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Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China Thursday November 17 (9:00-10:00)

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Title: Panel 6: Policy Initiatives in China Thursday November 17 (9:00-10:00)


1
Panel 6 Policy Initiatives in China
Thursday November 17 (900-1000)
12th Symposium on Development and Social
Transformation
2
12th Symposium on Development and Social
Transformation
Panel 6 Policy Initiatives in China
Towards Fulfillment of Universal Service
Obligation in Telecommunications Case Study of
China Anindita Sen Gupta
3
Universal Access is defined as ensuring that
telephone service is within reasonable reach of
everyone. Universal Service is aimed at
providing telecommunication Services to all
households in the country . It requires that
telephone service be AVAILABLE, ACCESSIBLE AND
AFFORDABLE. Universal Service Obligation(USO)
is defined as the cost of serving those
customers whose monthly bills do not cover the
cost Of proving the service.
4
NEED FOR UNIVERSAL SERVICE
  • Two major rationales for providing universal
    service

Due to concern for economic development and
spatial inequality
For the sake of necessity. Universal access is
considered a basic human right in Global Human
Rights Manifesto.
5
STAGES OF UNIVERSAL SERVICE
Stage-I Network Establishment
Stage-II Wide Geographic reach
Stage III Mass Market Take up
Stage IV Network Competition
Stage V Service to individuals
China is in Stage II and III and progressing
towards IV
6
FACTS ON DIGITAL DIVIDE IN CHINA
  • DIGITAL DIVIDE BROADLY IS BETWEEN
  • China and other countries
  • Western, Central and Eastern Regions within
    China
  • Urban and Rural areas

FOCUS IS ON THE RURAL URBAN DIVIDE
URBAN RURAL
Quality 67.5 OF TOTAL FIXED LINE USERS 99OF THE 100 MILLION INTERNET USERS BALANCE 32.5 LESS THAN 1 OF THE TOTAL INTERNET USERS
Quantity PENETRATION 37.6 PER 100 INHABITANTS, 2.6 TIMES RURAL 14.6 PER 100 INHABITANTS, 60,000 ADMINISTRATIVE VILLAGES YET TO BE COVERED
statistics from presentation of DG of
Telecommunications of MII
7
PROMOTION OF RURAL ACCESS
STEP I
Rural Access Project telephone reaching every
village
OVERALL PLANNING
STEP III
STEP II
Increasing the number of rural users and
penetration
Enriching and enlarging the content and methods
of rural access
8
LESSONS FOR INDIA FROM THE MAIN MEASURES
  • ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM
  • INVOLVEMENT OF PROVINICIAL ADMINISTRATION IN
    IMPLEMENTATION.
  • RESOURCE ASSIGNMENT
  • IT IS UNDER CONSIDERATION TO ASSIGN SPECTRUM ON
    PRIORITY TO OPERATORS UNDERTAKING RURAL
    PROJECTS.
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • RELEVANT OPERATORS TO CARRY OUT ASSIGNED RURAL
    PROJECTS
  • TARIFF POLICY
  • ALLOW FLEXIBILITY IN RURAL TARIFFS
  • NATIONAL SUPPORT
  • ACTIVELY SEEK THE SUPPORT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN
    FUNDS POLICY AND TAXES AND APPROPRIATE CENTRAL
    FINANCING

9
12th Symposium on Development and Social
Transformation
Panel 6 Policy Initiatives in China
Population Policy in China Sunil Kumar Gulati
10
POPULATION POLICY.China, lessons for India
1999th Meeting on Effective, People friendly
Population Policy Formulation
  • Presented
  • by
  • Kumar Sunil Gulati IAS

What meeting? Here we are!
11
GR0WTH RATES 2001
Dont worry China , we will be Just there
POPULATION Annual Exp Gr. Rate Decadal Growth Rate
World 6055 1.4 14
China 1263 0.6 6
India 1027 1.9 21.3
12
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13
POPULATION DENSITY
Choice is between Many,numerous heads..
Few REAL Heads
14
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15
Do You Know ?
  • Population of USA at 27.8 Cr is third in the
    world next to India .
  • IndiaThree USAs Two Canadas and still with a
    Bangladesh to spare.
  • Density of Population in India is only 324
    compared to 30 in USA and 3 in Canada !

