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ESOL in the Classroom. Where have we come from? Where are we heading? A keynote presentation to the NZPF ESOL in Classroom Conference, Waipuna Conference Centre, June ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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ESOL in the Classroom. Where have we come from?
Where are we heading?
A keynote presentation to the NZPF ESOL in
Classroom Conference, Waipuna Conference Centre,
June 3, 2010
JOHN MCCAFFERY Senior Lecturer, School of Arts,
Languages Literacies. Faculty of Education
University of Auckland
Washing ones hands of the conflict between the
powerful and the powerless means to side with the
powerful, not to be neutral. (Paulo Freire)
Greetings in this 2010 Samoan Language Week
Problems cannot be solved at the same level
of awareness that created them.  - Albert
Einstein Implied but not stated- we need to step
up our Professional Content Knowledge( PCK)
thinking, research discussion and debate about
learning English / all languages for ELL/
bilinguals in NZ
Revision (Things we already know) What we do in
the classroom today becomes a microcosm of
society tomorrow (Carol White). Diversity is
the face of the nation.It is the new norm. What
we do not achieve today, society inherits. The
one thing we have to do to succeed is to work
cooperatively together for the common good-and -
effective communication among us is the key.
Better Practice is not anybodys territory to
defend. There are many things I do not know
about- you will be able to fill in many gaps-
There are no one person solutions- research is
only one important factor to be considered. Our
decisions need to be research informed not
research driven by people outside the profession.
We are the professionals and we need to make
informed decisions everyday.
These daily and longer term strategic decisions
need to be based on our Professional Content
Knowledge ( PCK) This as Shulman(1986, 1987)
says, is applied research, applied knowledge
(Eg Medical profession). We cannot wait for
research or the Ministry or ERO or the party
politics of Governments to solve our challenges
for us. Only by cooperative partnerships to
build and use our collective PCK can we explore
the implications of and agree on what is best
for our students and their families. I know this
conference seeks to do that - and I welcome the
opportunity to contribute and engage in jointly
constructing such a future rather than just
waiting for it to happen from someone else's
actions. Kia kaha tatou.
Todays presentation Develop greater knowledge
understandings from research and professional
practice aboutThe current state of ESOL NZ in
education Aotearoa/NZ and where we have come
from? Ask where we are going with ESOL in the
classroom in Aotearoa/NZ ?Ask questions and
propose possible future directions and actions
we will need to take if (ESOL) programmes are to
met the needs of our rapidly growing, diverse
school age student population
Meanings in this presentation HL heritage
language/s of ones family and ancestors- whether
speak them or not .Can be L1, L2 or neither. L1
Mother tongue, vernacular, first language-
acquired in infancy L2 second language/s English
or regional language/s-acquired after infancy Can
have two first languages
Who are ESOL learners? Once they were ESL
learners Then they became ESOL(AUS) Then
LEP(USA), Then NESB,( AUS) Then EAL, then ELL
(USA/ NZ current) Along the way Bilingual
Learners (England), and Emerging Bilinguals
(Garcia, 2008 Hispanic chn USA) All bilingual
work in the USA has to be reported under ELL now
because of No Child Left Behind ( Standing?)
laws 2001 Bilingual Learners is the UK term- are
bilingual, need to be bilingual or want to be
bilingual. ESOL is the programme- TESOL is the
  • Teachers definitions of ESOL students and
    programmes has been retreating annually as MoE
    funding is restricted to overseas born. Is the
    ESOL programme now just the programme for
    students in MoE funded programmes?
  • What is happening to all the other learners in
    the new MoE definitions?
  • ESOL funded students from migrant, refugee or NZ
    born backgrounds
  • Previously funded students
  • Students from homes where a language other than
    English is spoken

  • Students transitioning from Kura to English
    medium-learning environments
  • Students from bilingual education settings
  • Students with specific identified language
    learning needs
  • International fee paying students
  • ppt source Learning Media. Meeting the Needs
    of ELL (2010)
  • What then is ESOL and what is its expanding

