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Lymphatic and Immune System

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Title: Lymphatic and Immune System


1
Lymphatic and Immune System
  • Natalie Sanchez, Elizabeth Garcia, Briana Pelayo

2
About the Lymphatic System
  • The lymphatic system is a component of the immune
    system and the cardiovascular system
  • Structures of the lymphatic system extend
    throughout the whole body but exceptions include
    the central nervous system
  • Some major structures in the lymphatic system are
    the lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels,
    lymphatic trunks and ducts, lymph nodes, thymus,
    spleen, and tonsils.

3
Lymphatic System
4
Functions of the Lymphatic System
  • Main functions of the lymphatic system is
  • Drainage of fluid, that surrounds tissues and
    organs and returns it to blood
  • The lymphatic system also helps with the
    development of immune cells so it helps the body
    attack pathogens and protects from diseases
  • Excessive amounts of fatty acids and fat
    molecules in the circulatory system is absorbed
    by lymphatic system accumulated in the form of
    chyle (happens in the small intestine)

5
Lymphatic Capillaries
  • Location
  • Parallel to networks of blood capillaries
  • Also found in the small intestine
  • Function
  • Drainage of any lymph that has not been absorbed
  • into bloodstream
  • Special lymphatic capillaries
  • in the small intestine
  • absorbs fats and transports them to the venous
    circulation

6
Lymphatic Vessels
  • Location
  • Located all over body exceptions are central
    nervous system, bone marrow, teeth, and avascular
    tissue
  • 3 Layers
  • endothelial lining
  • smooth muscle and elastic fiber
  • connective tissue
  • Function
  • helps prevent the backflow of lymph

7
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8
Lymphatic Trunks
  • Location
  • located all over the body
  • Function
  • Trunks drain into ducts which bring lymph back
    into
  • blood by emptying into the respected veins
  • About
  • Lymphatic trunks named after regions
  • where they get lymph from
  • Major Lymphatic Trunks
  • lumbar
  • bronchomediastinal
  • subclavian
  • jugular
  • intestinal

9
Lymphatic Ducts
  • About
  • Two ducts
  • Right lymphatic duct
  • Thoracic duct
  • The intestinal and lumbar trunks merge to the
    thoracic duct
  • Lymph empties into venous circulation at
    junctions of jugular vein and subclavian vein

10
Lymph Nodes
  • Overall Function
  • functions differ by where they are located
  • filters harmful particles before lymph reaches
    the bloodstream
  • Location
  • along large lymphatic vessels, major lymph nodes
    are
  • cervical region which is located in the deep
    neck
  • axillary region located in underarm receives
    lymph from upper limbs
  • supratrochlear region located on the side of the
    elbow
  • inguinal region located in the lower limbs
  • pelvic cavity located within the pelvic cavity
    lymph from pelvic viscera
  • abdominal cavity located within abdominal
    cavity lymph from abdominal viscera
  • thoracic cavity located along the trachea and
    bronchi lymph from thoracic viscera

11
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12
Thymus
  • Location
  • upper part of the sternum
  • Function
  • maturation of T lymphocytes

13
Spleen
  • Location
  • left portion of abdominal cavity
  • 3 Functions
  • stores products of RBC degradation
  • Erythrocyte production in fetus
  • Stores thrombocytes
  • About
  • largest organ in the lymphatic system
  • Structure includes
  • fibrous capsule
  • trabeculae
  • Red pulp
  • white pulp

14
Tonsils
  • Location
  • Found in the pharynx
  • Function
  • Helps fight infections but if you have them
  • removed it will not cause infections.

15
Tissue Fluid Formation
  • Interstitial fluid
  • filtration from the plasma leads to the formation
    which increases the hydrostatic pressure
  • capillary blood pressure purifies water and other
    molecules from plasma
  • plasma colloid osmotic pressure helps draw fluid
    back into the capillaries
  • fluid returns to its venules
  • the rest enter the lymph capillaries as lymph
  • fluid contains nutrients, gases, hormones

16
Lymph Formation Function
  • formed from the movement of tissue fluid
  • clear, colorless fluid
  • contains white blood cells
  • returns proteins from excess fluid to the
    bloodstream
  • transports bacteria and fats

17
Lymph Flow
  • only flows in one direction slowly toward the
    neck within the lymphatic system
  • flows into the venous bloodstream
  • enters lymphatic system through the lymphatic
    capillaries
  • flaplike valves created
  • tissue fluid enters capillaries through the
    valves
  • valves prevent it from flowing backwards
  • through lymph vessels to lymph nodes
  • through the subclavian veins where it empties
  • flow because of
  • contracting skeletal muscles in limbs
  • contraction of smooth muscles
  • pressure changes in breathing

18
lymphatic capillary
lymphatic vessel
lymph node
lymphatic vessel
lymphatic trunk
lymph ducts
subclavian vein
  • Lymph Flow

