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OPTION - UNIT 7 GEOECOLOGY

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Title: OPTION - UNIT 7 GEOECOLOGY


1
OPTION - UNIT 7 GEOECOLOGY
THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
2
Syllabus Links - Soils
  • Core 1.2 Weathering and Erosion
  • Core 1.7 Human Interaction
  • Core 2.2 Physical Processes
  • Irish regions
  • European Regions
  • Continental / sub-continental region
  • Core 3 Fieldwork

3
Syllabus Links - Biomes
  • Core 2.2 Continental / sub-continental
    region
  • Elective 4.5 Environmental Impact

4
7.1 SOILS Development
  • Weathering of Rocks in Situ
  • Re-deposited Weathered
  • Material

5
7.1 SOILS Development - Profiles
General
O Organic Layer consists of plant
litter and humus Not present in cultivated
fields A Topsoil consists of humus and
minerals The ploughed layer B Subsoil
low in organic material C Transition Area
between soil and parent material consists of
partially disintegrated bedrock
R Bedrock
6
7.1 SOILS Development - Profiles
Brown Earth Source ENCARTA
Tropical Red Soil
7
7.1 SOILS Development
  • CHARACTERISTICS
  • Texture
  • Colour
  • Structure
  • Water Content
  • Organic Content
  • Water Retention
  • Etc.
  • COMPOSITION
  • Mineral Matter
  • Organic matter
  • Water
  • Air

8
7.1 SOILS Composition
9
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Texture
  • Texture refers to the proportions of sand, silt
    and clay present.
  • Texture determines the percolation and water
    retention qualities of the soil which influences
    the ability of the soil to retain nutrients
  • Texture also determines how roots of plants are
    able to penetrate the soil

10
7.1 SOILS Characteristics - Texture
Particle Size Clay Less than 0.002mm Silt
0.002 0.02mm Sand 0.02 2.0mm
11
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Determining Soil
Texture
  • Fill a screw topped clear glass jar two thirds
    full with soil
  • Add water until jar is almost full
  • Shake the jar for 1 minute approx.
  • Leave the jar to settle for 24 hours

100
Clay
90
80
Silt
70
Fine Sand
60
50
40
30
Coarse Sand
20
10
0
12
7.1 SOILS Characteristics - Texture
Sample Sand 70 Clay 20 Silt 10
13
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Texture
  • Sandy Soils
  • Generally loose coarse particles easy to
    cultivate
  • Good drainage and aeration
  • Prone to leaching
  • Poor water retention makes them prone to drought
  • Easily eroded by water when wet and wind when dry
  • Silty Soils
  • Generally loose finer particles
  • Better water retention than the coarser sandy
    soil
  • Tend to lack nutrients which hinders seed
    germination
  • Easily eroded by heavy rainfall

14
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Texture
  • Clay Soils
  • Very fine bonded particles
  • Poor drainage and aeration
  • Prone to water-logging
  • Sticky when wet
  • Very hard when dried out
  • Loam Soils
  • Equal proportions of sand, silt and clay
  • Good drainage and aeration properties
  • Retain nutrients and moisture
  • Easily cultivated

15
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Structure
  • Structure refers to the shape and size of the
    solid grains of the soil
  • Structure determines
  • How easily soil is worked for agriculture
  • How it resists erosion
  • How easily air, water and living organisms can
    circulate through the soil

16
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Structure
  • Single Grained Structure
  • Associated with sandy soils
  • Water, air and organisms can pass through it
    easily
  • Roots can spread out into the soil easily
  • Water retention is poor - Nutrient retention is
    poor
  • Prone to leaching
  • Vulnerable to drought

Single grained
17
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Structure
  • Crumby Structure
  • Associated with good agricultural land loam
    soils
  • Water, air and organisms can pass through crumby
    soils easily
  • Roots can spread out into the soil easily
  • Water retention is good as it is soaked up by the
    crumbs of soil Nutrient retention good

Crumb 1 - 5mm
18
7.1 SOILS Characteristics Structure
  • Massive Structure
  • Usually associated with clay type soils
  • Water, air and organisms can not pass through
    this type of soil easily
  • Roots have difficulty penetrating the large lumps
    of clay
  • Soils are often waterlogged after periods of rain
  • Soil dries into hard clumps after a dry period

Massive
19
7.1 SOILS Characteristics pH value
pH potential Hydrogen ions
pH value of 7 neutral
20
7.1 SOILS Characteristics pH value
  • pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity
  • Low pH value Acidic Soil
  • Leached by heavy rainfall - lacks calcium,
    nitrogen, magnesium and potassium stunted
    growth
  • Discourages living organisms reducing rate of
    plant breakdown
  • Formation of peat
  • At very low pH levels aluminium is dissolved by
    acids poisonous to some plants