Bilingual students are
Blessed with Bilingual Brains McCaffery
Tuafuti, 1999
The purpose of education is to help children
become someone more, to add to who they are
to be a full member of their own family and
culture and a citizen of the world. We should
not be trying to make them into someone
different by taking away from them, their
identity, culture and language, and their ability
to pass it on to the next generation.
Either The Languages and cultures students
bring with them to school are a valuable
resource or Students languages cultures are
framed in discourse as a problem. It is decision
time- We claim one thing but the discourse says
another and it is the discourse that carries the
day. NZ educators appear to hold deeply held
deficit views about diverse students- You
mission should you accept it is to abolish the
discourse of deficit. Examples
The facts Funded Students
  • There are over 27,000/ 32,000? ESOL funded
    students in primary and intermediate schools in
    NZ. They come from 163 ethnic groups and speak
    115 different languages
  • 1,022 primary or intermediate schools have funded
  • Samoan students account for 12.31 of funded
    students, Tongan 12.30, Chinese 7.9
  • 2 schools have 300 funded students BUT
  • 195 schools have 10-19 students
  • 593 schools have 1-9 students or 47.6 of funded
  • Other ESOL Students my heading
  • It is estimated that 22 of our school students
    come from a language background other than
  • What does this mean?- family uses? student
    understands speaks to some people, is bilingual?
    needs to be or wants to be?
  • Data Source Ministry of Education 2009 ESOL
    database .ppt source Learning Media. Meeting the
    Needs of ELL (2010)

Where have we come from? Pennycook, (2001)
Colonial expansion of England- English and the
Missionaries, settlers, expatriates, and
schooling. EFL ESL- two related but different
professional fields and knowledge systems which
are often confused.Carried the discourse of
deficit and second class status. EFL English as
a Foreign Language (in society) L2. No or limited
English speech community( except expats). Learned
used only at school. Main focus on grammar
then vocabulary reading and writing supreme.
e.g. Pacific Asia. China/ Hong Kong,Taiwan,
Korea, Malaysia, Samoa, Tonga.. Originally an
optional extra. L2 does not replace L1. Parents
bring their experiences with EFL here to NZ
mistakenly.We need to engage with them.
ESL English as a Second Language (in society). A
large and accessible English speaking/ using
community including the learners who need to use
English in school and in society to survive and
be full participants (Eg India). Very different
to EFL settings Prime focus on speaking.
Vocabulary as the main task Grammar less
important. Literacy essential. In English
French and Spanish dominant countries, L2 usually
replaces L1 over 2-3 generations. Eg NZ AUS
England, USA. Shifts of concern- Cook Is, Niue,
Hawaii,Tahiti(French) Rapanui (Spanish) and
recently -Singapore, Malaysia - experimenting
with abandoning L1s rapidly in education.
  • ESOL a non issue in NZ until associated with new
    immigrants in the 1970s. Pacific then refugee
    Asian then wealthy migrants Dip TESOL VUW,
    1975/6 Dip TESOL NSTC/ ATC / ACE 1977.
  • Maori students historically excluded- since 1990
    in particular with closure of Maori and Pacific
    Language(English) Advisors Teams- Jim Leabourne,
    Lional Mickel, Sonny Taare, Mii Pamatatau, Tupae
    Pepe. Remains very problematic issue. ESOL- An
    educationally unacceptable title for the field
    for Maori to date.
  • Language Education Diversity( LED) is
    acceptable. SO ???
  • see 2011 UoA Conference
  • .

