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Title: WORLD%20WAR%20I


1
WORLD WAR I
  • War is no longer Samson with his shield and
    spear and sword, and David with his sling. It is
    the conflict of smokestacks now, the combat of
    the driving wheel and the engine.

2
MILITARISM
  • Empires were less expensive to build and defend
  • Growth of nationalism and imperialism led to
    increased military spending
  • The imperial powers followed a policy of
    militarismthe development of armed forces and
    their use as a diplomacy tool
  • 1890Germany was the strongest European nation
  • They wanted to compete as a Naval Powerpretty
    soon they were competing with Britains naval
    power

3
ALLIANCE SYSTEM
  • 1907Two major defense alliances in Europe
  • The Triple Entente (Allies)France, Britain, and
    Russia
  • The Triple Alliance (Central Powers)Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, and Italyeventually the Ottoman
    Empire
  • The alliances provided a measure of international
    security because nations were reluctant to
    disturb the balance of power

4
IMPERIALISM
  • European nations had been building empires
  • Colonies supplied the European powers with raw
    materials and markets for goods
  • As Germany industrialized, it competed with
    France and Britain in the
  • contest for colonies

5
NATIONALISM
  • Politics in the Western World was deeply
    influenced by nationalism during the 19th century
  • In this atmosphere, competition soared and many
    feared Germanys growing power in Europe
  • Ethnic groups also resented domination by others
    and wanted independence
  • Many looked to the larger nations for protection

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7
ASSASSINATION WAR
  • The spark that started the war began in the
    powder keg of EuropeBalkan Peninsula
  • Ethnic rivalries and leading powers interests
    there created a problem between Bosnia and Serbia
  • In June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to
    the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital
    Sarajevo
  • He and his wife were shot by Gavrilo Princip
    while they were driving down the streets
  • Princip was a member of the Black Hand-an
    organization promoting Serbian Nationalism

8
ASSASSINATION WAR
  • On June 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war
    against Serbia
  • The Alliance System pulled one nation after
    another into the conflict
  • Germany, obligated by treaty, declared war on
    Russia to protect A-H on August 1
  • On August 3, Germany declared war on France
  • After Germany invaded Belgium (a neutral
    country), Britain declared war on Germany
  • The Great War had begun

9
THE FIGHTING STARTS
  • August 3, 1914Germany enacted the Schlieffen
    Plan
  • This plan called for
  • a holding action against Russia
  • A quick drive through Belgium to Paris
  • Then the two German armies would defeat Russia
  • Unable to save Belgium, the Allies retreated to
    the Marne River in France, where they halted the
    advance in September 1914

10
TRENCH WARFARE
  • Both sides dug in for a long seige
  • By 1915, trenches outlined the border between
    France and Germany
  • There were three main trenches
  • Front line
  • Support
  • Reserve
  • Each trench had several dugoutsunderground rooms
    used as officers quarters and command posts

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12
TRENCH WARFARE
  • Between the trench complexes lay no mans
    landa barren expanse of mud pockmarked with
    shell craters and filled with barbed wire
  • Soldiers who charged the lines were mowed down by
    machine guns

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14
TRENCH WARFARE
  • July 1, 1916the Battle of the Somme
  • The British suffered 60,000 casualties in the
    first day alone
  • Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million
  • Only 7 miles of land had changed hands
  • The Trench Warfare, in which armies fought for
    mere yards, continued for over three years

15
DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  • In 1914, Americans saw no reason to join a
    struggle 3,000 miles away
  • Socialists criticized the war as a capitalist and
    imperialist struggle between Germany and England
    to control markets and colonies in China, Africa,
    and the Middle East
  • Pacifists, like William Jennings Bryan, believed
    that war was evil and that the U.S. should set an
    example of peace to the world

16
DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  • Many Americans simply did not want their sons to
    experience the horrors of war
  • Millions of naturalized citizens followed the war
    closely because they still had ties to the
    nations from which they had emigrated
  • The sympathies increased for both sides as the
    war continued
  • However, Germanys aggressive behavior towards
    innocent civilians in Belgium made many Americans
    side with Britain

