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Be-Bop to Hip-Hop; Kids Creating Music to Solidify Content Learning

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Title: Be-Bop to Hip-Hop; Kids Creating Music to Solidify Content Learning


1
Be-Bop to Hip-Hop Kids Creating Music to
Solidify Content Learning
  • Chris MarkerMorse
  • ETEC 542

2
  • Songs embody our history, values, and cultural
    identity. Walt Whitman, whose poems use more than
    two hundred different musical terms, could hear
    American singing in 1855.
  • I believe that all of us today, young and old,
    can hear America singing, except that now we
    listen to the whole world. (Turner 2008)

3
Required Music Instruction
  • Japan
  • Netherlands
  • Hungary
  • South Korea
  • Austria
  • New Zealand
  • Students in these countries boast some of the
    highest mathematics and science test scores in
    the world.

4
Four Areas of Investigation
  • Musical Intelligence
  • Utilizing the senses in teaching and learning
  • Using music and the arts in the content areas
  • Models for using music to teach content

5
Gardner and Musical Intelligences
  • Linguistic Intelligence  sensitivity to the
    sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words
    sensitivity to the different functions of
    language.
  • Musical Intelligence  abilities to produce and
    appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre
    appreciation of the forms of musical
    expressiveness.
  • Logical-Mathematical Intelligence  sensitivity
    to patterns, orderliness, and systematicity
    ability to handle long chains of reasoning.
  • Spatial Intelligence  capacities to perceive the
    spatial world accurately, to perform
    transformations on ones' initial perceptions, and
    to re-create aspects of one's visual experience.
  • Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence  abilities to
    control one's body movements and to handle
    objects skillfully.
  • Interpersonal Intelligence  capacities to
    discern and respond appropriately to the moods,
    temperaments, motivations, and desires of other
    people.
  • Intrapersonal Intelligence  access to one's own
    feelings the ability to discriminate among them
    and draw upon them to guide behavior.
  • Naturalistic Intelligence - the capacity to draw
    on materials and features of the natural
    environment to solve problems or fashion products
    (Hatch, 1997).

6
Gardner and Musical Intelligences
  • The intelligences may each be exploited as a
    means of transmission, often referred to as an
    entry point or catalyst for learning all manner
    of content (Gardner, 1993, 1995a, 1996).
  • The nurturing and development that takes place in
    musical learning is autonomous and on par with
    the processes that take place in studying
    languages, mathematics and the sciences (Potter,
    1997, ).

7
Sensuous Scholarship
  • "Sensuous Scholarship" entails the conscious
    engagement of the subconscious.
  • sensuous scholarship is ultimately a mixing of
    head and heart. It is an opening of ones being
    to the world- a true welcoming. Such embodied
    hospitality is the secret of the great scholars,
    painters, poets, and filmmakers whose images and
    words resensualize us. (Stoller, 1997)

8
The Arts in the Content Areas
  • The arts have long been known to deeply connect
    people with ideas and emotions (Dewey, 1959
    Greene, 1991).
  • However, arts in elementary schools have often
    been separated from the core curriculum and
    instead, offered as enrichment activities that
    are considered beneficial but not essential.

9
The Arts in the Content Areas
  • Whether used as an introduction or a review
    technique, the arts have the power to motivate
    and engage students, even those who are
    traditionally unable or unwilling to participate
    fully in school lessons. In short, teachers and
    students enjoy teaching (and students enjoy
    learning) through the arts and consequently, this
    approach can serve as an effective, although
    often overlooked, teaching strategy. (Jacobs,
    Goldberg, Bennett1999)

10
The Arts in the Content Areas
  • Goldberg (1997) highlights this distinction by
    contrasting teaching about the arts (traditional
    disciplined-based arts instruction) with teaching
    through the arts (using the arts as a vehicle or
    teaching strategy to help students understand
    content other than the arts)

11
The Arts in the Content Areas- The Views of Eric
Jensen
  • New research and knowledge about how the brain
    operates suggests that a sensory approach to
    learning should be given greater emphasis in
    elementary classrooms.
  • Jensen (2001) argues for greater inclusion of the
    arts- musical, visual, and kinesthetic-as a
    valuable teaching aid,

12
The Arts in the Content Areas- The Views of Eric
Jensen
  • To Jensen, it is not a matter of choosing, say,
    the musical arts over the kinesthetic. Rather, it
    is discovering what kind of art makes sense for
    what purposes, exploring how much time per day is
    most useful, and finding our what kind of music
    is best suited for each content discipline.

13
The Arts in the Content Areas- The Views of Eric
Jensen
  • In answering these real-world questions, Jensen
    concludes that the arts should not be a path only
    for the alternative learner or those who would
    otherwise fail, but that the use of the arts for
    instruction should be wide-spread throughout the
    curriculum and throughout the school day.

