Slawomir Majdanik Firearm injuries Department of the Forensic Medicine Pomeranian Academy of Medicine of Szczecin - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slawomir Majdanik Firearm injuries Department of the Forensic Medicine Pomeranian Academy of Medicine of Szczecin

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Title: Slawomir Majdanik Firearm injuries Department of the Forensic Medicine Pomeranian Academy of Medicine of Szczecin


1
Slawomir Majdanik Firearm injuries
Department of the Forensic
Medicine Pomeranian Academy of Medicine of
Szczecin
2
Definition many kinds of weapons may cause
firearm injury shotguns /used by hunters/
handguns (pistols or revolvers) rifles home -
made guns / country guns/ air rifles sports
guns
3
Definition Rarely firearm injuries are caused
using other kinds of objects projectiles and
their fragments (artillery shells, mortars)
captive - bolt guns industrial stud-guns alarm
guns /tracer shells/
4
Gun muzzle barrel trigger gunlock cock
5
Cartridge Projectile Gunpowder Cartridge
case Primer
6
Shotgun ammunition Wad Gunpowder and
shot Cardboard or plastic cylinder Metal base
including primer
7
Calibre 7.62 mm and 9 mm are most frequent
calibres in Poland.
calibre
barrel (cross section)
8
Basic factors affect nature of a gunshot
wound type of weapon missile velocity nature
of projectile range of discharge angle of
discharge
9
Why firearms injuries are often fatal ? Because
of significant kinetic energy of the
bullet. Vo 200-1000 m/s (even more !)
m V2
Ek
2
10
Gunshot injuries I. Gunshot injury penetrate
through the head (or leg, arm, neck, trunk ...)
a/ entrance wound b/ canal of the shot c/
exit wound
11
Gunshot injuries II. blind shots - bullet is
lodged in the victims body a/ entrance
wound b/ canal of the shot c/ bullet in the
body
12
Migrating bullet bullet when lodged in the
vessel may move /up or down the blood flow/ in
the victims body
13
Migrating bullet bullet when lodged in a
cavity may move /following the gravitation force/
in the victims body
14
Gunshot injuries III. Diagonal gunshot injury
/wound or abrasion/
15
Gunshot injuries IV. Ricochet (bullet changes
trajectory) Nevertheless non typical serious
injuries may occur lower velocity of the
bullet
16
Gunpowder comes out the muzzle in two
forms Completely burned gunpowder, called
soot or fouling, can be washed off the skin.
Particles of burned and unburned powder can
become embedded in the skin or bounce off and
abrade the skin. The marks on the skin are called
tattooing or stippling.
17
Analysis of the gunpowder traces A. microscope
determination (including electron microscopy) B.
chemical determination 1. Wellenstein-Kober
reaction (green-blue tint) 2. parch reaction
/in high temp./ 3. GriessIllosvay reaction (pink
tint)
18
Shot direction
Entrance wound (right angle)
?
Central defect
Soiled area (lubricant soot metal fragments)
Rim of abrasion width1-3mm (effect of the
shock wave)
Stippling/tattooing soot/fouling area (burned
gunpowder and gunpowder particles)
19
Shot direction
?
Entrance wound (acute angle)
20
Canal of the wound
Fragments of clothing Fragments of
bullet/shot Fragments of bone /other tissue/
21
Exit wound
Central defect
soiled area (none) rim of abrasion
(none) gunpowder and its traces (none)
22
Gunshot (tight contact and loose contact)
tight contact
skin
barrel
muzzle
loose contact
23
Gunshot (tight contact) all gunpowder
residue on the edges or inside a wound there may
be searing or burning of wound margins
barrel
victim
24
Gunshot (tight contact) reddening of
surrounding margins may occur due to CO gas
produced by burning powder (Paltauf sign)
barrel
victim
25
Gunshot (tight contact) muzzle
impression (muzzle mark on skin)
barrel
victim
26
Gunshot (tight contact) There is often
tearing of the skin around the entrance wound
(specially in head wounds) because of
pressure build-up and blow-back of the skin
toward the muzzle
barrel
victim
27
Gunshot (loose contact) muzzle impression
( - ) gunpowder may escape from the barrel and
be deposited around the edges of a wound
barrel
victim
28
Gunshot (close range) fouling and
stippling are present
barrel
victim
29
Gunshot (intermediate range) fouling ( -
) stippling is present
barrel
lt 1 m
victim
30
Gunshot (distant range) fouling ( - )
stippling ( - )
gt 1 m
victim
31
Shotgun wound /caused by shot/ or
contact wounds rat hole
wound (from 30cm to 1 metre)
32
Shotgun wound /caused by shot/ Satellite pellet
holes (appearing at the distance of over 1
metre) Spread of shot increases, central hole
diminishes Uniform spread with no central
hole (appearing at the distance of over 10 metres)
33
Scene 1. The scene must be examined for bullets
and cartridges. 2. Localisation of the body and
the gun must be considered. 3. Traces on the
wearing and victims hands must be protected !
34
Autopsy examination in the case of gunshot 1.
Inspection of the victims clothing (gun powder
traces, damage) 2. Localisation and inspection
of the entrance/exit wound 3. Inspection of the
canal of the wound 4. Finding the bullet
35
Commonly asked question I. How close was the
victim to the gun when it was fired ? II. What
was the the trajectory in the body ? (where is
the entrance/exit wound ?) III What was the
calibre /kind/ of the gun ? IV. What was the
sequence of the gunshot ?
36
(No Transcript)
37
Most important question is ...
38
homicide? suicide?
accident?
39
A typical hunting accident I swear it was a wild
boar
40
Captive - bolt guns /to dispatch large
animals/ Metal rod is propelled for about 5
centimetres from the muzzle.
skin
Captive bolt inflicts a clean, penetrating
injury, which can be mistaken with stab-like
injury.
muzzle
41
Industrial stud-guns Specific piston acts as a
hammer on the metal pin or stud.
skin/wall
muzzle

42
Rubber and plastic bullets To disperse
riot Velocity about 250 kph Effective range
50-70m
43
Death from explosion Both civilian and
military circumstances
44
Death from explosion - mechanisms a/ blast
effect b/ impact of projectiles originating from
the explosives device c/ impact from surrounding
objects and debris impelled by the explosion d/
burns from hot gas and incandescent objects
45
Death from explosion - injuries Peppering by
numerous small missiles causing lacerations and
bruises. Burning. A bomb can totally fragment
the body and scatter unidentifiable pieces over a
large area.
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