17
DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  • Germany became the bully of Europe
  • Propaganda provided by Britaineventually proven
    falsecreated this sense of anger towards Germany
  • Americas economic ties were much stronger with
    the Allies than the Central Powers
  • The Allies flooded American manufacturers with
    orders with supplies for the war, and this helped
    to separate America and Germany even more

18
DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  • The U.S. shipped millions of dollars of war
    supplies to the Allies, but requests kept coming
  • By 1915, the U.S. was experiencing a labor
    shortage
  • From 1914 on, trade with the Allies nearly
    quadrupled while trade with Germany fell to
    almost zero
  • By 1917, many Americans felt that prosperity
    depended upon an Allied victory

19
THE WAR HITS HOME
  • British blockade
  • Britain made use of its navy with a blockade of
    Germany
  • At first they prevented only military supplies
    and weapons from getting throughbut eventually
    expanded to include food
  • They also extended the blockade to neutral ports
    and mined the entire North Sea
  • American ships could not reach Germany
  • 750,000 Germans died of starvation as a result of
    the blockade

20
THE WAR HITS HOME
  • Americans had been angry with the blockade-until
    Germany reacted
  • Germany responded with a counter blockade by
    U-boats (submarines)
  • Any British or Allied ship found in the waters
    around Britain would be sunkand it was not
    always possible to warn crews and passengers of
    an attack

21
THE WAR HITS HOME
  • One of the worst disasters occurred on May 7,
    1915 when a U-boat sank the British liner
    Lusitania off the coast of Ireland
  • Of the 1198 persons lost, 128 were Americans
  • Germany justified their actions by stating the
    ship was carrying munitions
  • American public opinion turned against Germany
    and the Central Powers

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23
THE WAR HITS HOME
  • Despite the disaster, Wilson ruled out a military
    response in favor of a sharp protest against
    Germany
  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare continued
  • Germany sank the Arabic (British liner) and two
    Americans were killed
  • Again, the U.S. protestedGermany promised to
    stop sinking liners
  • They broke their promise by sinking the Sussex
    (French liner) in March 1916more American lives
    were lost

24
THE WAR HITS HOME
  • The U.S. warned it would cut off all diplomatic
    relations with Germany if they did not cease
    unrestricted submarine warfare
  • They promised to do so if the U.S. would urge
    Britain to allow food to reach the German coast

25
1916 ELECTION
  • The Democrats re-nominated Wilson
  • Republicans nominated Supreme Court Justice
    Charles Evans Hughes
  • Wilson ran on the slogan He Kept Us Out of War
  • Hughes pledged to uphold Americas right to
    freedom

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27
1916 ELECTION
  • The election returns shifted from hour to hour
  • Hughes went to bed believing he had won
  • When a reporter tried to reach him to inform him
    Wilson had won, an aide stated the President
    cannot be disturbed. Well then, replied the
    reporter, when he wakes up, tell him hes no
    longer president.

28
GERMAN PROVOCATION
  • The Germans ignored Wilsons calls for peace
  • Germany hoped to defeat Britain by using
    unrestricted sub warfare
  • On January 31-the Kaiser announced that all
    ships-neutral or hostile-on sight
  • Again, the U.S. held back until actual overt
    acts of war were committed

29
GERMAN PROVOCATION
  • The Overt Acts Came
  • First, the Zimmermann notea telegram from the
    German foreign minister to the German ambassador
    in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents
  • The telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico
    and Germany and promised that if war with the
    U.S. broke out, Germany would protect Mexico in
    recovering lost territory
  • Next came the sinking of four unarmed American
    merchant ships

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31
GERMAN PROVOCATION
  • Finally, events in Russia removed the last
    significant obstacle to direct U.S. involvement
    in the war
  • The Russian Monarchy was replaced with a
    representative government
  • Now supporters of American entry into the war
    could claim that this was a war of democracies
    against brutal monarchies
  • April, 1917America declared war on Germany