16
Population Policy
  • Ancient times War,Floods,droughts
  • Kings Ming Dynasty (1368-98) Used li-chia (ten
    headmen) to get ten Families (chia) to give
    labour and Taxes per fang(110 HHs)Pop 60.5 m ,5.7
    per HH
  • Then it became ting, working Males per HH

17
Population Policy
  • Later 1740s Pao chia gave way to tuan-lin
    meaning Grouping and Drill(350m)
  • Malthus thought Pop goes by G.P. Nature by A.P .
    So it will be a disaster and Nature will
    intervene.
  • Dr Sun Yat-Sen Mao said the more people the more
    Power of Nation

18
Population Policy
5. 1958-61 Great Leap Forward birth control propaganda ceased completely 658.6m Mao accepts 1000 m mark possible
6. 1962 State Council demands that everyone have access to contraceptives, especially in urban centers. Local guidelines recommended no more than 2 or 3 children per family, but it is not enforced. 673m CBR 37 TFR 6.02
19
Population Policy
1965 Council beings to target rural as well as urban areas. 725m CBR 37.9 TFR 6.08
1971-72 Late marriage requirements are enforced at 23-25 for women and 25-28 for men, as is a spacing rule of 4 years between first and second children. 872m 1973 Mao accepts Family Planning needed CBR 29.8 TFR 4.98
20
Population Policy
1979 Birth planning bureaus are established to limit couples to one birth, but to tolerate two. (Couples with only one child were given a one-child certificate entitling them to such benefits as cash bonuses, longer maternity leave, better child care, and preferential housing assignments. They pledge that they would not have more children.) 975m CBR 17.8 TFR 2.75
21
Population Policy
11. 1981 Lowered marriage age laws to 20 and 22 years old to placate population. Government prosecutes doctors who are illegally removing IUDs, providing pre-birth reports on the sex of the child. 1000m
22
Population Policy
1984 Law passed allowing all peasants who consent to a late birth of their first child and to an extended birth interval of eight to ten years to have a second child in rural areas. 1043m
23
Population Policy
1986 Laxness (more 2nd child permits granted) and loss of control after positive results of survey in 1985 when goals were almost met 1075m
24
INDIA Population Policy
5. 1952 The basic strategy in the First Plan was to treat family planning as a part of the health programme and provide 100 funds for it as a centrally sponsored programme. Launching of Family Planning Programme 361m
25
INDIA Population Policy
6. 1976 Statement of National Population Policy 548 (1971)
7. 1977 New Pop. Policy Statement on Family Welfare Programme, Both statements were laid on the Table of the House in Parliament, but never discussed or adopted. Stressed the voluntary nature of the family planning programme". Name Changed to Family welfare
26
INDIA Population Policy
8. 1983 The National Health Policy of 1983 emphasized the need for "securing the small family norm, through voluntary efforts and moving towards the goal of population stabilisation". While adopting the Health Policy, Parliament emphasized the need for a separate National Population Policy. 683(1981)
27
INDIA Population Policy
9. 1991 The National Development Council appointed a Committee on Population with Shri Karunakaran as Chairman. The Karunakaran Report endorsed by NDC in 1993 proposed the formulation of a National Population Policy 846 (1991)
28
INDIA Population Policy
12. 1997 On the 50th anniversary of India's Independence, Prime Minister Gujral promised to announce a National Population Policy in the near future. During 11/ 97 Cabinet approved the draft National Population Policy with the direction that this be placed before Parliament. However, this document could not be placed in either House of Parliament as the respective Houses stood adjourned followed by dissolution of the Lok Sabha.
29
INDIA Population Policy
14. 2000 National Population Policy Formulated
30
 INDIA vs. CHINA  INDIA vs. CHINA  INDIA vs. CHINA  INDIA vs. CHINA  INDIA vs. CHINA
  1980 1990 1995 2000 (2005)
GNP per cap (US) GNP per cap (US) GNP per cap (US) GNP per cap (US) GNP per cap (US)
INDIA 270 390 380 450
China 220 320 520 840
Population Population Population Population Population
   Total India (millions) 687.3 849.5 932.2 1,015.9
China 981.2 1,135.2 1,204.9 1,262.6
Female ( of total) INDIA 48.2 48.3 48.4 48.4
China 48.5 48.4 48.5 48.4
ADULT IL-LITERACY ADULT IL-LITERACY ADULT IL-LITERACY ADULT IL-LITERACY ADULT IL-LITERACY
   Male India 45.4 38.1 34.8 31.6(29.8)
 Female 73.5 64.1 59.4 54.6(51.7)
F-M GAP 28.1 26 24.6 23(22)
   Male China 21 12.8 10.1 7.9(4.9)
 Female 45.6 31.1 26.4 22.1(13.5)
F-M GAP 24.6 18.3 16.3 14.2(8.6)
31
LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE
INDIA vs CHINA INDIA vs CHINA INDIA vs CHINA INDIA vs CHINA INDIA vs CHINA
  1980 1990 1995 2000
Total labor force INDIA(millions) 300 361 403 451
Labor force, female ( of total labor force) 34 31 32 32
Non Workers 387.3 488.5 529.2 564.9
Non Workers 56.4 57.5 56.8 55.6
Total labor force CHINA (millions) 539 672 720 757
Labor force, female ( of total labor force) 43 45 45 45
Non Workers 442.2 463.2 484.9 505.6
Non Workers 45.1 40.8 40.2 40.0
32
Massive health education campaign the messages
tend to focus on the societal dangers of
overpopulation
33
and the personal material benefits of having
only one child
34
Visionary statements were followed up by people
friendly laws, which were enforced..no Lip Service
35
Age at Marriage
  • CHINA Urban M 25,F 23
  • RURAL M23, F 21
  • INDIA U/R age M21 F 18
  • But in China it was not always this, see the TIME
    LINE

