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General Properties of Fungi Sevtap Arikan, MD

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Title: General Properties of Fungi Sevtap Arikan, MD


1
General Properties of Fungi Sevtap Arikan,
MD
2
FUNGUS
  • Widely distributed in nature (air, water, soil,
    decaying organic debris)
  • 400,000 types
  • Eukaryotic, highly developed cellular structure
  • Facultatively anaerobic/strict aerobic
  • Chemotropic, nutrition by absorption
  • Nonphotosynthetic

3
Terminology
  • Mykos Fungus
  • Mycoses A disease caused by
  • a fungus
  • Mycology Study of fungi

4
Major Developments in Mycology
  • Increase in number of immunocompromised patients
  • Newly developed antifungal drugs
  • Antifungal susceptibility testing
  • Resistance to antifungal drugs

5
Fungi- Morphological Classification
  • Yeast
  • Mould
  • Dimorphic

6
YEAST
  • Unicellular
  • Micr. Oval to round (Dia 3-15 µm) Reproduce
    by budding BudBlastospore
  • Pseudohyphae
  • Macr. Pasty colonies (resemble bacteria)

7
MOULD
  • Multicellular
  • Micr. Hypha(e) (dia 2-10 µm)
  • Spores
  • Macr. Surface texture Cottony/ wooly/
    velvety/ granular...
  • Pigmentation observed from the reverse

8
Mould-Definitions
  • Hypha
  • Mycelium a. Vegetative
  • b. Aerial

9
Classification of Hyphae
  • BASED ON
  • A. Existence of septa
  • Septate
  • Nonseptate
  • B. Shape and Morphology
  • Racquet Spiral
  • Nodular Root-like (rhizoid)
  • Pectinate Chandler

10
DIMORPHIC
  • Capable of growing in mould or yeast form under
    different environmental conditions (temperature,
    CO2, nutrients)
  • Thermal dimorphism (a group of pathogenic fungi)

11
Subcellular Structure of Fungi
  • Capsule (present only in some fungi)
  • Cell wall
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus, nuclear membrane, nucleolus, ER,
    mitochondria, vacuoles

12
CAPSULE
  • Structure Polysaccharide
  • Functions -Antiphagocytic -Virulence factor
  • Exist only in some fungi
  • Cryptococcus neoformans (encapsulated yeast)

13
CELL WALL
  • Antigenic in nature
  • Structure Multilayered
  • a. polysaccharides (90) hexose and hexosamine
    polymers
  • b. proteins and glycoproteins (10)
  • Functions
  • Provides shape, rigidity, strength and
    protection from osmotic shock

14
Major polysaccharides of fungal cell wall
  • POLYMER MONOMER
  • Chitin N-acetyl glucosamine
  • Chitosan D-Glucosamine
  • Cellulose D-Glucose
  • ?-Glucan D-Glucose
  • ?-Glucan D-Glucose
  • Mannan D-Mannose
  • The type and amount of the polysaccharide vary
    from one fungal species to other.

15
CELLULAR MEMBRANE
  • Structure Bilayered
  • Phospholipids
  • Sterols (ergosterol, zymosterol)
  • Functions
  • a. Protects cytoplasm
  • b. regulates the intake and secretion of solutes
  • c. facilitates capsule and cell wall synthesis

16
FUNGAL SPORES
  • Spores function in reproduction of fungi.
  • 1. Sexual reproduction --Sexual spores
  • 2. Asexual reproduction--Asexual spores
  • 3. Parasexual reproduction--Genetic exchange

17
SEXUAL SPORES
  • 1. Zygospore
  • 2. Ascospore
  • 3. Basidiospore
  • 4. Oospore

18
ASEXUAL SPORES
  • 1. Arthrospore
  • 2. Blastospore
  • 3. Chlamydospore
  • 4. Macroconidium
  • 5. Microconidium
  • 6. Sporangiospore

19
Fungi-Taxonomic classification
  • Depends primarily on the type of sexual spore
  • Phylum -mycota
  • Class -mycetes
  • Order -ales
  • Family -ceae
  • Genus
  • Species

20
Fungi-Taxonomic classification
  • SEXUAL SPORE CLASS
  • Zygospore----------Zygomycetes
  • Basidiospore--------Basidiomycetes
  • Ascospore----------Ascomycetes
  • None/Unknown---- Deuteromycetes
  • (Fungi Imperfecti)

21
MYCOSES
  • Superficial (Hair, skin, nail, cornea)
  • Subcutaneous
  • True systemic (endemic)
  • Opportunistic

22
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF MYCOSES
  • Direct microscopic examination
  • Gram, potassium hydroxide (KOH), calcofluor
    white, India ink
  • Culture
  • Sabouraud dextrose agar
  • Mycobiotic agar
  • Serology
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