-(T cells mast cells)-T cell
    differentiation, IgE production
  • TGF beta (T cells, macrophages)-inhibits
    adaptive immune response
  • IFN gamma-(T cells, NK cells)-Macrophage
    activation

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Subsets of T helper Cells
  • T helper 1
  • IgG production/Complement fixation
  • Macrophage activation
  • DTH
  • CTL production
  • T helper 2
  • IgE production
  • Eosinophils

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  • Cytokine antagonism and viral diseases
  • Using cytokines therapeutically
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