36
Age at Marriage
  • Historic Burden in China
  • Confucius (d 479BC) said to die without
    offspring is one of the 3 gravest unfilial acts
  • and Mo Ti also encouraged early marriage
  • Mao was also against Family Planning till 1973

37
TIME LINE Age at Marriage
  • The marriage law of 1950 raised the age from 18
    to 20 for males and 16 to 18 for females
  • CHINA(1973) Late marriage requirements are
    enforced M 25-28 yrs F23-25
  • Spacing rule of 4 years between first and second
    children.
  • 1981Lowered marriage age laws to 20 and 22 years
    old to placate population.

38
Notice the FLEXIBILTY
  • 1984 Law passed allowing all peasants who
    consent to a late birth of their first child and
    to an extended birth interval of eight to ten
    years to have a second child in rural areas.
  • 1986 Laxness (more 2nd child permits granted) and
    loss of control after positive results of survey
    in 1985 when goals were almost met

39
TIME LINE Age at Marriage
  • INDIA
  • Historically Child Marriages
  • 1956 Child Marriage Prohibition Act
  • fixed Urban/Rural age at
  • Males 21 Females 18
  • Since then Please all policy the same goes
    onWe dont care

40
Goals for 2010INDIA National Pop. Policy
  • Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier
    than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age
  • Address the unmet needs for basic reproductive
    and child health services, supply and
    infrastructure

41
Chinas Population Growth, A.D. 02050
42
CHINA Population Growth, Crude Birth and Death
Rates, 19491996
43
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44
Empowerment of Women
  • Empowerment comes from
  • Political Democracy
  • Economic Prosperity

China has used the ECONOMIC Route successfully
45
Empowerment of Women
  • Empowerment comes from
  • Quality of LIFE Theory

