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Sports%20Injury%20Management

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Sports Injury Management Foot / Ankle – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sports%20Injury%20Management


1
Sports Injury Management
  • Foot / Ankle

2
Ankle Anatomy
Tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle
Fibularis longus muscle
Extensor digitorum longus muscle
Hallucis longus muscle
Fibula
Anterior talofiblular muscle
Calcaneal tendon
Calcaneus
Cuboid bone
Metatarsal bone
3
Anatomy - Joints
  • Made up of two joints ankle joint and subtalar
    joint
  • ANKLE JOINT tibia and fibula, allows the
  • foot to bend up and down
  • SUBTALAR JOINT talus and calcaneus, allows
    the foot to move side to side
  • TARSAL BONES connect to the 5 long bones
  • of the foot, the metatarsals

4
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5
Anatomy Ligaments and Tendons
  • ACHILLES TENDON most important tendon for
    walking, running, and jumping
  • - attaches the calf muscles to the heel bone to
    allow pushing up and off on the toes
  • - 12 additional tendons cross the ankle
    responsible for other movements of the foot,
    including supporting the arches of the foot

6
Anatomy - Muscles
  • Muscles are classified as intrinsic and
    extrinsic.
  • INTRINSIC MUSCLES located within the foot and
    cause movement of the toes flexors (plantar
    flexor), extensors (dorsiflexor), abductors, and
    adductors also help support the arches of the
    foot
  • EXTRINSIC MUSCLES located outside the foot in
    the lower leg, the GASTROCNEMIUS is the largest.
    They have long tendons that cross the ankle to
    attach to the bones of the foot and assist
    movement.

7
Ankle Sprains
  • Most common of all ankle injuries, occurs with
    stretching and tearing of LIGAMENTS surrounding
    the ankle joint is forced into a position not
    normally encountered.
  • Most common cause of ankle sprain is applying
    weight to the foot when it is in an inverted
    (turned in) or everted (turned out) position.

8
Inversion Sprain
Eversion Sprain
High Ankle Sprain
9
Inversion Sprain
10
Eversion Sprain
11
Immediate Treatment for Ankle Sprains
  • Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation are the best
    immediate treatment for all sprains and strains.
  • After applying ice, wrap the ankle with an
    elastic wrap to keep it supported and compressed.
  • REST avoid weight bearing for 24 hours or
    longer
  • ICE Apply ice (wrapped in a thin towel), no
    longer than 20 minutes at a time, apply 20
    minutes every 2 hours for the first 24 hours to
    control swelling.
  • COMPRESSION Wrap the ankle starting at the
    toes and wrap up toward the calf
  • ELEVATION Raise the ankle above the hip or
    heart to reduce swelling

12
Ankle Sprains cont
  • If swelling doesnt subside in 48 - 72 hours,
    seek medical treatment for a complete
    evaluation.
  • If unable to bear weight within 48 hours, seek
    medical treatment.
  • BECAUSE I dont have x-ray vision, I ALWAYS
    suggest a visit to their family physician before
    I allow them to return to practice.

13
Achilles Tendonitis / Rupture
  • The Achilles Tendon is the largest and most
    vulnerable tendon in the body.
  • -joins the gastrocnemius (calf) muscle and the
    soleus muscle to the heel of the foot.
  • - gastroc muscle crosses the knee, ankle, and
    subtalar joints and can create stress and tension
    in the Achilles Tendon

14
Achilles Tendon
Gastrocnemius muscle
Achilles tendon with inflammation
Tibia
Soleus muscle
Surgical view of torn Achilles Tendon
15
Achilles Tendinitis Causes
  • CAUSES
  • - chronic injury that occurs primarily from
    overuse, ignoring early warning signs and pushing
    through pain
  • - tendon has limited blood supply, making injury
    slow to heal
  • TREATMENT
  • - at first sign of AT pain, cut back and reduce
    your training

