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DEMOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT 1914 - PRESENT

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demography and environment 1914 - present the world under attack – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DEMOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT 1914 - PRESENT


1
DEMOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT 1914 - PRESENT
  • THE WORLD UNDER ATTACK

2
HOW MANY IS TOO MANY?
  • Dramatic population increases in twentieth
    century
  • Population increased from 500 million in 1650 to
    2.5 billion in 1950
  • Asia and Africa experienced population explosion
    after WWII
  • 5.5 billion people in 1994 perhaps 11.6 billion
    people in 2200
  • So far, food production has kept pace with
    population growth
  • Fertility rates have been falling for past twenty
    years
  • The planet's carrying capacity
  • How many people can the earth support?
  • Scientists and citizens concerned about physical
    limits of the earth
  • Club of Rome issued "The Limits to Growth" in
    1972
  • Dire predictions not borne by facts
  • Prices have fallen, food has increased
  • Technology seems to have been the unaccounted for
    variable
  • Environmental impact
  • Urbanization and agricultural expansion threaten
    biodiversity
  • Gas emissions, coal burning contribute to global
    warming
  • In 1997 at Kyoto, 159 states met to cut carbon
    dioxide emissions
  • Population control a highly politicized issue
  • Some developing nations cry racism when urged to
    limit population

3
WORLD POVERTY
Indicators include Fertility Rate, Illiteracy
Rate, Enrollment in Primary School,
Immunizations, Females in Labor Force, Life
Expectancy at Birth, Infant Mortality Rates, Safe
Drinking Water, Urban Sanitation, and Urban
Populations
4
MIGRATION
  • Internal migration is largely urbanization
  • Tremendous flow from rural to urban settings
  • Part of process of industrialization
  • In western societies 75 percent of population is
    urban
  • Urbanization a difficult transition for rural
    people
  • Crowded in slums (barrios) at the edge of cities
  • Massive strain on urban civil services
  • External migration
  • Fleeing war, persecution, seeking opportunities
  • 13 million "guest workers" migrated to western
    Europe since 1960
  • 10 million migrants (mostly Mexican) migrated to
    United States since 1960
  • In oil-producing countries, foreigners make up
    half of working population
  • About 130 million people live outside their
    countries of citizenship
  • Migrant communities within host societies
  • Migrants enrich societies in many ways
  • Also spark hostility and conflict
  • Fears that migrants will undermine national
    identity
  • Compete for jobs
  • Anti-immigrant movements

5
MIGRATION OR IMMIGRATION?
  • Migrations often refugee related in 20th century
  • Result of political turmoil, war massive popular
    dislocations
  • Europe
  • 1939 1989
  • 30 million dislocated by Nazis
  • 15 million Germans expelled by Communists from
    Eastern Europe
  • Millions of refugees flee Communist reign in
    Eastern Europe
  • Eastern Europe Since 1989
  • Wars in Yugoslavia following breakup of nation
  • Over one million Bosnia Muslims, Albanians were
    refugees
  • Many Serbs, Croats dislocated due to expulsions
    from centuries old homes
  • United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands,
    Portugal
  • As aspect of decolonization, settlers have
    returned home to their mother country
  • Many Europeanized natives have immigrated to
    settle in European nations
  • Vietnamese, Algerians, West Africans in France
    Africans, Arabs, West Indies, Indians in England
  • North Africa and SW Asia
  • Arab-Israeli Wars dislocated 1 million
    Palestinians
  • More than 2 million Jews flee centuries old homes
    in Arab lands for Israel
  • 1 million Kurds from persecution in Iraq in
    neighboring lands

6
LATE 20TH C. MIGRATION
7
DISEASES AND EPIDEMICS
  • Many epidemics now under control
  • Last major pandemic (1918-1919)
  • Spanish Influenza
  • Flu epidemic that killed forty million world wide
  • World Health Organization
  • Medical arm of the UN very active in fighting
    disease
  • Smallpox, diptheria eradicated
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Identified in 1981 in San Francisco
  • Originated in Africa 1960s
  • Spread to Western Europe, New York, Montreal
    Canada
  • In 2000
  • 36.1 million people living with HIV/AIDS
    worldwide
  • 21.8 million in Africa whole populations,
    nations threatened
  • Kills adults in prime
  • Many children in Africa orphaned
  • Threatens social and economic basis of African
    societies
  • Many cannot afford treatment
  • Many contract due to polygamy ideas, marrying
    brothers widow

8
ECOCIDE
  • Ecocide
  • Permanent physical destruction of an environment,
    biome
  • Only possible in 20th century thanks to
    technology
  • Silent Spring
  • Chemist Rachel Carson published landmark book in
    1963
  • Showed how industry was systematic destroying
    environment
  • Showed industry understood consequences, did not
    care
  • Instant landmark success
  • Gave birth to modern Green or Environmental
    movement
  • Green Party
  • Arose in 1980s in Europe, active today in US,
    Latin America
  • Environmental concerns married to social activism
    in elections
  • Strongly associated with consumerism movement
  • Influence exerted through Greenpeace, World
    Wildlife Federation
  • Deforestation proceeding at an alarming rate
  • Land needed for farming, exploding populations
  • Rain forests under attack for rare products, land
    to farm
  • Global Warming and Kyoto Accords
  • Concerns due to air pollution of cars, factories,
    spread of acid rain

9
GREEN REVOLUTION
  • Technology impacts food production
  • Mechanization of whole process
  • New seeds including genetically altered
  • Fertilizers, Pesticides such as DDT
  • Massive irrigation projects around world
  • The Green Revolution
  • Impacted India, China, Latin America, Africa
  • Famines today rare
  • India, China, most of Latin America can feed
    itself
  • Worlds food exporters
  • Rice Vietnam, US
  • Grains, Corn Europe, US, Argentina, Canada,
    Australia
  • Beef Argentina, US, Australia
  • BUT negative effects to environment
  • Chemical pollutants in soil, water
  • Destruction of forests, fragile zones to increase
    food production

10
POPULATION DENSITIES
11
GLOBAL URBANIZATION
12
DEMOGRAPHIC STRESS
13
URBANIZATION
14
MEGACITIES
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