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Paleontology and Ecology Study Guide

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Paleontology and Ecology Study Guide Questions & Answers 2011-2012 Semester 1 Shiloh Middle School – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Paleontology and Ecology Study Guide


1
  • Paleontology and Ecology Study Guide
  • Questions
  • Answers

2011-2012 Semester 1 Shiloh Middle School
2
1. What are fossils and how do they form?
Fossils are preserved remains or traces of living
things. Fossils form from decayed living matter
(when living things die and are buried by
sediments, which slowly harden into rock and
preserve the shape of the organism.)
3
2. What type of rock usually contains fossils?
Sedimentary rocks
4
3. What do paleontologists study?
Fossils
5
4. Explain how the statement History repeats
itself supports the principle of
uniformitarianism
This statement supports the principle of
uniformitarianism because geological process
(weathering, erosion, deposition, runoff-water
cycle) that occurred in the past occur the same
way today.
6
5. What is the law of superposition?
In horizontal, sedimentary rock layers, the
oldest layer is at the bottom and each layer
higher is younger than the layers below.
7
6. Describe the condition of an organism that no
longer exists on Earth.
The organism is extinct.
8
7. How might fossils provide evidence of Earths
past environment?
  • Fossils found in certain areas may tell whether
  • the area was an ocean or a shallow sea.
  • Coral fossils found in Midwestern US tell that
  • it used be an ocean long ago.

9
8.What is the geologic time scale?
A record of the life forms and geologic events in
Earths history.
10
9.Describe how life forms became more complex.
There is evidence from fossils records that
reveal major changes in life forms occurred at
different times. Example early bacteria
shells insects fish dinosaurs
mammals
Simple to more complex
11
10.What do paleontologists use to help determine
the age of rocks, according to the law of
superposition?
Relative age
12
11.What are index fossils? List an example of a
very common index fossil.
  • Fossils of widely distributed organisms that
    lived during only one short period.
  • Trilobites

13
12.How do unconformities in rock layers form?
Erosion wears away the surface of rock layers and
then other rock layers form on top of the eroded
surface.
14
13.What is the relative age of a rock compared to
absolute age?
  • The relative age is the age compared to the ages
    of other rock or rock layers.
  • The absolute age is the number of years since the
    rock or rock layer formed.

Relative Age Comparison
Absolute Age EXACT
15
14.Where is the oldest layer of rock according to
the law of superposition?
The oldest rock layer is at the bottom.
16
15. Describe how sediments are deposited,
according to the principle of horizontality.
Sediments are deposited in horizontal layers,
from left to right.
17
16. Justify how dinosaurs and horses did not
exist during the same geologic era?
  • Fossils of dinosaurs or horses can NOT be found
    in the same rock layers.
  • Dinosaurs are EXTINCT!!

18
17. How do geologist determine the absolute age
of rocks?
Radioactive dating, after determining the rocks
rate of radioactive decay.
Uranium 238 has a half-life of 4.51 billion
years and is used to date older rocks
19
18. Explain how a fossilized sea shell found at
the top of a mountain supports Earths changing
surface?
The surface was once covered by water because a
marine (water) environment would have been where
the sea shell was.
20
19. A large elephant fossil found in a top layer
compared to a small elephant fossil found
belowwhat is the relative age?
The rock layer that contains the large elephant
fossil is YOUNGER. The rock layer with the
small elephant fossil is OLDER.
Top Layer
Layer Below
21
20. What is the age of an intrusion in relation
to the sedimentary rock layers it passes through?
The intrusion is younger. YOUNGERYOUNGER..YOU
NGER!!!
G
F /\/\/
E
D IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
C IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
B XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIXXXXX
A IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
22
21. If a fossil of a palm leaf were found in
Alaska, what would this suggest about
Alaskas climate?
Alaska was once under warmer climates.
23
22. What are fossil fuels and how do they form?
Same question as 1
Fossil Fuels are non-renewable energy resources.
They will eventually run-out. Three
Types Coal Oil Natural Gas
24
23. What is the disadvantage of nonrenewable
resources?
Nonrenewable resources take a long time to form
and once they are used, they are gone. They will
likely run out in the near future.
25
24. Give examples of renewable resources.
  • Biomass fuel
  • geothermal energy
  • hydroelectric power
  • solar energy
  • wind power

26
25. List some ways to conserve nonrenewable
resources.
Ride a bike, instead of driving cars to save
gas. Insulate buildings to keep heat from being
lost.
27
26. Hydroelectric power and wind energy are
powered by what major energy source?
What is (1) advantage to use this source of
energy source?
The sun, solar energy. It will not run out (in
our lifetime)
28
27. Which of the following resources will run out
in the near future?
fossil fuels (nonrenewable) X geothermal energy
(renewable) X solar energy (renewable) X wind
energy (renewable)
29
28. What are the three major fossil fuels?
Coal, oil, and natural gas.
30
29. What is conservation? How does
recycling help conserve energy resources?
Conservation-To use our resources
wisely Recycling does not require as much energy
to be used.
31
30. Which of the following is the best
alternative energy resource?
geothermal energy (unlimited, only available in
certain regions) oil (nonrenewable) natural gas
(nonrenewable) hydroelectric power ( WATER)
32
31. How can a scientist determine where one
period of geologic time ended and the next one
began?
The use of index fossils.
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