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A SAFE FOOD SUPPLY? Is Your Food Safe to Eat? Mr. Johnson Central Heights Ag Dept. Student Objectives Analyze the risk involved in the use of pesticides in food ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Is Your Food Safe to Eat?
  • Mr. Johnson
  • Central Heights Ag Dept.

Student Objectives
  • Analyze the risk involved in the use of
    pesticides in food production.
  • Evaluate the risk of using hormones and
    antibiotics on animals raised for food.
  • Explain the safeguards to prevent harmful
    pesticides residues on food.
  • Describe the use the body makes of cholesterol.

Student Objectives
  • Describe the safeguards used in the meatpacking
  • Discuss the use of chemical preservatives in
  • Distinguish the difference between saturated and
    unsaturated fats.

Food SAFETY????
  • Americans enjoy an abundant, diverse, and
    relatively inexpensive food supply.
  • Most people are not involved with the production
    and processing of the food they eat.

Does the media make the food unhealthily?
  • In the past few years the media has reported that
    foods or components of the food that we eat are
    either unhealthy or hazardous to our health.

Rumors Spread FAST!!!
  • It is easy to forget that properly conducted and
    reported scientific research is responsible for
    the abundant, safe supply of food we enjoy.
  • Inconclusive or poorly reported research can
    often mislead the public.
  • Poorly reported research can cause prices to drop
    within minutes.

Pesticides and Chemicals
  • In 1989, the Natural resources defense Council
    published a report entitled Intolerable Risk
    Pesticides in our Children's Food.
  • The report stated that a chemical called Alar
    that was used to prevent apples from falling from
    the tree to early. Which allows the fruit to have
    a better shape and color.

  • According to reports when the chemical was feed
    to lab rats it was proven to be carcinogenic.
  • This caused panic!
  • Apples were dumped
  • Banned from schools

The Damage was DONE.
  • Apples were removed from sale.
  • The apple industry suffered a tremendous result
    more than a 100 million Dollars!!
  • It was poorly presented information- In fact a
    person would have to eat 28,000lb of apples a day
    for 10 yr.. to equal the amt.. of Alar that
    caused the tumors in the lab rats.

  • Even though the chemical Alar was considered safe
    in low amounts it was still pulled off the
  • A chemical must pass over a 120 separate test
    before it can be released for use.
  • On Average only one in 20,000 chemicals are
    approved for use ag producers.

So are pesticides harmful to humans?
  • Pesticides kill insects, weeds, and plant
    disease organisms.
  • Modern insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides
    have a low level of toxicity to humans.
  • Even at full strength it would take a a lot to be

Allowable levels?
  • Allowable levels are measured in parts per
    billion or parts per trillion.
  • Almost all substances can be toxic or hazardous
    at some level.
  • Salt is a necessary component of our diets but if
    some one ate enough salt they would die from a
    salt overdose.

To be organic or not to be?
  • A recent trend is to eat organically grown
    food.(Food that is grown without pesticides or
  • Some people feel that this is safer food but
    research shows no advantage. In fact there are
    more disadvantages.
  • Natural toxins, Cost, Damage caused by insects
    can harbor bacteria which can be more harmful
    than the pesticides

  • All meat sold to the public must be inspected.
  • Quality grading refers to the quality of the
    meat- determined by Age and intermuscular fat.

Meat inspection cont.
  • Yield grading refers to the amount of lean retail
    cuts the carcass will yield.
  • Meat inspection guarantees that the meat will be
    safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled.
  • Meat inspection includes several phases.
  • Live inspection-ante-mortem.
  • Internal organs are inspected.

Meat inspection cont.
  • When carcasses and/or part fail inspection, they
    are condemned.
  • Condemned carcasses go through a process called
  • Rendering is where the condemned are placed under
    enough heat to kill any organism that could cause

Meat inspection cont.
  • Rendered meat is used for by-products other than
    for human consumption.
  • Each slaughter house is inspected for cleanliness
    and free of bacteria, ect...
  • In the processing line, all carcasses must be
    thoroughly cleaned to remove debris from the
    slaughter process blood, loose tissue particles,
    or foreign particles.

Meat inspection cont.
  • If meat becomes contaminated by fecal matter,
    ect.., that portion of the carcass are trimmed.
  • With best measures, meat will still contain
    bacteria and other microbes.
  • For that reason it is important that meat is
    thoroughly cooked before consumption.
  • Almost all of the sickness caused from eating
    meat can be attributed to improper cooking

Hormones and Antibiotic Residues
  • An area of consumer concern is the use of
    synthentic growth and reproductive hormones in
    beef and dairy animals.
  • The concern is that this will cause harmful
    effects in humans.
  • Growth hormones redirects energy from the
    production of fat to the production of lean.
  • More weight is gained at lower cost and is more
    efficient and healthier.

Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
  • Livestock and poultry industries use antibiotics
    to cure or prevent diseases.
  • The concern is that pathogens can build up an
    immunity to the drugs, as a result of residue of
    the drugs in the meat.
  • The hormone is placed under the skin in the
    animals ear and are slowly released as the
    animal grows.
  • The ear is removes at slaughter to prevent
    residue from accumulating in the edible meat.

Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
  • According to the National Academy of Science, no
    data has been found that implicates the use of
    antibiotics in animals used for food as a health
    risk to humans.
  • Another concern for humans in the dairy industry
    is using bovine somatotropin, (BST).
  • This natural hormone stimulates cows to produce
    more milk.

Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
  • The concern is that the use of BST is a health
    risk, but there is no evidence to support that.
  • In fact, milk from cows treated with BST is
    almost identical as cows with out BST.
  • BST is a protein and can be digested and is not
    passed into the systems of humans.
  • The FDA closely monitors meat, dairy products and
    all food from animals for residues of pesticides,
    drugs, and hormones.

Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
  • If levels are detected that go beyond safe
    tolerances, that product is condemned at the
    producers expense.
  • This gives producers incentives to adhere to the
    guidelines and withdrawal periods.
  • A withdrawal period is the time between when the
    substance was administered to the animal until
    the animal can be slaughtered or the milk used.

  • Many people are concerned over adding
    preservatives such as nitrates, citric acid,
    sodium benzonate, and phosphoric acid to foods.
  • The purpose of these additives is to prevent the
    formation of toxic substances associated with the
    spoilage of food.
  • These foods are susceptible to the growth of
    bacteria that can cause food poisoning.

Preservatives cont.
  • The likelihood of any health problems arising
    from chemical preservatives added to foods is
    insignificant compared to the food poisoning that
    can occur in untreated food.

Fat Content in Food
  • Studies have shown a relationship between diets
    high in fat and health problems (obesity, heart
    disease, cancer, etc.)
  • Concern has been expressed over eating red meat
    because of the high amount of fat and also
    because of the cholesterol content.

Fat Content in Food cont.
  • Both fat and cholesterol are necessary components
    of human diets, but excessive amounts of either
    can cause problems.
  • Fats are divided into two broad classifications
    saturated fat and unsaturated fat.
  • Unsaturated fats are in a liquid state at room
  • Saturated fats are in a solid state at room temp.

Fat Content in Food cont.
  • Eating red meats from animals such as cattle and
    sheep is safe as long as the amounts are moderate
    and are part of a balanced diet.

Labeling of Foods
  • President Roosevelt passed the Federal Food and
    Drug Act and the Federal Meat Inspection Act.
    These laws were the first steps in the regulation
    of the food industry as to the safety and quality
    of foods.
  • Laws regarding the processing and labeling of
    foods have continually been upgraded and improved
    since that time.

Nutritional Labeling
  • About 90 of all processed foods must have
    nutritional labeling on the package.
  • Exceptions-
  • Coffee
  • Tea
  • Flavorings that contain no significant amounts of
  • The nutritive content of the food is expressed in
    terms of Daily Value (DV)
  • The DV refers to the percent of the nutrient in
    the food that is recommended based on a 2,000
    calorie diet.

  • Foods are safer now than at any time in history.
  • Improper cooking, spoilage, and mishandling of
    the foods by the consumer are by far the biggest
    causes of food safety problems.

The Science of Food Preservation
Causes of Food Spoilage (But What About
  • Microbes - extremely small organisms.
  • Louis Pasteur discovered the presence of microbes
    and brought about the process known as
    pasteurization (this renders the microbes in milk
  • Bacteria- microbes that are responsible for much
    of the decay and spoilage of the plant and animal
    tissue in foods.
  • Bacteria makes the food not fit to eat because of
    the smell and taste and can often be dangerous .

Causes of Food Spoilage cont.
  • Molds- microbes that also aid in the breakdown of
    plant and animal tissues.
  • Toxins from molds are called mycotoxins and may
    cause illness when consumed.
  • Molds appear as fine, hairy fillaments on the
  • Yeasts- single-celled fungi.
  • Used extensively in the fermentation of
  • Many yeasts are beneficial, but they may also
    cause food spoilage by growing on the food.

Chemical Causes of Food Spoilage
  • Enzymes can cause sugars to turn into fats or may
    cause proteins or fats to change in makeup or
  • Up to a point, certain enzymatic changes are
    desirable in that they trigger the creation of
    sugars in the ripening process.

Chemical Causes cont.
  • Rancidity is a chemical process that takes place
    in fats that causes food spoilage.
  • Hydrolytic rancidity comes about as a result of
    reactions of the fatty acids with water

Food Preservation in Fresh Foods
  • After fruit has been picked, washed, and cleaned,
    they are coated with a thin layer of paraffin to
    prevent damage to the skin.
  • In a process called controlled-atmosphere
    storage, the respiration of the fruit cells is
    controlled. They are placed in dark chambers with
    controlled temps.
  • This keeps some fruit fresh for many months

Food Preservation by Drying
  • The first method of preserving food was drying.
  • If the water is removed from food, the microbes
    and enzymes are unable to live and reproduce.
  • The most modern technique of drying is
    freeze-drying.In this process, the product is
    quickly frozen and placed in a chamber where a
    vacuum is drawn. This allows the water molecules
    to go almost directly from ice to vapor.

Food Preservation by Salting
  • By covering meat with salts, the water in
    microbes passes to the salt and the microbes dry
    out and die.
  • Sugar can also be used as a preservative because
    the same principal applies.
  • The problem with salting is removing the salt
    from the food being preserved.
  • Therefore, the only foods preserved in salt today
    are those such as fat back and salt pork.

Food Preservation by Fermentation and Pickling
  • Solutions high in salt and vinegar give the
    advantages of the salt solution dehydrating the
    microbes and the vinegar lowering the pH to a
    level intolerable to the microbes.

Food Preservation by Freezing
  • Early iceboxes that were used, cooled food with a
    large block of ice stored in the compartment with
    the food.
  • Microbes cannot live well in cool temperatures,
    so the food can be preserved longer.
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