For far too long we have worked in silos of ESOL,
Literacy, Bilingual Education/ Maori Medium,
International students,Reading Recovery
recently set up another one we call Learning
Languages- We need to resist the tension be a
silo oriented profession as each discourse
gathers its followers, heroes and defenders now
dominated by a growing obsession with relatively
narrow definitions of Literacy as a remedial
programme. Defending our territory and current
practices needs to be replaced by engaging in
shared dialogue that searches for Better
Evidence and Better Practice (BEBP)
A good example of the silo approach we have
taken is the importance and pedagogy of
vocabulary in comprehension writing- Strangely
TESOL has been exploring this for at least the
last 30 years and apparently Literacy has
recently found vocabulary may be significant in
reading comprehension and writing !!! We have
also just opened two listserves- One Literacy one
ESOL-ESOL is literacy and Literacy needs to be
ESOL ESOL community objections to a merger are
based on the AUS experience where ESOL was
rapidly lost- swallowed by Literacy. We can do
both together - Literacy MUST learn about ESOL-
Cannot be literacy led. We can make ESOL part of
literacy and literacy part of ESOL- What about a
Venn diagram? Some together some separate?
Education and politics then have both developed
a centralist tendency to look for short term
answers. We need to build relationships and
communication and therefore capacity to
trustingly jointly explore long term solutions
beyond the term of each 3 yr government.
Consultation should not mean - short term quick
fix contracts and meetings where -Tell me now,
tell me quickly, keep the complex simple, what is
the magic bullet, and- thank you, we will now
decide for you seems to be rapidly becoming the
Consultation needs to be replaced with genuine
Capacity building including vigorous discussion
and transparent debate.The best solutions are
those that stand the test of debate with
classroom teachers- You make the difference- Your
opinions matter.
Current Approach One -Withdrawal While numbers
of ESOL migrants were small- we imported
withdrawal from England and funded TA and
unqualified staff. Those most in need taught by
the least qualified and experienced ! (TA used in
27 of NZ programmes in 2003) Withdrawal has
remained main pedagogy (60) until today( Franken
McComish, 2003)- Very problematic in many
ways. Where withdrawal focuses on partnership
with class teachers to develop language
literacy support for current curriculum work it
can be very useful- However few egs found- 5
  • Auditor General/ Treasury- Paying twice as
    qualified teachers have increased-budget blow out
    predicted, Withdrawal not sustainable two
    teachers for same child. MoE cuts back funding
    criteria reducing those eligible- and lengthens
    time- (research BICS in 18 mths but CALP takes
    5-6 yrs)
  • Can be useful for new arrivals for orientation
    settling in.
  • Research showing it as the least effective
    methodology of all.
  • - Withdrawal is Illegal in the UK- must be
    in-room support
  • Classroom teachers see student as someone elses
  • Low level of training and qualification of
    teachers involved
  • Focus often not on the language demands of the
    current curriculum work but elsewhere- speaking
    properly or decontextualised skills

  • Some students report feeing stigmatised
  • Many Chinese Korean parents opposed as students
    miss curriculum work
  • Strong vested interests in the status quo
  • - Not consistent with new NZ Curriculum - page16
  • Alternative BEBP approaches now available
  • Could one teacher well trained, meet the needs?
    MoE begins funding Dip TESSOL scholarships for
    all teachers in Univ Teacher Education.

  • Third alternative org is the ESOL class
    (Sheltered English USA)
  • Consists of all ESOL and or international fee
    paying students learners.
  • - Has advantages and disadvantages.
  • Can be useful as an entry model for limited
    period of time
  • Expectations held? Wide diversity still. No
    native speaker models for co-construction more
    skilled -less skilled scaffolding. Not a Long
    term option.
  • We should not call this English Immersion.
    Immersion is a means/pedagogy to bilingualism
    and biliteracy and involves a significant use of
    students L1 at various stages.