19
Lymph Flow (cont.)
20
Non-Specific Cells
  • Mechanical Barriers
  • Skin (first line of defense)
  • epidermis is compacted with cells containing
    keratin
  • protects against infection and water
  • not penetrated by pathogens
  • Mucous membranes
  • tears(lacrimal apparatus) wash out eye to dilute
    microbial growth
  • saliva dilutes microbes in the oral cavity
  • mucous prevents drying, trapping foreign items
  • nasal hairs trap particles in the respiratory
    tract, fluids exert out
  • respiratory cilia sweeps mucous out

21
Non-Specific Cells
  • Chemical Protection - reduce bacterial growth
  • Skin
  • perspiration has fatty acids, salts (NaCl), and
    acid pH
  • sebum forms oily layer
  • Lysozyme
  • enzyme breaks down bacterial cell walls
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • gel like matrix in most connective tissues
  • slows down speed of infectious diseases
  • Gastric Juice
  • hydrochloric acid of stomach is a barrier to the
    intestine

22
Non-Specific Cells
  • Vaginal Secretions
  • lactic acid provides defense
  • mildly acidic pH value
  • Phagocytes (second line of defense)
  • Macrophages
  • wander through tissues of microbes and cellular
    debris
  • Neutrophils
  • become phagocytic when encountering infectious
    disease
  • Eosinophils
  • deploy destructive granules against parasitic
    worms

23
Non-Specific Cells
  • Natural Killer Cells
  • small population of lymphocytes
  • defend against various viruses and cancer cells
  • secretes cell-cutting substances called
    perforins
  • perforins lyse cell membrane, destroying infected
    cell
  • secrete chemicals that enhance inflammation

24
Inflammation
  • bodys defense against foreign items
  • can be caused by antibodies attacking normal
    tissues that are mistaken for antigens
  • immune substances build up in the tissues
  • result is inflammation of the skin, injury to the
    tissues and pain

25
Allergies
  • result from hypersensitivity to weak antigens
  • allergens include dust, pollen, mold, etc
  • mast cells can release histamine causing the
    inflammation process
  • histamine release can cause anaphylaxis

26
Specific Cells
  • Antigens
  • may be proteins, polysaccharides, glycoproteins,
    or glycolipids
  • Lymphocytes
  • creates antibodies to fight against bacteria
  • a. T Cells
  • - T refers to thymus- derived lymphocytes
  • - some are abundant in the lymph nodes, thoracic
    duct
  • - secrete cytokines
  • - constitute 70-80 of circulating lymphocytes in
    blood

27
Specific Cells (cont.)
  • Helper T Cells
  • stimulates B cell to create antibodies
  • CD4- type of helper t cell that is the prime
    target of HIV
  • releases cytotoxic t cells
  • 2. Cytotoxic T Cells
  • kills cancer cells and infected cells
  • becomes activated when it combines with an
    antigen that fits its receptors

28
Specific Cells (cont.)
  • 3. Memory T Cells
  • kills pathogen before it causes the body to show
    signs and symptoms
  • can reproduce a faster and stronger immune
    response
  • B Cells
  • constitute 20-30 of circulating lymphocytes
  • B cell receptor allows it to bind to a specific
    antigen
  • Monocytes
  • helps break down bacteria
  • largest leukocytes
  • change into macrophages

29
Cardiovascular vs. Lymphatic System
  • collects and removes waste left behindin tissues
  • flows through an open circuit from tissues into
    lymphatic vessels
  • does not pump. flows passively to lymph
    capillaries
  • invisible, damage is hard to detect until swelling
  • - collecting and distributing oxygen, nutrients,
    and hormones to tissues
  • - blood flows through a continuous circuit
  • - blood is pumped through the arteries and
    carried to rest of the body
  • - blood is visible, damage to vessels is obvious
    due to bruising and bleeding
  • Similarities
  • both circulate fluids
  • work to keep the body systems healthy and
    supplied with nutrients
  • provide immune function
  • lymphatic system is a well known part of the
    cardiovascular system

30
Works Cited
  • Bailey, Regina. "Lymphatic System." N.p., n.d.
    Web. 15 Mar. 2015.
  • "Lymph Trunks and Ducts." Boundless. N.p., n.d.
    Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
  • "Lymphatic System Anatomy ." Lymphatic System
    Anatomy. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
  • "LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY." Lymph and
    Immunity. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
  • "The Lymphatic System and Immunity." The
    Lymphatic System and Immunity. N.p., n.d. Web. 16
    Mar. 2015.
  • "The Lymphatic System." The Lymphatic System.
    N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.
  • "Nonspecific Mechanisms of Defense." Nonspecific
    Mechanisms of Defense. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar.
    2015.
  • Shier, David, Jackie Butler, and Ricki Lewis.
    Hole's Human Anatomy Physiology. Boston, MA
    McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2004. Print.
  • Zimmermann, By Kim Ann. "Lymphatic System Facts,
    Functions Diseases." LiveScience. TechMedia
    Network, 08 Feb. 2013. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.
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