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Ontology: An Introduction for Engineers

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Title: National Center for Ontological Research Author: SG Last modified by: phismith Created Date: 10/25/2005 10:56:08 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ontology: An Introduction for Engineers


1
Ontology An Introduction for Engineers
  • Barry Smith
  • October 3, 2014

2
Part One Introduction Part Two An Oil and Gas
Industry Case Study Part Three How to Do It
Right Part Four Massively Planned Social
Agency Part Five Towards the Buildings Genome
Project

3
Ontology (Philosophy)
The theory of being as being
  • Ontology a synonym for Metaphysics

4
  • Ontology (Engineering)
  • Ontologies are standardized classification
    systems which enable data from different sources
    to be combined

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National Center for Biomedical Ontology
  • 35.8 mill. NIH Roadmap Center
  • founded 2005
  • Stanford Medical Informatics
  • The Mayo Clinic
  • University at Buffalo Department of Philosophy

8
national center for ontological research
founded October 2005
9
NCOR
  • established to
  • advance ontology standards and principles
  • advance ontology education
  • develop measures of quality for ontologies and to
    establish best practices
  • http//ncor.us
  • Main activities
  • initiated Ontology for the Intelligence Community
    (OIC) series http//ncor.us/OICseries
  • ontology contributions to Army Net-Centric Data
    Strategy

10
Examples of Ontology Projects funded by National
Institutes of Health
  • NIH / NHGRI GO Gene Ontology
  • NIH / NIGMS PRO Protein Ontology
  • NIH / NIAID IDO Infectious Disease Ontology
  • NIH / NIAID Major Histocompatilibity Complex
    (MHC) Ontology
  • NIH / NHGRI SO Sequence Ontology
  • NIH / NLM FMA Foundational Model of Anatomy
  • NIH / NHGRI CL Cell Ontology

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How Siri Works Interview with Tom Gruber, CTO
of SIRI January 26th, 2010
  • Nova Spivack Siri seems smart, at least about
    the kinds of tasks it was designed for. How is
    the knowledge represented in Siri is it an
    ontology or something else?
  • Tom Gruber Siris knowledge is represented in a
    unified modeling system that combines ontologies,
    inference networks, pattern matching agents,
    dictionaries, and dialog models. Siri can look
    at what it knows and think about similarities and
    generalizations at a semantic level.

14
Part Two Oil and Gas Industry Case Study
15
Ontology (Engineering) often marked by
intellectual confusions, which lead to
failures Gruber For AI systems what exists
is what can be represented Microsoft
Healthvault An allergy episode is a single
unit of data that is recorded in Microsoft
Healthvault
16
An Ontological Core for Conformance Checking in
the Engineering Lifecycle FOIS 2014
  • Andreas Jordan, Matt Selway, Georg Grossmann,
    Wolfgang Mayer, Markus Stumptner
  • University of South Australia
  • Advanced Computing Research Centre
  • Adelaide, South Australia

17
Industrial plants
18
Engineering Lifecycle
  • Plant or Component

19
Engineering Conformance Checks
  • Want to validate concrete systems
  • Components
  • Composed subsystems
  • Plant
  • Operational behavior monitored over time
  • To do this requires passing data between the
    software systems in different stages of the
    lifecycle

20
Data Exchange in a Production Enterprise
  • System Stability And Reliability Issues
  • No Single Version Of The Truth
  • System Maintenance Issues
  • Difficult Access To Multiple Systems/Applications
  • (courtesy of Emerson Process Management)

21
Prioritized Oil Gas Use Cases
1 Information Handover from EPC to O/O
2 Recurring Engineering Updates to OM
3 Field Changes to Plant/Facility Engineering
4 Online Product Data Library
5 Asset Configuration Updates
6 Preventive Maintenance Triggering
7 Condition-Based Maintenance Triggering
8 Early Warning Notifications
9 Incident Management/Accountability
10 Information Provisioning of OM Systems
22
ISO 15926 Design Information
23
Practical aspects
  • After a decade, not all of the Data Model is
    used (about 45)
  • Concrete implementations institute auxiliary
    concepts to sideslip 4D nature
  • Explicit entry of classification relationships
    means that these become prescriptive
  • If a pump deteriorates in use and moves outside
    its design parameters, the model becomes
    inconsistent

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ISO 15926 Part 2
  •  
  • Data Model a generic 4D model that can support
    all disciplines, supply chain company types and
    life cycle stages, regarding information about
    functional requirements, physical solutions,
    types of objects and individual objects as well
    as activities

26
How Not to Build Useful Ontologies
  • ISO/FDIS 15926-2
  • Lifecycle integration of process plant data
    including oil and gas production facilities

Matthew West (Shell, Retd.)
27
Heh ! Lets reinvent the wheel
28
2006 NIST Upper Ontology Summit
  • March 14-15, 2006,Gaithersburg, MD
  • ISO 15926 proposed for general use as an upper
    level ontology for integrating diverse
    information systems and integrating and
    analyzing mid-level ontologies without
    restriction.
  • Matthew West, ISO 15926 Integration of
    Lifecycle Data http//ontolog.cim3.net/file/work
    /UpperOntologySummit/UO-Summit-Meeting_20050315/UO
    S--west_ 20060315.ppt

29
General Defects in Ontology Documentation
  • many ontology authors do not take account of the
    fact that expressions such as data, instance,
    entity, object, represent, model etc.,
    are used in different ways by different
    (database, programmer, general user) communities.
  • How to avoid creating puddings out of such
    abstract nouns?