16
  • TREATMENT cont.
  • - begin gentle calf stretching after exercise
    when muscle and tendon are still warm and
    flexible
  • - post-exercise ice may be helpful
  • - strengthen calf muscle by toe raises,
    balancing on toes, and wall stretching

17
Achilles Tendon Rupture
  • CAUSES can help suddenly, without warning, or
    following Achilles tendonitis
  • - if foot is dorsiflexed while lower leg moves
    forward and the calf muscles contract
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
  • - classic sign is the feeling of being hit in
    the Achilles area
  • - there is often a pop sound, little pain,
    but the person cannot lift up onto toes while
    weight bearing

18
  • ACHILLES RUPTURE TREATMENT
  • - complete rupture requires surgery and up to 12
    weeks in a cast
  • -because the tendon shortens as it heals, a heel
    lift is used for 6 months or more after the cast
    comes off
  • - Physical Therapy should be started as soon as
    the cast comes off

19
Athletes Foot aka Tinea Pedis
  • A common fungal infection of the skin of the
    feet. It is contagious and is usually picked up
    through direct OR INDIRECT contact in public
    places. Once picked up, the fungus grows in
    warm, moist places. It can disappear quickly or
    it may become a long lasting and recurring
    problem.

20
Athletes Foot Tinea Pedis
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
  • - Itching, most often between your toes
  • - Redness and scaling of the skin in the
    affected areas
  • - A rash, cracks, blisters, or open sores
  • - Discoloration, thickening, crumbling of the
    nails as the fungus grows

21
Severe case of Athletes Foot
Mild case of Athletes Foot
22
Athletes Foot - Treatment
  • 1 Treatment is PREVENTION!
  • - wash your feet and socks after each workout
  • - let your shoes air out completely, limit
    moisture and dampness
  • - make sure you wash your feet with soap and DRY
    THEM COMPLETELY!
  • Once you have it, dont ignore it!

23
Athletes Foot Treatment cont.
  • Keep feet clean and dry. Wash well with soap and
    water, and RINSE completely. Pat dry rather than
    rub. Put on clean socks and change them often.
  • If this doesnt workuse an over-the-counter
    anti-fungal powder or cream. Talk to the
    pharmacist for best information then follow the
    instructions.
  • It may take several weeks to get rid of a severe
    case of Athletes Foot. As always, consult your
    physician with a severe case of Athletes Foot.

24
BLISTERS
  • Blisters develop due to friction on the skin. It
    can be from the rubbing of clothing or sports
    equipment on the surface layer of the skin.
  • Over time, continued friction can cause the top
    layer of skin to separate from the second layer
    of the skin.

25
BLISTERS - Prevention
You must minimize friction on the skin. Wear
appropriately fitting footwear. Some
moisture-wicking socks made from synthetic
blends help reduce friction. Wear two pairs of
socks, one inside-out so that friction happens
between the two pairs rather than on the skin.
Use petroleum jelly, 2nd Skin, or talcum powder
before exercise to reduce friction. Some runners
even use Duct Tape!
26
BLISTERS - Treatment
  • The goal is to keep the blister from getting
    bigger, and avoiding infection.
  • SIGNS OF INFECTION
  • - pus draining from the blister
  • - red, warm skin around the blister
  • - red streaks leading away from the blister

27
BLISTER Treatment cont.
  • Small, unbroken blisters that dont cause
    discomfort should be left alone to heal because
    the best protection against infection is a
    blisters own skin.
  • Large, painful blisters can be drained as long
    as the top layer of the skin is intact and
    covering the blister.
  • To safely drain a blister, first clean the
    blister and surrounding area with rubbing alcohol
    or antibiotic soap and water. Next, sterilize a
    needle over a flame until the tip glows red and
    allow it to cool. Finally, puncture a very small
    hole at the edge of the blister and drain the
    fluid by applying gentle pressure. Once drained,
    place antibiotic ointment on the blister, cover
    it with a bandage, and allow it to heal
    naturallly.

28
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • http//sportsmedicine.about.com
  • www.google.com/images
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