Fourth- Trained Teacher Aids for In-class
Support- Prof Jill Bourne,1988-on England.
Advocates Bilingual Support Assistants(TA)
called Partnership Teaching. Best Int models.
Requires whole school support and genuine
partnerships as full members of teaching teams
supervised supported by qualified ESOL
teacher. Includes FT job of fostering Mother
tongue/ L1 awareness and all teachers school
support ( community languages and dialects of
English children bring to school) Community
language teaching in some limited settings and
mostly out of school time. Bilingual support
for curriculum learning (ESOL)
Policy ( DSE, 1975) No child should be expected
to cast off the language and culture of the home
as s/he crosses the school threshold and the
curriculum should reflect these aspects of his
their life. NZ ( TA Few trained but only 5
in-class support) Jannie van Hees NZ TA pilot
training for English very successful- Continuing
? Rae Siilata NZ Pasifika bilingual pilot TA
training for English - Handbook and research
review- on tki. Very successful.- Continuing ?
Englands model is more comprehensive. Has large
research base and is judged to be successful. Why
reinvent the wheel?
Other approaches in use- Bilingual Support -
Usually TA in class- Handful only in 140 schools
in 2003 Peer Support -More common in
secondary- very powerful Reading Recovery- Not
adequate on its own
Where are we going? Does it depend which waka
you are on ? The fleet may have been
dispersed- Can we get it back together?
NZC p.16 - ESOL when you dont mention ESOL
Each learning area has its own language or
languages For each area students need
specialist vocabulary associated with that area
how to read and understand its texts how to
communicate knowledge and ideas in appropriate
ways how to listen and read critically,
assessing the value .. Students who are new
learners of English need explicit and extensive
teaching of English vocabulary, word forms,
sentence and text structures and language uses
(functions purposes) Literacy in English is
essential as it is the medium for most
curriculum learning learning (p.18 also)
Where are we going ? Recommendations for review
have come from Franken McComish, 2003 MoE/
Franken McComish, 2003 Franken, 2005 Franken ,
2006 TESSOLANZ 2006/7
Current Issues and Questions? Students- some? -
funded? international? all? Diversity is the new
norm(al). Maori students are actually the most in
need of inclusion. Definitions- Inclusive or
exclusive? Traditional- withdrawal New-
classroom intergration NZ Curriculum- all
teachers. Relationship with Literacy problematic-
a silo approach- why ?-ESOL is scaffolded
literacy- The best literacy for diverse students
is ESOL.Scaffolding is the prime ESOL pedagogy
ESOL Knowledge and skills (PCK) specialist, some
or all teachers? Teachers Council requirements?
What about Literacy Leaders, Advisors,Senior
Management- generally the non attenders atESOL
PD and Qualifications- but who make the decisions
on funding, organisation, staffing, policy ?
Supporting students bilingualism- What does a
language background other than English mean? What
possibilities can we find? Classroom teachers
can only do what school policy organisation and
support allows and supports. The first job is to
get the MOE and school policies aligned with
BEBP ( Corson, 1990,1999, 2001 Franken
McComish, 2003, 2003 Franken, 2006 2005)
Best evidence, better practice? All teachers
need to be teachers of language, with in class
support, bilingual if possible Very diverse
students- can not be lumped together- National
Standards- The tension between NS reporting and
what we know about BPBE
Classroom Pedagogy- Theorised Practice 1) How to
scaffold learning in 1.1) Learning language
(EnglishL1) Learn BICS ( Informal oral/
spoken and playground language) and CALP( Formal
School English oral written and visual, for
academic learning) 1.2) Learning about language
literacy (English L1) How English works
(Functional Grammar) especially, the
meta-language to explore discuss in the context
of curriculum work 1.3) Learning to use language
literacy (English L1) for learning in all
curriculum areas. A Purposes Functional
approach implemented through -Task based
curriculum work covering -oral written and visual
1.4) What do teachers have to be able to
do? Scaffold learning- all learning. Scaffolding
is appropriate socially and culturally
co-constructed learning through more skilled
support for less skilled learners- It is the
dominant current learning theory for all learning
not just language literacy ( www. my
Diagrams and explanation follow- Effective
Scaffolding means
explicit teaching of everything needed by the
learner to master a school task as well as
opportunity to follow up self learn and
independently master. Not one or the other- BOTH
providing more time to master tasks than we
currently give between- Dont know and cant do by
themselves and able to do by themselves Failure
for ELL is currently built into the way we
organise and structure learning in NZ ie is it
absolutely predictable and yet also avoidable
e.g. Maths, Reading- GSR, Writing, Inquiry.
proving more activities than we currently
provide- in teacher led and student learning in
each phase of the scaffolding process.
Three Scaffolding models here
BEPB From Research and Practice Four factors
needed for success in school- Value support
students L1 Language and culture. Add to it
rather than seek to take it away. Build
partnerships with parents to be centrally
involved in chns education Use pedagogies that
are interactive engaging not transmission
styles. ( ESOL is here) Use assessment that
empowers learners with what they can do have done
and finds ways forward- rather than conforms
failure, sees deficits and problems and blames
family culture and language.
Inclusive school practices- Language Culture
as resources for learning- bilingualism
valued ESOL/ ELL goals , resources practices
are aligned with other curriculum and school
activities ELL experience age appropriate
objectives-ESOL alongside curriculum goals-
Students previous experiences knowledge and
learning experiences are built on as the base for
future development- schema.. Sufficient exposure
to language input and opportunities to use- small
groups Opportunities for significant
repetitions and expansion of use- scaffolding
Explicit focused instruction in all aspects of
lang Literacy - especially listening speaking ,
functions vocabulary ESOL teaching is based
on what we know about student needs for form
function , L1 and socially co-constructed
contexts Academic CALP for curriculum areas -
Vocabulary, and how Genres work- Achieving
function and purpose- (text types in integration
in language and curriculum eg( SELIPS)
2.0 Know more about students bilingualism
and ways of providing bilingual support for
English language learning
The advantages of bilingualism

