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LAST WEEK for AP World Test registration! Did YOU sign up??

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LAST WEEK for AP World Test registration! Did YOU sign up?? Checking C 25 today C 26 ques/SPICE/terms/ outline DUE Th 2/26 Unit IV timeline/chart – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LAST WEEK for AP World Test registration! Did YOU sign up??


1
LAST WEEK for AP World Test registration! Did
YOU sign up??
Checking C 25 today C 26 ques/SPICE/terms/ outlin
e DUE Th 2/26 Unit IV timeline/chart Due M 3/9
2
Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 Kangxi 1661-1722 Qianlong
1736-1795
C 25 Africa and the Atlantic World
3
Key Geographic Features?
Pre-15th Century?
Sub-Saharan Africa Swahili Coast Kingdom of
Benin Mali Empire Great Zimbabwe
TRADE ITEMS?? Changes/ Continuities?
4
Pre- contact with Europeans..
  • Built states based on kinship groups (Bantu
    speakers)
  • Matrilineal (Queen Nzinga r. 1623-1663, Ndongo
    (Angola)
  • Traded with Muslim merchants (in N Africa and SW
    Asia)
  • Maintained local traditional religious practices

With increasingly greater contact with
Europeans..
  • Regional kingdoms replaced imperial states of
    west Africa,
  • such as the Songhay empire (Sunni Ali)
  • Swahili City states fell under Portuguese
    control
  • Extension of trade networks led to formation of
    regional kingdoms in central Africa and south
    Africa
  • Slave trade GENDER RATIOS?
  • (Portuguese traders brought textiles, weapons,
    advisors and artisans to Kongo Portuguese
    merchants took copper, ivory and slaves-1441-
    first slaves to Europe (12)
  • By 1460 500 slaves/ year to Azores, Canary Is,
    Lisbon
  • 1518 first shipment of slaves directly west to
    Caribbean

WHY did the imperial states fall? Has to do with
trade.
Diet Manioc led to population surge (34
million- 60 million)
South Africa Dutch Boers (Afrikaners) 1652/
wars w Zulu tribe establish apartheid system
5
Kingdom of Kongo Songhay Empire (Sunni Ali-
Muslims) (Navy- slavery?) Ndongo (Queen Nzinga)
6
Queen Nzinga of Ndongo with Portuguese governors
READ
King Afonso I of the Kongo giving audience to the
Dutch
  • Ndongo grew from small
  • chiefdom to kingdom due to direct trade
  • Interest in Christianity (King Alfonso of Kongo
    Letter to Portugal?)
  • ( Dona Beatriz of Kongo? St. Anthony- Portuguese
    patron saint) ) and Islam increased