32
MOBILIZATION
  • The U.S. was not prepared for war
  • Only 200,000 men were in service and only a few
    officers had combat experience
  • Drastic measures were taken in order to prepare
    for a modern war in Europe

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34
MOBILIZATION
  • Congress passed the Selective Service Act of 1917
  • This required men to register the government in
    order to be randomly selected for military
    service
  • By 1918, 24 million had signed upabout 3 million
    were sent2 million before the truce was
    signed3/4ths saw actual combat

35
MOBILIZATION
  • About 400,000 African Americans served in the
    armed forces
  • More than half of them in France
  • African Americans served in segregated units and
    were excluded from the anvy and marines
  • Most were assigned to non-combat dutiesalthough
    there were a few exceptions

36
MOBILIZATION
  • The all-black 369th Infantry saw more continuous
    duty on the front lines than any other American
    regiment
  • Two soldiers of the 369th, Henry Johnson and
    Needham Roberts, were the first Americans to
    receive Frances highest military honor, the
    cross of war

37
MOBILIZATION
  • Training
  • 17 hour days in both Europe and the U.S.
  • Target practice, bayonet drill, kitchen duty, and
    cleaning up the grounds were all included
  • Real weapons were in short supply, so fake ones
    were used in most practice drills
  • Rocks instead of grenades, or wooden poles
    instead of rifles
  • Women
  • Although not allowed to enlist, the army accepted
    women in the Corps of Nurses, but denied them
    army rank, pay and benefits
  • Some 13,000 women committed themselves to service

38
MASS PRODUCTION
  • In addition to the vast army, the U.S. had to
    find a way to transport all the supplies and men
    across the ocean
  • This was made difficult by the submarine warfare
    by the Germans
  • To solve this problem the government took four
    crucial steps

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40
MASS PRODUCTION
  • First
  • The government exempted many shipyard workers
    from draft and gave others a deferred
    classification
  • Second
  • The U.S. Chamber of Commerce joined in a public
    relations campaign to emphasize the importance of
    shipyard work
  • They distributed service flags to families of
    shipyard workers
  • They also urged automobile owners to give
    shipyard employees rides to and from work since
    streetcars were so crowded

41
MASS PRODUCTION
  • Third
  • Shipyards used fabrication techniquesinstead of
    building an entire ship in the yard, standardized
    parts were built elsewhere and then assembled at
    the yard
  • This method reduced construction time drastically
  • Fourth
  • The government took over commercial private ships
    and converted them for transatlantic war use

42
AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE
  • U-boats were a major threat
  • Vice Admiral William S. Sims convinced the
    British to use the Convoy Systema heavy guard of
    destroyers escorting merchant ships across the
    ocean in groups
  • By fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut in
    half

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44
AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE
  • The U.S. also helped to lay a 230-mile barrier of
    mines across the North Sea from Scotland to
    Norway
  • The barrier was designed to bottle up the U-boats
  • By early 1918, the Germans found it increasingly
    difficult to replace staff and submariners lost
    in this barrier
  • Of the 2 million Americans sent to Europe, only
    637 were killed by U-boats

45
FIGHTING IN EUROPE
  • After 2 ½ years of fighting, the allies were
    tired and demoralized
  • Americans offered numbers and a freshness and
    enthusiasm
  • The AEF (American Expeditionary Force) led by
    General John J. Pershing, led the forces in
    Europe
  • They were nicknamed doughboys because of the
    white belts they worewhich they cleaned with
    pipe clay, or dough

46
NEW WEAPONS
  • The new weapons of the Great War changed the
    nature of warfare
  • The two most innovative weapons were the tank and
    the airplane
  • Together they heralded mechanized warfarewarfare
    that relies on gas powered machines
  • Tanks were first used the 1916 at the Battle of
    the Somme (not very effectively)
  • By 1917, they knew how to plow through barbed
    wire to clear paths for infantry

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48
NEW WEAPONS
  • Airplanes were first used to scout
  • Eventually, tanks were shooting down planes
  • Early dogfights were fought by pilots with
    pistolsfiring at one another as they flew by
  • Eventually planes began carrying mounted machine
    guns due to the difficulty of flying and shooting
  • The blades of the propeller kept getting in the
    way of the bulletsthe Germans introduced a
    interrupter gear that permitted the stream of
    bullets to avoid the whirring blades