The Problems of NOT being Bilingual
  • I heard crying in the infants school as though a
    child had fallen and the voice came nearer and
    fell flat upon the air as a small girl came
    through the door and walked a couple of steps
    towards us.., About her neck a piece of new cord,
    and from that cord a board hung down, for she was
    small, and the cord rasped the flesh on her neck,
    and there were marks upon her shin where the edge
    of the board had cut Chalked on the board, in
    the fist of Mr Elijah Jonas-Sessions, I must not
    speak Welsh at school
  • Llewellyn( 1968, p.267)

Why is a child who arrives in Aotearoa/NZ from
Europe and speaks another language, talented and
gifted but a Maori child or a child from the
Pacific who speaks another language is a problem
? Is it bilingualism that is the problem or is it
our failure to deal adequately and professionally
with this bilingualism ?
Bilingualism Bilingual Support To be able to
Understand- Passive bilingual To speak read and
Write -Active bilingual Biliterate - To be
literate in both languages to any degree.
Franken says-Research is unanimous in advocating
the use of students first language to access
curriculum learning.
Many schools and teachers still believe that
preventing students speaking their own home
languages (L1) at school is necessary to be a
fast efficient learner of English. This is a
widely and deeply held BUT INCORRECT assumption
in NZ schools and society. It is identified in
the international BPBE as the biggest barrier to
ELL success at school- Yet is continues. What
does the evidence show? Cummins 1986, 2001
Supported by May Hill Tiakiwai,( (MoE) 2004
Franken May McComish( MoE), 2008 Franken
McComish,/ MoE) 2003, 2005, Franken 2005 Thomas
and Collier (1997 2002 Crandall,1997 Corson ,
1999, 2000 Baker, 2006 Garcia, 2009
The least effective programmes are to be cut
off from educational development in their L1 in
order to give them maximun exposure to the
L2(English). The more the instructional setting
accommodates to the student (L1 culture) ..
The better the outcomes are reported to be.
Franken / MoE 2003 Thomas and Collier diagram
(No Transcript)
Most forms of subtractive bilingualism lead to
educational failure ie Teaching L2 standard
English, as a replacement for L1 or an
expectation that it will. L2 - L1
failure Most types of additive bilingualism lead
to educational success ie Adding standard
school English to an L1 minority language L1/ HL
which is used as a medium of instruction in
school. L1 L2 success
(No Transcript)
A leai se gagana , ua leai se aganuu, a leai se
aganuu ona po lea o le nuu When you lose your
language , you lose your culture and when there
is no longer a living culture, darkness descends
on the village ( Fanaafi, 19961)
Kia ora rawa atu koutouno Aotearoa. Thank you
for being here.
Fakaaue lahi, Meitaki maata, Malo aupito, Vinaka
vakalevu, Faafetai tele. Thank you for being