30
The importance of consensus-based uptake
  • An ontology is like a telephone network it is
    designed to support exchange of information.
  • Its value depends on the number of users who
    agree to adopt and to help maintain this common
    network
  • Thus it depends also on the existence of a
    straightforward learning path for new users, and
    of clear and easily accessible documentation.

31
The importance of consensus-based uptake
  • is even greater in the case of an upper level
    ontology
  • which is designed to support exchange of
    information about all subjects

32
First Great Mystery
  • Of the 201 terms included in the ISO 15926
    upper-level ontology, 88 are of the form class
    of X, for example
  • class_of_composite_material class_of_compound cla
    ss_of_dimension_for_shape class_of_feature class_
    of_feature_whole_part class_of_functional_object c
    lass_of_inanimate_physical_object class_of_indirec
    t_connection

33
Definition of class
  • A ltclassgt is a ltthinggt that is an understanding
    of the nature of things and that divides things
    into those which are members of the class and
    those which are not according to one or more
    criteria.
  • Example Centrifugal pump is a ltclassgt.

34
class_of_ relationship_with_related_end_1
  • DEFINITION a ltclass_of_ relationshipgt where a
    particular ltthinggt is related in the
    ltclass_of_relationshipgt, rather than the members
    of a ltclassgt. The related ltthinggt plays the
    ltrole_ and_domaingt indicated by the
    class_of_end_1 attribute.

35
class_of_cause_of_beginning_of_class_of_individua
l
  • DEFINITION A ltclass_of_relationshipgt that
    indicates that a member of a ltclass_of_activitygt
    causes the beginning of a member of a
    ltclass_of_individualgt.
  • How does a class indicate?

36
class_of_cause_of_beginning_of_class_of_individua
l
  • DEFINITION a ltclass_of_relationshipgt that
    indicates that a member of a ltclass_of_activitygt
    causes the beginning of a member of a
    ltclass_of_individualgt.
  • The term class_of_cause_of_beginning_of_class_of_
    individua indicates that we are to focus on the
    causes of beginnings of classes.
  • The definition seems to be about the causes of
    the beginnings of individuals
  • But ISO 15926 elsewhere tells us that classes do
    not have beginnings,

37
ltclass_of_class_of_compositiongt
  • DEFINITION a ltclass_of_class_of_ relationshipgt
    whose members are instances of ltclass_of_compositi
    ongt. It indicates that a member of a member of
    the class_of_class_of_part is a part of a member
    of an instance of the class_of_class_of_whole,
  • EXAMPLE Toxicity description is a
    class_of_class_of_part of a material data sheet,
    where the description has carcinogenic
    components is a class_of_part on the Mogas
    Material Safety Data Sheet, and copy 5 of the
    Mogas Material Safety Data Sheet has has
    carcinogenic components as a part.

38
Believe me, this is not the best way to deal with
part-whole relations in an ontology
39
Anatomical Space
Anatomical Structure
Organ Cavity Subdivision
Organ Cavity
Organ
Serous Sac
Organ Component
Serous Sac Cavity
Tissue
Serous Sac Cavity Subdivision
is_a
Pleural Sac
Pleura(Wall of Sac)
Pleural Cavity
part_of
Parietal Pleura
Visceral Pleura
Interlobar recess
Mediastinal Pleura
Mesothelium of Pleura
40
Det Norske Veritas
  • http//projects.dnv.com/reference_data/RD7Browser/
  • Norwegian Truth

41
What the oil and gas industry tells me
  • The upper ontology of ISO 15926 is hardly used
  • The lower branches of ISO 15926 are useful as a
    controlled vocabulary (because what came before
    was so bad) these lower levels deal with pump,
    flange, valve,

42
Part Three How to Do It Right
  • Basic Formal Ontology (upper level architecture
  • Domain Ontologies built downwards by SMEs
    collaborating to create stable reference modules

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OBO Foundry approach extended into other domains
NIF Standard Neuroscience Information Framework
IDO Consortium Infectious Disease Ontology
cROP Common Reference Ontologies for Plants
MilPortal.org Military Ontology
AIRS Ontology Suite Intelligence Ontology Suite
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Planned
  • Finance Ontology Suite (FIBO)
  • Institutions and Organizations Ontology Suite
  • Document and Document Control Ontology Suite
  • Planning Ontology Suite (AFRL)