14
The Arts in the Content Areas
  • There has been research to support the idea that
    having students simply listen to classical music
    will improve spatial learning. (Rauscher, Shaw,
    and Ky, 1993).

15
The Arts in the Content Areas
  • A popular book, The Mozart Effect (Campbell,
    1997) seized on this research and other analysis
    to suggest that music could have cognitive and
    other benefits for learners. But subsequent
    researchers have questioned whether merely
    listening to music can make children smarter.

16
The Arts in the Content Areas
  • There is growing evidence that active involvement
    in music making can have significant intellectual
    benefits. In 1999, for example, researchers at
    the University of California's Berkeley and
    Irvine campuses found that second-graders
    performed better on tests involving fractions and
    proportional math after a regimen of piano
    keyboard training and computerized math puzzles.

17
Models for Using Music to Teach Content- Student
Generated Raps
  • In his study, Turner(2008) found that students
    who created raps about various historical
    learnings were able to have fun and make a strong
    memory of the content of their written rap.

18
Models for Using Music to Teach Content- Student
Generated Lyrics to Known Songs
  • As part of the Learning About The Solar System
    Through Music study, Jacons, Goldberg and Bennet
    (1999) had students develop lyrics to express
    their understandings of the workings of the solar
    systems, and the various objects found in it.
  • New lyrics were to be sung using a familiar tune
    such as Row Row Row Your Boat or Twinkle Twinkle
    Little Star.

19
Models for Using Music To Teach Content- Students
Learn Fractions
  • Barr Goral and Wiest (2007) had their students
    experience fractions via three different methods
    poetry, movement and songs.
  • Student assessments shortly after this series of
    lesson demonstrated mastery of the fractional
    concepts presented by the entire class.
  • Students interviewed months later still had
    retention of the main ideas of the lessons.

20
Students Using Technology To Create Music
  • During the 2000-2001 school year, Siegel(2004)
    led his third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade general
    music classes in a composition project.
  • He found that through teaching composition, he
    and his students not only addressed the Standards
    but also cover other areas of the music
    curriculum such as singing, notation,
    improvisation, form, style, tempo, dynamics, and
    music vocabulary.

21
Arts, Student Learning and Content Retention The
Next Steps
  • The data seems clear the use of the arts to
    teach content is powerful, engaging and
    innovative, and works to improve the retention of
    content knowledge.
  • A next logical step in this transformative use of
    music to reinforce standards-based learning is to
    have students write lyrics and create songs using
    current and available computerized looping and
    recording software.

22
Proposed Methodology
  • I am one of three sixth grade teachers at
    Magnolia Elementary School in Riverside
    California.
  • I will be teaching three different science
    lessons to the three classes of the sixth grade.
  • Each time I teach one of the lessons, one group
    (one class) will get to create lyrics and music
    to fashion a song that expresses understanding of
    the content taught.
  • The remaining two classes will be the control
    group for that lesson.

23
Proposed Methodology
  • December
  • The Sun Is a Major Source of Energy
  • (Pretest for all groups)
  • Group/Class A Control
  • Group/Class B Control
  • Group/Class C Treatment
  • (Posttest for all groups)

24
Proposed Methodology
  • January
  • Earth Lithosphere, Mantle and Core
  • (Pretest for all groups)
  • Group/Class A Control
  • Group/Class B Treatment
  • Group/Class C Control
  • (Posttest for all groups)

25
Proposed Methodology
  • February
  • Earth Lithosphere, Mantle and Core
  • (Pretest for all groups)
  • Group/Class A Treatment
  • Group/Class B Control
  • Group/Class C Control
  • (Posttest for all groups)

26
Proposed Methodology-Groups/Classes
  • The groups will be created from the 90 students
    of the sixth grade of Magnolia Elementary School.
    Students will be randomly pulled from each of the
    three classes, but will be balanced for numbers.
  • All groups will be given the same science
    lessons.

27
Proposed Methodology-Groups/Classes
  • Treatment groups will be allowed to create a
    song, including original lyrics, on the topic of
    their lesson.
  • They will be given access to an Apple IMac, midi
    keyboard and USB microphone, and will use
    GarageBand , a looping software students will use
    to create their song.
  • Control groups will be taught the same lessons in
    the same manner, using the same multimedia
    sources, graphic organizers and group-interaction
    opportunities. The control group will simply not
    be allowed to create a song to explain their
    understanding of the concepts.

28
Proposed Methodology-Groups/Classes
  • In teaching three lessons in this way, all
    students will be given the benefit and experience
    of creating songs to clarify their understanding
    of the lessons, and by staggering the time on the
    one recording setup, I will be able to get all
    groups through the process of song creation over
    three months.
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