21
7.1 SOILS Characteristics pH value
  • High pH value Alkaline Soil
  • Develops on limestone landscapes high
    concentration of calcium
  • Deficiency of iron and boron distorted growth
  • pH 7 Neutral Soil
  • Neutral or slightly acidic soil is most suitable
    for farming
  • Encourages growth of bacteria vital for
    releasing nutrients from organic material

22
7.2 SOILS Influences
  • Affected by
  • Immediate Environment
  • Processes Including Human Interference

23
7.2 SOILS Influences Immediate Environment
  • Topography
  • Altitude
  • Slope
  • Aspect
  • Climate
  • Global Pattern of Soils
  • Parent Material
  • Rock type

24
7.2 SOILS Global Climate Types
25
7.2 SOILS Global Patterns
26
7.2 SOILS European Patterns
27
7.2 SOILS Influences Immediate Environment -
Topography
Horizon Formation
28
7.2 SOILS Influences Processes incl. Human
Interference
  • Natural
  • Weathering
  • Soil Erosion
  • Leaching
  • Humification
  • Podzolisation
  • Laterisation
  • Calcification
  • Human
  • Over-cropping
  • Over-grazing
  • Desertification
  • Conservation

29
7.2 SOILS Influences Processes - Weathering
30
7.2 SOILS Influences Processes - Erosion
31
7.2 SOILS Influences - Processes
  • Humification organic matter rots to form humus
  • Calcification very little leaching allows
    calcium to accumulate close to the surface
    forming fertile soil
  • Salinisation moisture is brought to the surface
    by capillary action, but evaporates quickly and
    the dissolved salts are deposited in the upper
    layer of soil

32
7.2 SOILS Influences Processes
  • Leaching rainwater carries soluble minerals and
    organic matter down through the soil profile
  • Podzolisation leaching by acidic water which
    can dissolve almost all the soil constituents,
    may leave the A Horizon infertile and grey in
    colour
  • Laterisation leaching by non-acidic water
    leaves iron and aluminium close to the surface
    giving the soil a reddish colour
  • Gleying lack of oxygen in waterlogged soils
    slows down the rotting process and organic matter
    accumulates at the top of the profile

33
7.2 SOILS Influences Human Interference
  • Human
  • Over-cropping
  • Over-grazing
  • Desertification
  • Conservation

34
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Clearing Bush-land in Australia
35
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Erosion caused by raindrops on bare land
36
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Erosion caused by tilling dry land
37
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Erosion caused by wind
Source Seafriends.org.nz
38
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Livestock Damage
Source Seafriends.org.nz
39
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Soil Protection
Source Seafriends.org.nz
40
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Erosion caused by tilling hill slopes
Source Seafriends.org.nz
41
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Contour ploughing Strip cropping
Source Seafriends.org.nz
Terracing Paddy (Padi) fields
42
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Soil Protection
Source Seafriends.org.nz
43
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
44
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
45
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
46
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Desertification Mediterranean Region
47
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
Desertification Europe
48
7.2 SOILS Human Interference
49
7.3 BIOMES World Regions
  • Characterised by inter-relationships of
  • Climate
  • Soils
  • Plants
  • Animals

50
7.3 BIOMES World Climates Types
51
7.3 BIOMES World Regions
52
7.3 BIOMES World Regions
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Taiga
Tropical Rain Forest
Grassland
Tundra
53
7.3 BIOMES World Regions Tropical Rain Forest
54
7.3 BIOMES World Regions Tropical Rain Forest
- Climate
Belize - Temps
Belize - Rainfall
55
7.3 BIOMES World Regions Tropical Rain Forest
- Climate
56
7.3 BIOMES World Regions Tropical Rain Forest
- Soils
Thick leaf layer rots quickly and deeply due to
heat and moisture. Removal of vegetation cover
causes leaching.
57
7.3 BIOMES World Regions Tropical Rain Forest
- Plants
58
7.3 BIOMES World Regions Tropical Rain Forest
- Animals
Squirrel
Black Jaguar
Woolly Monkey
Monkey
Macaw
Owl Butterfly
Grasshopper
Gecko
Source A Place Out of Time Tropical Rainforests
and the Perils They Face Rhett A. Butler - San
Francisco, CA. Unpublished - 2001. (Mongabay.com)
Boa
Caiman
59
7.4 BIOMES World Regions
  • EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES
  • Early Settlement Clearing Forests
  • Felling of Tropical Rain Forests
  • Intensive Agriculture
  • Industrial Development

60
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Early Settlement
Clearing Forests
  • European Forests
  • Irish Forests
  • Started in Neolithic Age
  • Mid 1800s almost devoid of forest cover
  • 1900 only 1 forest cover
  • 2003 - 9.4
  • EU average 31