49
NEW WEAPONS
  • By 1918, airplanes were being built stronger and
    faster
  • The British had built up a strategic bomber force
    of 22,000 planes to attack the Germans
  • Observation balloons were used extensively by
    both sidesthey were protected by aircraft flying
    close

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51
NEW WEAPONS
  • New/Improved Technology
  • Machine Gunsfirepower increased to 600 rounds
    per minute
  • Airships/Airplanesmounted with machine guns for
    dogfights, and both zeppelins and planes
    carried bombs
  • Antiaircraft Gunthe name says it all
  • Poison Gasa yellow-green chlorine fog sickened,
    suffocated, burned, and blinded its victimsgas
    masks became standard use
  • Tanksused to mow down barbed wire and soldiers

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53
NEW PROBLEMS
  • With the new weapons and warfare came new
    injuries
  • Trench foot, caused by standing in cold wet
    trenches for long periods of time without
    changing into dry socks or boots
  • Amputation was generally the only option
  • A painful infection of the gums and throat called
    trench mouth was also common

54
Trench Foot
55
ON THE OFFENSIVE
  • Russia pulled out in 1917 and Germany moved its
    army from the East to the West
  • They were within 50 miles of Paris when the
    Americans arrived just in time to stop the
    Germans at Cantigny, France
  • The U.S. helped push the Germans back and helped
    in their defeat at the Second Battle of the Marne
  • The Tide had turned against the Central Powers

56
THE COLLAPSE OF GERMANY
  • November 3, 1918Austria-Hungary surrendered to
    the Allies
  • That same day, German sailors mutinied against
    government authoritythe mutiny spread quickly
  • November 9socialist leaders in the capital,
    Berlin, established a German republicthe Kaiser
    gave up the throne
  • Although the allies never set foot on German
    soil, the Germans were too exhausted to continue
  • At the eleventh hour on the eleventh day of the
    eleventh month (1100am, November 11, 1918) the
    Germans agreed to a cease-fire and signed an
    armistice

57
THE FINAL TOLL
  • World War 1 was the bloodiest war in history to
    that time
  • Deaths numbered 22 million, more than half of
    them civilians
  • 20 million were wounded, and 10 million became
    refugees
  • Direct economic costs may have been about 338
    billion
  • The U.S. lost 48,000 men in battle, and 62,000
    from disease
  • More than 200,000 were wounded

58
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Winning the war was not just up to the soldiers,
    but also the politicians
  • Because WW1 was such an immense conflict, the
    entire economy had to be refocused on the war
    effort
  • Congress gave Wilson direct control over much of
    the economy, including the power to fix prices
    and to regulateeven to nationalizecertain
    war-related industries

59
THE WAR AT HOME
  • The main regulatory body was the War Industries
    Board (WIB)
  • Established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918 under
    the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch
  • The board encouraged companies to use
    mass-production techniques
  • They also urged eliminating waste by
    standardizing products

60
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Under the WIB, industrial production increased by
    about 20
  • However, the WIB applied price controls only at
    the wholesale level
  • As a result, retail prices soared and by 1918
    they were almost double what they had been
  • Corporate profits soared as well

61
THE WAR AT HOME
  • The Railroad administration controlled the
    railroads and the Fuel Administration monitored
    coal supplies and rationed gasoline and heating
    oil
  • Many people adopted gasless Sundays and
    lightless nights to conserve fuel
  • In March 1918, the Fuel Administration introduced
    another conservation measure daylight-saving
    time, which had first been proposed by Ben
    Franklin in the 1770s as a way of taking
    advantage of the long summer days

62
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Wages during the war rose by 20
  • A households income, however, was largely
    undercut by rising food prices and housing costs
  • By contrast, stockholders in large corporations
    saw enormous profit
  • The DuPont Company saw its stock multiply in
    value 1600
  • Unions also boomed because of the uneven pay
    between labor and management