47
Massively Planned Social Agency
  • Part Four

48
Center of Excellence in Environmental and Energy
Systems
  • Intelligent buildings
  • Weather, Climate
  • Energy, sustainability
  • Sensor data
  • Heating and cooling, combustion
  • Materials
  • Pollutants, toxins

49
The meshing of actions of large numbers of people
in
  • is made possible by an intermeshing of documents

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Orchestal score with staves
53
Hector Berlioz, Le corsaire, Overture, H 101 
54
The actions of the players in an orchestral
performance
  • are intermeshed through the sets of intermeshed
    documents we call orchestral scores
  • scores are sets of instructions for playing
  • scores generate intermeshed obligations to play
    in a certain way

55
Scores bring it about that specific obligation
series are distributed across large groups
56
scores and subscores plans and subplans which
also allow training (rehearsal)
57
Modularity of Orchestral Score  
58
Laws allow intermeshing too
  • systems of intermeshed obligations
  • systems of intermeshed plans
  • systems of intermeshed instructions
  • system of intermeshed authorities
  • which in turn allow
  • conception of ever more complex intermeshed plans
    through reliance on shared commitments and on
    development of intermeshed expertise
  • excution of these plans through shared agency
  • investment in human and physical capital

59
Directions of fit
  • world-to-document a plan is formulated to change
    the world (to make it conform to the mind of the
    planner )
  • document-to-world an assertion is about
    something in the world
  • automatic mind-to-world-and-world-to-mind I say
    I promise to pay you 100 dollars and thereby
    make it true that I promise to pay you 100
    dollars

60
what begins as a plan, ends as a record what
makes the record true is the journey you
took
61
Part Five
  • The Buildings Genome Project

62
Blueprint
  • what begins as a plan
  • ends as a record
  • of process
  • of product

63
Blueprint associated with multiple series of
documents with deontic powers
  • chain of commitments
  • from order
  • to blueprint creation
  • to acceptance of blueprint
  • to process of building in accordance with
    blueprint
  • to acceptance of finished building

64
Plans will be modified along the way
  • physical changes to the building to meet building
    codes
  • changes in materials/suppliers
  • changes in allowed physical processes
  • changes in administrative (approval) processes
  • bills and receipts for fees paid for approvals
    and certificates

65
Documents with different directions of fit become
intermeshed through being stapled together over
time
66
How create intelligent urban planning
67
  • Robert Moses Richmond Parkway Interchange,
    Staten Island

68
Urban Planning
Police, Public Safety
Local Government
Sanitation, Sewers, Cemeteries
Entertainment
Garbage Removal
Housing, Building Codes, Zoning
Employment
Parks, Zoos
Light, Fresh Air
Primary and Secondary Education
Public Health
Doctors, Hospitals
Streets and Roads, Public Transport
Regional and National Planning
Military
Agriculture
Regional and National Government
Housing Supply
Food Supply
Water Supply
Trade, Commerce
Tertiary Education
Scientific Research
Major Arteries, Airports
Tourism
Environmental Protection
69
Plans have document-to-world directions of fit
  • Plans, here, must be mediated by
    documented-guided actions of persons and groups
    with authority
  • But what are the juridictions here?

70
Urban Planning
Police, Public Safety
Local Government
Sanitation, Sewers, Cemeteries
Entertainment
Garbage Removal
Housing, Building Codes, Zoning
Employment
Parks, Zoos
Light, Fresh Air
Primary and Secondary Education
Public Health
Doctors, Hospitals
Streets and Roads, Public Transport
Regional and National Planning
Military
Agriculture
Regional and National Government
Housing Supply
Food Supply
Water Supply
Trade, Commerce
Tertiary Education
Scientific Research
Major Arteries, Airports
Tourism
Environmental Protection
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Center of Excellence in Environmental and Energy
Systems
  • Intelligent buildings
  • Weather, Climate
  • Heating and cooling, combustion
  • Materials
  • Pollutants, toxins

73
Industrial Foundations Classes
  • IfcRelationshipedit
  • IfcRelationship captures relationships among
    objects. There are five fundamental relationship
    types composition, assignment, connectivity,
    association, and definition.
  • IfcRelDecomposes captures a whole-part
    relationship having exclusive containment such as
    subdividing a building into floors and rooms or a
    wall into studs and sheathing.

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importing BFO
77
http//x.co/5Gwqf
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http//x.co/5GwuR
80
Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and
Thermochemistry
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Johns temperature June 4, 1952
an information content entity
  • Parts of the graph
  • a label indicating the target of measurement,
    here Ringo
  • a label indicating the quality that is being
    measured, here temperature
  • a time axis with associated actual time values
    and a measurement unit
  • a second, orthogonal axis with associated
    measurement values, here degrees Celsius
  • a set of graph entries (points on the graph)
  • a rectangular graph background (the
    two-dimensional shaded area demarcated by the two
    axes)
  • a continuous line connecting the graph entries,
    which we refer to as the graph line
  • rest smoothing, error, slope, area under curve
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