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Unit One: Computing Fundamentals

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A computer is an electronic device that receives data (input), processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output). It performs only three operations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit One: Computing Fundamentals


1
Unit One Computing Fundamentals
2
So what is a computer, really?
  • A computer is an electronic device that receives
    data (input), processes data, stores data, and
    produces a result (output).
  • It performs only three operations
  • Arithmetic operations (adding, subtracting,
    dividing, and multiplying.)
  • Logical comparison values (equal to, greater
    than)
  • Storage and retrieval operations
  • Big deal..? Why and how do you use computers and
    which kinds do you use?

3
Types of Devices
  • Digital versus Analog
  • A digital device uses discrete data.
  • Discrete data is distinct or separate.
  • Ex Numbers or digits.
  • Most computers today are digital. Their circuits
    have only two possible states, such as Off and
    On or 0 and 1.

4
Types of Devices
  • Digital versus Analog
  • An analog device operates on continuously varying
    data.
  • Continuously varying data has an infinite number
    of possible states.

5
Types of Devices
  • Digital versus Analog
  • A digital thermometer will give a specific
    numerical reading when used to measure someones
    body temperature.
  • An old fashioned mercury thermometers reading of
    someones body temperature could be interpreted
    differently by different users.

6
Types of Computers
Type Size Power Purpose
Supercomputers Largest Fastest processing speeds compared to other computers Cost can be several million dollars For corporations with lots of data to be processed
Mainframe computers Large Less powerful than supercomputers but large compared to personal computers Can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars Performs centralized processing tasks for many users
Minicomputers Larger than microcomputers but smaller than mainframe computers Same as microcomputers Used for companies with many users and large amounts of data and can run on any computer hardware
Microcomputers and notebook computers Fits on a desktop Not meant for large amount of data Writing papers, tracking finances, playing games, connecting to the Internet.
PDAs, Cell phones, calculators, interactive books, digital cameras, game systems are accepted as they make everyday tasks easier to accomplish. PDAs, Cell phones, calculators, interactive books, digital cameras, game systems are accepted as they make everyday tasks easier to accomplish. PDAs, Cell phones, calculators, interactive books, digital cameras, game systems are accepted as they make everyday tasks easier to accomplish. PDAs, Cell phones, calculators, interactive books, digital cameras, game systems are accepted as they make everyday tasks easier to accomplish.
7
Role of the CPU
  • Role The CPU also called microprocessor, or
    brain of the computer, contains millions of
    switches and pathways to help the computer make
    decisions. The switches control the flow of
    electricity as it travels across the pathways.
    Computer programs are special instructions
    written to tell the computer which switches to
    turn on or off.
  • Speed deciding factor on which computer to
    purchase. The system clock is an electronic
    pulse used to synchronize the processing and
    determines the speed of the processor, measured
    in megahertz. The higher MHz the faster the
    computer.

8
Binary number system
  • Computers only understand machine language, or
    binary, which is ones and zeros.
  • Through the pathways and by turning switches on
    and off the CPU processes ones and zeros
  • When electricity is present it represents a one.
    The absence of electricity represents a zero.
  • Coding Systems such as American Standard Code for
    Information Interchange (ASCII) determines which
    combination of zeros and ones represents the
    letter A or the number 1.
  • Each one or zero is a bit, and eight bits or
    combinations of ones and zeros represents a byte.

9
Memory and storage
  • RAM (random access memory) often referred to as
    main memory is the data, information, and program
    instructions temporarily stored on a RAM chip.
    If there is a power loss this is the information
    lost. The amount of Ram can help increase how
    fast the computer processes data.
  • ROM (read only memory) stores specific
    instructions needed for computer operations. The
    computer can read from a ROM chip but cannon
    write or store data on this chip.

10
Memory and storage
  • Secondary storage devices are used when you want
    to store a file or information permanently
  • Computers hard disk drive
  • Floppy disk
  • CD-RW/DVD-RW/BD Rewriter
  • Thumb drive

11
Networking
  • A network connects one computer to other
    computers and peripheral devices
  • Allows computers to share
  • Data special group projects, databases, etc.
  • Hardware printers or scanners
  • Software instead of purchasing programs for
    each individual computer, a site license can be
    purchased for the number of users and it is less
    expensive
  • Files collaborative, allows users to work
    together

12
Network systems
13
Networks
  • A server is a computer connected to a network
    that distributes and stores resources for other
    network users.
  • With proper licensing, many network users can use
    the same applications and data files
    simultaneously and share other resources, such as
    storage space or a printer.

14
Networks
  • Local Area Network (LAN) a network located in
    a limited area.
  • LANs are found in most businesses.
  • Many campuses use LANs.
  • A network interface card (NIC) a key hardware
    component.
  • Connects a workstation to the network.
  • A circuit board that sends data between the
    workstation and the network.

15
Networks
  • Wide Area Network (WAN) a network that covers
    a large geographical area. TENET is a classic
    example.
  • All types of networks require special networking
    hardware and networking software to allow
    different computers to communicate with each
    other.

16
Networks
  • The Internet - largest of all networks.
  • Communication standards called protocols allow
    for global exchange of information.
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Intranets are LANs or WANs that use these
    communication standards or TCP/IP.
  • Special hardware (modem) and software (browser)
    are required.

17
Options and Tradeoffs
  • Speed versus Cost
  • How fast are you able to access and save data on
    the hard drive?
  • How fast will application software open?
  • How quickly will software respond to commands?
  • How quickly will your printer produce a document?

18
Options and Tradeoffs
  • Capacity versus Cost
  • How many applications can you store on a hard
    disk drive?
  • How much data can you store on a secondary
    storage device?
  • How many applications can be opened
    simultaneously?
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