7
Compare and Contrast Slavery in Africa and
Muslim World/Europe BEFORE Atlantic Slave Trade
AFRICA
MUSLIM WORLD/ EUROPE


8
Compare and Contrast Slavery in Africa and
Muslim World/Europe
AFRICA
MUSLIM WORLD/ EUROPE
Slaves were war captives, criminals or expelled
from clans Slaves were form of personal
investment, heritable property, means of
acquiring wealth- often purchased to enlarge
their family (Songhay did not trust nobility-
preferred slaves in positions of
authority) Wealth came not from private
ownership of land, but of ownership of labor to
make the land productive Slaves were often
assimilated into kin groups- purchased to enlarge
their families No chattal slavery
Islamic slave trade well established pre 15th
Century (between 8-12th C as many as 10 million
Africans sold into Islamic slave
trade) Portuguese learned they could steal
slaves rather than purchase them beginning
1441) Slaves as pure commodities Triangular
(Atlantic) Slave Trade The Middle Passage
Factors Factories
9
The Biggest Change The African Slave
Trade 1500-1800
The African Diaspora? (cash crops/plantations) Af
rican slave trade mostly supplied tropical
Caribbean 5 went to North America
10
Most trans-Atlantic voyages took 5 weeks Early
on 50 of cargo died As slavery became more
profitable mortality fell to 5 Overall ¼ of all
saves died en route
11
Coffin Position Tight Packers Vs. Loose
Packers
12
Brazilian Sugar Mill Engenhos
13
Compare and Contrast Slavery in Caribbean,North
America and Latin America
CARIBBEAN
NORTH AMERICA
Slaves unable to sustain their numbers by natural
means (diseases/ yellow fever/ malaria/ low
standard of nutrition and health Mostly male
slaves ½ of imported African slaves went to
Caribbean (1/3 to Brazil)
Strong support here (S) for slave
families (especially when the price of a new
slave from Africa rose dramatically) Imported
female slaves as well as male
LATIN AMERICA
(according to Catholic church) owners not
allowed to work their slaves on Sunday Catholic
slaves were married in the church Slaves were
encouraged to read and write Enjoyed a
relatively higher level of esteem
ALL Experienced slave revolts (passive/
insurrection) specialized in some form of
agricultural crop in demand which required
intensive labor Motivated by profit
14
In the Americas
15
(No Transcript)
16
IMPACT of Slave Trade involuntary migration of
12 million/ 4 million died en route Pre 17th
Century 2000 slaves left Africa annually 17th
Century 20,000 annually 18th Century 55,000
annually 1780s 88,000 annually, sometimes
100,000
The African Diaspora? (cash crops/plantations) Af
rican slave trade mostly supplied tropical
Caribbean 5 went to North America Spread of
African culture/language/music
Effects of Slave Trade in Africa? Economic Politic
al Social (Syncretic Religion?)
Slave Resistance? Passive Resistance Revolts/Maroo
ns Role of Enlightenment/ American Revolution/
Abolitionists? (Saint Dominique 1793)
(Gabriel Prosser 1800) (Denmark
Vesey 1822) (Nat Turner 1831)
End of the Slave Trade Abolition of Slave
Trade 1803 Denmark 1807 Great Britain 1808
United States 1814 France 1817 Netherlands 1835
Spain Last documented Atlantic Slave ship 1867
to Cuba
ABOLITION by early 17th c Great Britain 1845
France 1865 United States 1960 Angola
Olaudah Equiano
17
End of the Slave Trade Abolition of Slave
Trade 1803 Denmark 1807 Great Britain 1808
United States 1814 France 1817 Netherlands 1835
Spain Last documented Atlantic Slave ship 1867
to Cuba
WHY ABOLITION?
ABOLITION by early 17th c Great Britain 1845
France 1865 United States 1960 Angola
  • The slave trade ended because
  • American and French Revolutions/ Enlightenment
    Ideals suggestion of universal human right to
    freedom and equality
  • Frequent slave revolts not profitable/
    dangerous
  • Olaudah Equiano
  • Supply and demand supply of sugar prices
    price of slaves
  • Europeans shifted focus from cash crops to
    manufacturing industries
  • Made more sense to leave Africans in Africa to
    harvest raw materials

Olaudah Equiano 1745-1797)
18
Do We Apologize for Slavery??
Seeking More Than Apologies for Slavery
Activists Hope Firms' Disclosure of Ties Will
Lead to Reparations Wachovia revealed on June
1 2005 that one of the banks put hundreds of
slaves to work on railroads and another accepted
more than 100 more as collateral on defaulted
loans in the 1800s. Wachovia, one of the nation's
largest banks, was required by the city of
Chicago to investigate its past to participate in
the redevelopment of a housing project on the
city's South Side.
North Carolina Senate Passes Slavery Apology In a
still chamber, North Carolina senators Thursday
approved a resolution apologizing for slavery as
one after another discussed how a conflict
central to the American experience reverberates
in their lives. (2007)
Reparations??
In July 2008, the U.S. House of Representatives
issued an unprecedented apology to black
Americans for the institution of slavery, and the
subsequent Jim Crow laws that for years
discriminated against blacks as second-class
citizens in American society.
The slavery era was a tragic time in U.S. history
and in our company's history," J.P. Morgan said
in a statement. The company apologized to the
African-American community, to the descendants of
slaves and to the public. It also announced the
creation of a 5 million scholarship program for
black students from Louisiana to attend college
in their home state. (2004)
19
July 12, 2009
20
Post- 15th Century Trade Routes? European Contact
beginning in the 15th century?
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