63
THE WAR AT HOME
  • To deal with the disputes, Wilson established the
    National War Labor Board in 1918
  • Workers who refused to obey board decisions could
    lose their draft exemptions
  • Work or Fight the board told them
  • The board also worked to improve labor conditions

64
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Food Administration
  • To help reduce and conserve food, Wilson set up
    the Food Administration under Herbert Hoover
  • Instead of rationing food, he called on people to
    follow the gospel of the clean plate
  • He declared meatless, sweetless, wheatless
    and porkless days to help conserve
  • Restaurants removed sugar bowls from tables and
    served bread only after the first course

65
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Taxes supplied most of the war finance
  • A progressive income tax, a war profits tax, and
    higher excise taxes on tobacco, liquor, and
    luxury goods were issued
  • The rest was raised through Liberty Loans and
    Victory Loans
  • only a friend of Germany would refuse to buy
    bonds

66
THE WAR AT HOME
  • To popularize the war, the government set up the
    nation's first propaganda agency, the Committee
    on Public Information (CPI)
  • The head of the CPI was a former muckraking
    journalist name George Creed
  • Thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons, and
    sculptures promoting the war were created
  • Creed recruited 75,000 four-minute men to speak
    about anything and everything about the war

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68
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Although the campaign worked, it also inflamed
    hatred and violations of the civil liberties of
    certain ethnic groups
  • Anti-Immigrant Hysteria came about due to the
    overwhelming fears Americans had about Germans
    invading
  • Many Americans with German names lost their jobs
  • Orchestras refused to play Mozart, Bach,
    Beethoven, and Brahms

69
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Some towns with German names changed them
  • Schools stopped teaching the German language and
    librarians removed books by German authors from
    the shelves
  • People even resorted to violence against German
    Americans, flogging them or smearing them with
    tar and feathers

70
THE WAR AT HOME
  • German measles were changed to Liberty Measles
  • Salisbury steak was changed to liberty
    sandwich
  • Sauerkraut was renamed liberty cabbage and
    dachshunds turned into liberty pups

71
THE WAR AT HOME
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • June 1917 Congress passed the Espionage Act and
    May 1918 it passed the Sedition Act
  • Under these Acts, a person could be fined up to
    10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for
    interfering with the war effort or for saying
    anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the
    government or war effort
  • This act led to the prosecutions for over 2000
    peoplehalf of which resulted in convictions

72
THE WAR AT HOME
  • The House of Representatives refused to seat
    Victor Berger, a socialist congressman from
    Wisconsin, because of his antiwar views
  • Columbia University fired a distinguished
    psychologist because he opposed the war effort
  • A colleague who supported the war resigned in
    protest
  • If we have to support everything we dont like,
    then this country is resting on a pretty wobbly
    basis

73
THE WAR AT HOME
  • These Acts targeted socialists and labor leaders
  • Eugene V. Debs was given a 10 year sentence for
    speaking out against the war
  • Anarchist, Emma Goldman, received a two-year
    sentence and a 10,000 fine for organizing the No
    Conscription League
  • When she was released she was deported back to
    Russia
  • Big Bill Haywood and others of the IWW were
    accused of sabotaging the war effort

74
THE WAR AT HOME
  • The IWW eventually faded under the pressure by
    these Acts
  • African Americans
  • Black public opinion was divided
  • W.E.B. Du Bois believed blacks should support the
    war effort
  • Du Bois believed that supporting the war would
    strengthen calls for racial justice
  • William Monroe Trotter, founder of the Boston
    Guardian, believed victims of racism should not
    support a racist government

75
THE WAR AT HOME
  • The war accelerated the Great Migrationthe large
    scale movement of blacks to Northern cities
  • Several factors contributed to this great
    multitude of people moving
  • First, many sought to escape discrimination
  • Second, manufacturers needed the laborers
  • Finally, newspapers bombarded Southern blacks
    with articles contrasting Dixieland lynchings
    with the prosperity of Blacks in the North