61
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Early Settlement
Clearing Forests
Country Forest Cover ( of land area) 2003
Ireland 9.4
Netherlands 9.5
Denmark 12.7
Belgium 22.4
Germany 30.2
France 31.6
Sweden 73.5
Finland 75.5
Source OECD
62
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Early Settlement
Clearing Forests
Dark Green gt 40 cover Mid Green 10 40
cover Light Green woodland, shrubland
and bushland
63
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Clearing Forests
Change in forested land 1990-2000 by region total land area (m ha) total forest 1990 (m ha) total forest 2000 (m ha) change 1990-2000 (m ha) change per year
Africa 2 963.30 702.50 649.90 -52.60 -0.70
Asia and the Pacific 3 463.20 734.00 726.30 -7.70 -0.10
Europe 2 359.40 1 042.00 1 051.3 9.30 0.10
Latin America and the Caribbean 2 017.80 1 011.00 964.40 -46.60 -0.50
North America 1 838.00 466.70 470.10 3.40 0.10
West Asia 372.40 3.60 3.70 0.10 0.00
           
World 13 014.10 3 960.00 3 866.10 -93.90 -0.24
Source compiled from FAO 2001b Note numbers may not add due to rounding Source compiled from FAO 2001b Note numbers may not add due to rounding Source compiled from FAO 2001b Note numbers may not add due to rounding Source compiled from FAO 2001b Note numbers may not add due to rounding Source compiled from FAO 2001b Note numbers may not add due to rounding Source compiled from FAO 2001b Note numbers may not add due to rounding Source compiled from FAO 2001b Note numbers may not add due to rounding
64
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Clearing Forests
Average Annual 1990 - 2000
65
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Felling Tropical
Rain Forests
  • Importance of Tropical Rain Forests
  • Home to Tribal Cultures that have survived for
    thousands of years
  • Home to 50 of plant and animal species
  • Winter home to birds that breed in temperate
    climates
  • Help to reduce Global CO2 levels
  • Help to maintain global rain and weather patterns

66
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Felling Tropical
Rain Forests
  • Reasons for Felling
  • Firewood, charcoal, building materials, furniture
  • Conversion to pasture for cattle ranching
  • Mining for gold, bauxite (aluminium) etc.
  • Cultivation of Cash Crops

67
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Felling Tropical
Rain Forests
Brazil Source UNEP
68
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Felling Tropical
Rain Forests
Argentina Source UNEP
69
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Felling Tropical
Rain Forests
Bolivia Source UNEP
70
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Intensive
Agricultural Practices
Bolivia Source UNEP
71
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development - Urbanisation
Urban Population by Region
Nearly half the world population now lives in
urban areas. Africa, and Asia and the Pacific,
are the worlds least urbanized regions, North
America, Europe, and Latin America the most
urbanized Source compiled from United Nations
Population Division 2001b
While all regions are still urbanizing, the rate
at which most are doing so is falling, although
rates are changing little in Africa and are
actually increasing in North America Source
compiled from United Nations Population Division
2001b
Annual Increase by Region
72
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development - Urbanisation
Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000 Distribution of global population () by size of settlement, 1975 and 2000
    rural areas rural areas lt 1 million lt 1 million 1- 5 million 1- 5 million gt 5 million gt 5 million
    1975 2000 1975 2000 1975 2000 1975 2000
world 62.1 53 25.1 28.5 8 11.6 4.8 6.9
developed regions 30 24 46.8 48.1 13.9 18.5 9.3 9.5
developing regions 73.2 60.1 17.6 23.7 6 10 3.2 6.3
Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a Source United Nations Population Division 2001a
73
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development - Air Pollution
  • Trends in Atmospheric Concentrations and
  • Anthropogenic Emissions of Carbon Dioxide

74
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Air Pollution
  • World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region,
    2001-2025 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon
    Equivalent)

75
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Air Pollution
  • World Carbon Dioxide Emissions 1999
  • Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent per capita

76
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Acid Rain
Source angelfire.com
77
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Acid Rain
  • Effects of Acid Rain

Source angelfire.com
78
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Rivers and Lakes Faecal Coliforms

79
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Rivers and Lakes pH values

80
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Fresh Water Stress (where consumption exceeds 10
    of total supply)

81
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Rivers and Lakes

82
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Rivers and Lakes

83
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Coasts and Seas

84
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development - Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Coasts and Seas

85
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Coasts and Seas

86
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Industrial
Development Water Pollution
  • Pollution of Coasts and Seas

87
7.4 BIOMES Human Activities Vanishing Wilderness
World Ecosystems Undisturbed Partially Disturbed Human Dominated
51.9 24.2 23.9
Adjusted for Rock, Ice Barren Land 27 36.7 36.3
Source Hannah et Al 1994
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