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FUEL CELLS!!!!!!

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Uses of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... by a 200 kw ONSI unit since 1997 http://fuelcells.si.edu/phos/pafcmain.htm#apps Technology http://voltaicpower.com/FuelCell ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FUEL CELLS!!!!!!


1
FUEL CELLS
2
Alkaline Fuel Cell(AFC)
First AFC, was a made for a bike by Union
Carbide's Karl Kordesch.
NASA building AFC for space.
http//fuelcells.si.edu/alk/alkmain.htm
3
How does it work?
  • The electrolyte is potassium hydroxide
  •         electrolyte flows through the centre of
    the fuel cell plates with porous membranes
    between the electrolyte and the hydrogen (anode)
    and oxygen (cathode) gas supplies.
  • membranes contain the catalysts (platinum
    silver)
  • Produces Water and some Carbon Dioxide
  • Works at 40 degrees C for cooling and 70 degrees
    regularly

http//www.fctec.com/fctec_types_afc.asp
4
Advantages of AFC
  • Like PEM works at low temperature and
    instant-starting
  • Efficiency 70 (One of the Best)
  • Companies looking to bring down cost (Astris)

http//www.h2fc.com/technology.html http//fuelcel
ls.si.edu/alk/alkmain.htm
5
Uses of AFC
  • NASA uses them for Space Shuttles
  • Commercially used in cars
  • Used to generate electricity

http//www.h2fc.com/technology.html
6
Phosphoric Fuel Cell - Application
  • golf cart powered by a
    phosphoric acid fuel cell.
  • Georgetown University, and the U.S. Department of
    Energy adapted a 50 kw Fuji Electric PAFC for
    transit buses (photo at left), and began running
    these buses in 1994.
  • New York, the Yonkers Waste Treatment Plant has
    been powered by a 200 kw ONSI unit since 1997

http//fuelcells.si.edu/phos/pafcmain.htmapps
7
Technology
http//voltaicpower.com/FuelCell/pafc.htm
8
Proton Exchange Membrane
9
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11
                                                
         Diagrams and picutres from Humboldt
State University
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15
PEM Chemical Reactions
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Alkaline Fuel Cell
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21
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
22
How Does It Work
  • Molten Carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) use
    high-temperature compounds of salt (like sodium
    or magnesium) carbonates (chemically, CO3) as the
    electrolyte. (http//fuelcells.si.edu/basics.htm)
  • The operation of a MCFC is based on the shuttle
    action provided by carbonate ions. The carbonate
    ions also serve as an acidic electrolyte. The CO2
    rich gas product gas of the anode is fed to the
    cathode where CO2 is transformed into carbonate
    ions during the reduction of oxygen.
    http//voltaicpower.com/FuelCell/mcfc.htm
  • Since it operates at high temperatures, multiple
    fuel types can be used.

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24
Reactions of Molten Carbonate
25
Advantages of Molten Carbonate
  • Efficiency ranges from 60 to 80 percent, and
    operating temperature is about 650 degrees C
    (1,200 degrees F). Units with output up to 2
    megawatts (MW) have been constructed, and designs
    exist for units up to 100 MW. (http//fuelcells.si
    .edu/basics.htm)
  • Molten carbonate fuel cells are not prone to
    carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide
    "poisoning"they can even use carbon oxides as
    fuelmaking them more attractive for fueling with
    gases made from coal. (http//www.eere.energy.gov/
    hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/types.htmlmcfc)
  • MCFCs don't require an external reformer to
    convert more energy-dense fuels to hydrogen. Due
    to the high temperatures at which they operate,
    these fuels are converted to hydrogen within the
    fuel cell itself by a process called internal
    reforming, which also reduces cost.
    (http//www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/f
    uelcells/types.htmlmcfc)

26
Uses of Molten Carbonate
  • Renton, Washington, where a 1-megawatt power
    plant will be located at the King County
    wastewater treatment facility and fueled by
    wastewater digester gas. Scheduled to begin
    operations in the fall of 2002, the project is
    co-funded by a grant from the U.S. Environmental
    Protection Agency. http//www.fe.doe.gov/programs/
    powersystems/fuelcells/fuelcells_moltencarb.shtml
  • Los Angeles, California, where the city's
    Department of Water and Power has ordered three
    250-kilowatt plants, the first of which was
    shipped to the utility's downtown headquarters in
    July, 2001. http//www.fe.doe.gov/programs/powersy
    stems/fuelcells/fuelcells_moltencarb.shtml
  • Cadiz, Ohio, where Northwest Fuel Development
    Inc., based on Lake Oswego, Oregon, will operate
    a 250-kilowatt fuel cell on coal-mine methane gas
    from the Harrison Mining Corporation and supply
    electricity back to the mining operation.
    http//www.fe.doe.gov/programs/powersystems/fuelce
    lls/fuelcells_moltencarb.shtml

27
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
28
How Does It Work?
  • First of all, the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is very
    different from the other forms of fuel cells.
    This fuel cell is composed completely of
    materials in a solid state, including the
    electroyte. http//www.fe.doe.gov/programs/powersy
    stems/fuelcells/fuelcells_solidoxide.shtml
  • They operate at very high tempatures, ranging
    from 600 to 1000 degrees Celsius
  • Initially, a gas consisting of hydrogen gas and
    carbon monoxide is required for this fuel cell.
  • The anodes are porus allowing for the hydrogen
    and oxygen molecules (after reacting with the
    electrolyte) to permeate through to the other
    side
  • The hydrogen molecules permeate through the
    electrode where it will react and form water
  • The electrons resulting from this reaction will
    consequently pass through an external electrical
    load, creating an electrical flow
  • The excess oxygen will then react with the used
    electrons forming oxygen gas and giving off as a
    waste product

29
Advantages of Solid Oxide
  • Normally, efficiency of this fuel cell is around
    60
  • However, if the waste heat is utililized in such
    a manner is utilized in such a manner that would
    incorporate it back into the fuel cell stack,
    effciency can reach anywhere up to 85
  • This occurs when the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is
    utilized in a tubular form outputting 100kw of
    electricity.

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31
Uses of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
  • The high-temperature operation of a solid oxide
    fuel cell and its capability to operate at
    elevated pressures makes it an attractive
    candidate for linking with a gas turbine in a
    "hybrid" configuration. The hot, high pressure
    exhaust of the fuel cell can be used to spin a
    gas turbine, generating a second source of
    electricity.
  • The world's first solid oxide fuel cell/gas
    turbine hybrid system is at Southern California
    Edison for operation at the National Fuel Cell
    Research Center in Irvine, California. The hybrid
    system includes a pressurized solid oxide fuel
    cell module integrated with a microturbine/generat
    or supplied by Ingersoll-Rand Energy Systems
    (formerly Northern Research and Engineering
    Corp.). The system has a total output of 220 kW,
    with 200 kW from the fuel cell and 20 from the
    microturbine generator. This proof of concept
    demonstration is expected to demonstrate an
    electrical efficiency of around 55. Eventually,
    such hybrids should be capable of electrical
    efficiencies of 60-70.

http//fossil.energy.gov/programs/powersystems/fue
lcells/fuelcells_solidoxide.shtml
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