76
THE WAR AT HOME
  • While men were fighting and Blacks began new
    lives, women moved into jobs that had been held
    exclusively by men
  • They became railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers,
    and bricklayers
  • They mined coal and took part in shipbuilding
  • Support for womens suffrage rose greatly during
    this periodthis aided the passage of the 19th
    amendment in 1920

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78
THE WAR AT HOME
  • The Flu Epidemic
  • In the fall of 1918, the U.S. suffered a
    home-front crisis when an international flu
    epidemic affected about ¼ of the population
  • The economy was devastated
  • Mines shut down, telephone service was cut in
    half, and factories and offices staggered working
    hours
  • Cities ran short on coffinscorpses of poor
    people lay unburied for at least a week

79
THE WAR AT HOME
  • In the army, the disease spread quickly killing
    more than a quarter of those who caught the
    disease
  • Doctors did not know what to do except tell
    people to stay clean and quarantine themselves
  • The disease was spread around the world by
    soldiersmore Germans died than any of the Allied
    countries

80
THE WAR AT HOME
  • The war and the epidemic ended quickly, but now
    the daunting task of peace lay before the world
  • Americans hoped that this war to end all wars
    would do just that
  • Leaders of the victorious nations gathered in
    Versailles to work out the terms for peace

81
Wilson Fights for Peace
  • Wilson arrived in Europe with a heros welcome
  • Italians displayed pictures of him in their
    windows
  • Parisian strewed the street with flowers
  • Representative from different ethnic groups
    Armenians, Jews, Ukrainians, and Poles appealed
    to him for help in setting up independent nations
    for themselves

82
Fourteen Points
  • Wilsons plan for world peace
  • January 18, 1918 presented to Congress his
    Fourteen Points speech which were divided into 3
    groups
  • First 5 were issues that needed to be addressed
    to prevent another war
  • No secret treaties among nations
  • Freedom of the seas for all
  • Tariffs and economic barriers should be lowered
    or abolished to foster free trade
  • Arms reduction to lowest point consistent with
    domestic safety
  • Colonial policies should consider the interests
    of the colonial peoples as well as the
    imperialist powers

83
Fourteen Points
  • Next 8 points dealt with boundary changes
  • Based the provisions on the principle of
    self-determination along historically
    established lines of nationality
  • 14th point an international organization to
    address diplomatic crises like those that had
    sparked the war League of Nations would
    provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle
    their grievances with have to resort to war

84
Allies Reject Wilsons Plan
  • Wilson was naïve in thinking the Allies would
    agree to his plan
  • Allies were angry
  • Georges Clemenceau
  • French premier
  • Had lived through 2 German invasions
  • Wanted to prevent future invasions
  • David Lloyd George
  • British prime minister
  • Won reelection with the slogan Make Germany Pay

85
Allies Reject Wilsons Plan
  • Vittorio Orlando
  • Italian prime minister
  • Wanted control of Austrian-held territory
  • Peace conference did not include
  • the defeated Central Powers
  • Russia (now a communist country)
  • Smaller Allied nations
  • The Big Four
  • Wilson, Clemenceau, George, and Orlando
  • Worked out the treaty detail among themselves
  • Wilson conceded on all points except the League

86
Debating the Treaty of Versailles
  • June 18, 1918
  • The Big Four and the leaders of the defeated
    nations gathered in the Hall of Mirrors of the
    Palace of Versailles to sign the treaty
  • Everyone hoped the treaty would create stability
    for a rebuilt Europe

87
Provisions of the Treaty
  • Established 9 new nations including Poland,
    Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia
  • Shifted boundaries of other nations
  • Carved up the Ottoman Empire into 5 areas called
    mandates and placed France and Great Britain in
    charge
  • They were to control them until they were ready
    for self-rule
  • Germany
  • Was barred from maintaining an army
  • Had to return Alsace-Lorraine to France
  • Had to pay reparations war damages (33
    billion) to Allies