China has used the ECONOMIC Route successfully
46
S No. China India
1. What is the issue? Population Going out of Hand Needs to be regulated Population Going out of Hand Needs to be regulated
2. What is the Background ? Population gone up rapidly 1940s to 1970s Population gone up rapidly 1940s to 1970s
3. What are our Interests? That Population goes as per Carrying capacity of the Nation That Population goes as per Carrying capacity of the Nation
4. What are the interests of others? The citizens want that they lead an economically sound and happy life. The citizens want that they lead an economically sound and happy life.
47
S No. China India
5. What do we want to happen? The Population should have TFR of below 1.8, BR below 14, healthy Sex Ratio,IMR ,MMR etc The Population should have TFR of below 1.8, BR below 14, healthy Sex Ratio, IMR ,MMR etc When?
48
S No. China India
6. What can we do? Make Communes/cadres responsible for family size strong fiscal incentives/penalties. Use Force ,including threat to imprison, take away 2nd child, job etc if gt1 child in Urban areas. Make people responsible for their family size as per the resources available Make next generation better off than they themselves. Follow up with strong financial disincentives in case of irresponsible behaviour. Monitor strongly Effective IEC
49
S No. China India
7. What should we do? Emphasise on Education Health, Reproductive and Child, employment of women, Functional Literacy, better Child day-care facilities. Also financial dis-incventives to the family which does not keep its word Emphasise on Education Health, Reproductive and Child, employment of women, Functional Literacy, better Child day-care facilities. We should have incentives for small family and financial dis-incventives to the family which does not keep its word .
50
S No. China India
8. Who should so what? Clearly defined role of different departments/organizations/individuals. Regular and tight monitoring to get the desired results 8.Clearly defined role of different departments/organizations/individuals/NGOs/Civil society/religious leaders. Regular and tight monitoring to get the desired results. Involve the Education, Family Welfare, Health, Rural Development, Urban Planning ..Deptt. Integrated Mission Mode approach needed.
51
Real Dating vs Smokey Dating
CHANGE or PERISH..
52
12th Symposium on Development and Social
Transformation
Panel 6 Policy Initiatives in China
Mobile Number Portability in Hong Kong P.
Sudhakara Rao
53
What is MNP?
  • Mobile Number portability allows the Mobile
    Subscribers to retain their existing number when
    they change the subscription from one service
    provider to another.
  • It removes the major obstacle of freedom of
    choice of the customer and promotes the fair and
    efficient competition in the cellular industry.

54
Benefits of MNP
  • Type 1 benefits - Benefits accrue to subscribers
    who retain their telephone numbers
  • Type 2 benefits - Benefits that arise out of
    competition between the operators
  • Type 3 benefits - Cost savings to callers to
    porting users

55
Study of Mobile Number Portability
  • Feasibility Study and cost-benefit analysis of
    MNP for Mobile services in Hong Kong by
    consultant.
  • Results of cost-benefit analysis-
  • Introduction of MNP would promote fair
    competition and create net benefits of HK 461
    million in net present value over 10 years.

56
Implementation of MNP in Hong Kong
  • Based on Consultants findings and cost-benefit
    analysis
  • Through extensive consultation/discussion with
    Industry
  • Direct Implementation of Distributed Database
    solution with FNO providing look up service on
    1st March 1999
  • Set up of Implementation Task Force (ITF) of MNP
    to work on detailed technical specifications and
    Implementation schedule

57
Implementation of MNP in Hong Kong
  • Technical considerations-
  • Originating Network operator perform number
    translation or Dipping
  • FNO provide look up service for MNO or MNO self
    build GN database

58
Implementation of MNP in Hong Kong
  • Cost recovery principles-
  • FNO recovers the system set up costs, on going
    costs and per set up cost from MNO
  • Charges among MNO waived

59
Implementation of MNP in Hong Kong
  • Charging principles and arrangement-
  • DNO not allowed to charge porting customer
  • Database interrogation charge of FTNS
    regulated by OFTA
  • Per subscriber set up charge regulated by OFTA

60
Outcomes
  • Implemented successfully with in a time frame of
    8.5 months
  • Huge demand for MNP from customers
  • Improved service quality and reduced tariff due
    to heightened competition
  • Mobile subscriber base exceeded 8 million
    representing 117 penetration of the population
  • No operator has yet dominate the market due to
    high subscriber churn facilitated by the MNP

61
Key Learning for India
  • Experience of Hong Kong is very much useful
  • Conducting feasibility study and cost- benefit
    analysis
  • Involving Industry in finalizing the technical
    and functional standards
  • Set up of Implementation Task Force
  • Go for long term solution with out going for
    migration through short term solution

62
Key Learning for India
  • EXCEPTIONS
  • No prior experience of Number portability in
    Fixed Telecom services
  • Instead of Distributed Database model,
    centralized database service is ideal for Indian
    context

63

12th Symposium on Development and Social
Transformation
Panel 6 Policy Initiatives in China Thursday,
November 17 (900- 1000)
Anindita Sen Gupta Universal Service Obligation China
Sunil Kumar Gulati Population Policy in China
P. Sudhakara Rao Mobile Number Portability in Hong Kong

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