88
Weaknesses of the Treaty
  • Treatment of Germany weakened the treaty so that
    it could not provide lasting peace in Europe
  • Weaknesses
  • It humiliated Germany by containing a war-guilt
    clause
  • It forced Germany to admit sole responsibility
    for starting WWI
  • German militarism did play a part in igniting the
    war, but other nations caused diplomatic crises
    before the war
  • Germany could not pay the huge reparations
  • Germany was stripped of its colonial possessions
    in the Pacific

89
Weaknesses of the Treaty
  • Russia who for 3 years had fought on the side of
    the Allies, lost more territory than Germany,
    because they were not included in the
    negotiations (had higher casualty rates than any
    other nation)
  • Russia which became known as the USSR (Union of
    Soviet Socialist Republics after 1922) wanted its
    territory back
  • Ignored claims of colonized people for
    self-determination

90
Opposition to the Treaty
  • Wilson faced strong opposition to the treaty when
    he returned to the U.S.
  • Some people including Herbert Hoover felt it was
    too harsh
  • Other felt it was too imperialistic because
    colonies were not given their freedom or other
    countries were carved up into mandates
  • Ethnic groups did not like the treaty because the
    new national boundaries did not satisfy their
    demands of self-determination

91
Debate of the League of Nations
  • Main domestic issue the League of Nations
  • A few opponents believed the League threatened
    the U.S. foreign policy of isolationism
  • Conservative senators, headed by Henry Cabot
    Lodge, were suspicious of the provision for joint
    economic and military action against aggression
    even though it was voluntary
  • Wanted the constitutional right of Congress to
    declare war included in the treaty

92
Wilson Refuses to Compromise
  • Wilson ignored the Republican majority when he
    chose members of the American delegation
  • If he would have compromised on the League, the
    Senate might have approved the treaty
  • September 1918 Wilson went on an 8,000 mile
    tour to promoted the treaty
  • He delivered 34 speeches in 3 weeks explaining
    why the U.S. should join the League of Nations
  • On October 2, 1918, Wilson had a stroke and lay
    partially paralyzed for more than 2 months
  • Was unable to meet with his cabinet

93
Wilson Refuses to Compromise
  • Treaty came to a vote in the Senate in November
    1918
  • Senator Lodge introduced numerous amendments
    including one that qualified how the U.S. would
    enter the League of nations
  • Many feared that U.S. membership in the League
    would force the U.S. to form its foreign policy
    in accord with the League
  • The Senate not only rejected the amendment but
    the treaty itself
  • Wilson refused to compromise
  • Treaty came up again for a vote in March 1920 and
    again it was rejected

94
Wilson Refuses to Compromise
  • 1922 U.S. signed a separate treaty with Germany
    after Wilson was no longer president
  • U.S. never joined the League of Nations
  • It did maintain an unofficial observer position
    at League meetings

95
Domestic Consequences of WWI
  • Accelerated Americas emergence as the worlds
    greatest industrial power
  • Contributed to the movement of African Americans
    to Northern cities
  • Intensified anti-immigrant and anti-racial
    sentiments among mainstream Americans
  • Brought over one million women into the workforce

96
The Legacy of the War
  • With the end of WWI, many Americans wanted a
    return to what Warren G. Harding called
    normalcy
  • Both the U.S. and the rest of the world had been
    transformed by the war
  • WWI strengthened the U.S. military and the power
    of the government
  • Accelerated social change for African Americans
    and women
  • Propaganda campaign provoked powerful fears

97
The Legacy of the War
  • In Europe the destruction of massive loss of life
    severely damage social and political systems
  • Political instability and violence persisted for
    decades in many countries
  • Russia became the first communist state
  • Militant fascist organization seized Italy,
    Spain, and Germany
  • Americans called WWI the war to end all wars

98
The Legacy of the War
  • Unresolved issues in Europe would eventually lead
    America into a bigger war
  • Treaty of Versailles settled nothing
  • Some Europeans wanted to resume the fight
    including an Austrian WWI veteran named Adolf
    Hitler
  • It cannot be that two million Germans should
    have fallen in vain . . . No, we do not pardon,
    we demand vengeance!
  • Two decades later, Hitlers desire for vengeance
    will put the U.S. Europe into an even greater
    war

99
The Legacy of the War
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