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Chapter 2- Soils

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Title: Chapter 2- Soils


1
Chapter 2- Soils
2
What is Soil?
  • soil is the mineral and organic matter that
    supports plant growth on the earth's surface. It
    is a mixture of particles of rock, organic
    materials, living organisms, air and water.

3
Who depends on soil?
  • farmers ranchers
  • anyone needing food, clothing, building
    materials, minerals
  • construction trades (buildings, roads etc.)

4
The success of farmers determines the income of
who?
  • entire community
  • merchants

5
A knowledge of soil management is helpful in what
occupational areas?
  • crop production
  • livestock production
  • horticulture
  • engineering
  • forestry
  • soil scientist
  • soil conservationist

6
What are some agencies which promote soil
conservation?
  • Local County NRCS, Cooperative Extension
    Service, High School Ag Dept.
  • State Cooperative Extension Service, NRCS
  • Federal Cooperative Extension Service, NRCS,
    USDA, BLM, Dept.of Fish Wildlife Parks

7
How long does it take to create soil?
  • It takes 100 to 400 years to create 1" of topsoil.

8
Soil origin
  • All soils come from matter called parent
    material.
  • Parent material can be organic or inorganic, most
    soils are a combination of the two.
  • Soils that originate from minerals are the
    result of decomposition of rock materials is
    inorganic soils.

9
Inorganic soils
  • The process is the result of wearing away of rock
    by actions of the weather.
  • Water- Deposited Soils alluvial soils
  • Lacustrine deposits soils left after lakes dry
    up
  • Marine sediments shore lines recedes and leaves
    sediments on the dry land.

10
  • Volcanoes- bring deposits from deep within the
    earth
  • Soils deposited by Wind- Aeolian soils creating
    sand dunes with sand particles.
  • Loess soils fine soil particles like silt and
    clay deposited by wind

11
What is Organic Matter?
  • all plant and animal residues in the soil

12
What two things have greatly lowered the Organic
Matter content of soil?
  • soil erosion continuous cropping

13
How can organic matter be increased?
  • crop residues
  • barnyard manure
  • green manure

14
What is Green Manure?
  • a crop grown for its organic matter
  • green manure crops are generally plowed under
    while they are still green

15
What other things make up soil organic matter?
  • decomposed carcasses and excrements of worms,
    insects, larger animals and microorganisms

16
What is Mineralization?
  • organic matter is broken down into simple mineral
    compounds

17
When organic matter breaks down, what is released
for the crop's use?
  • nutrients

18
How does Organic Matter Improve Soil?
  • 1) increase water holding capacity
  • 2) nutrients attach to O.M.
  • 3) O.M. improves tilth (aggregate)
  • The amount of humus in soil is directly
    proportional to the amount of nitrogen in soil
  • Soils high in O.M. are easily worked and may be
    described as having good tilth.

19
Benefits of Organic Matter
  • Organic Matter promotes granulation of soil by
    binding soil particles into granules.
  • O.M. makes clay soils less sticky and improve
    tilth.
  • Deeper root growth and water entry and storage
    are improved as well as aeration of the soil.
  • Helps with reducing soil compaction and improves
    air space in soil.

20
Organic Matter Sandy Soils
  • Sandy soils have good aeration but dry out
    quickly. Sandy soils increase water holding
    capacity and have less erosion as O.M. is added.

21
What is the largest source of O.M. in the soil?
  • plant roots

22
Which is the most preferred green manure, legumes
or non-legumes?
  • legumes- added nitrogen

23
What is nitrogen tie-up?
  • microorganisms in the soil use the nitrogen in
    the soil to break down organic matter, thus it is
    temporarily "tied up" (used as food)
  • this is very important when considering
    recropping and not allowing the soil to have a
    year in fallow to allow for mineralization in
    order to reduce the nitrogen tie-up.

24
How many square feet are in an acre?
  • 43,560

25
Soil Ingredients
  • Mineral Matter 45
  • Water 25
  • Air 25
  • Organic Matter (OM) 5

26
Soil can be described by color.
  • Color is a result of the parent materials or
    bedrock that the soil originated from.
  • Soils that are deep orange or reddish in color
    are usually high in iron.
  • Dark brown and black soils are high in organic
    matter.

27
Activity
  • In groups of 3 students will crate a Promotional
    Flyer for organic matter.
  • What is O.M.
  • Why use O.M.
  • What types of O.M. is available
  • Identify your target market who are you trying
    to get to purchase O.M.
  • Use pictures and illustrations and color

28
Physical Properties of Soils
  • Physical characteristics Texture, structure, and
    consistency
  • Determined to a large degree on how usable and
    productive the soil will be.
  • How quickly water penetrates
  • How well water stays in the soil
  • How soil holds up under machinery
  • The ease of root penetration
  • Aeration of the soil

29
Soil Texture
  • Refers to the size of the individual soil
    particles, called soil separates.
  • Larger soil size the coarser the soil feels
  • Largest Sand
  • Silt
  • Clay smallest

30
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31
Activity 1- Chapter 2
  • Objectives
  • Identify the 3 soil textures
  • Describe the characteristics of each texture
  • Identify the strengths and weaknesses of each
    texture.
  • Explain how agriculture deals with soils that
    have different types of soil texture.
  • Directions
  • Create a poster that illustrates the above 4
    objectives.
  • Sand Silt Clay
  • Size
  • Characteristics
  • Strength/weakness
  • Agriculture use




32
Soil Conservation
  • A typical farmer is doing a "good job" of soil
    conservation if he loses less than 1/16" of
    topsoil each year. How many pounds of soil does
    he/she lose each year if he/she loses 1/16"? How
    many tons? (extra credit)

33
What is Soil Management?
  • the science of the tillage, cropping practices,
    and treatment of a soil for the production of
    plants
  • good soil management results in better yields and
    lower cost per unit of production

34
Soil pH
  • Use pH overhead
  • Chemical makeup of clay usually results in a
    negative charge and nutrients result in a
    positive charge increasing cation exchange(soils
    ability to hold onto nutrients).
  • Leaching cause the loss of soil nutrients through
    water flow the soil.
  • Sand
  • Silt
  • Clay

35
Soil Structure
  • The grouping or clinging of soil particles are
    called? Peds or soil aggregates
  • Peds held together by clay and humus (O.M) in the
    soil.
  • The rate at which water flows through the soil is
    greatly influenced by the structure of the soil.

36
Types of Peds
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39
Classes or Sizes of Soil
  • Very fine
  • Fine
  • Medium
  • Coarse
  • Very coarse

40
Structured soils grade
  • Weak structure
  • Moderate structure
  • Strong structure

41
Soil Taxonomy
  • Organization of soils
  • Orders 11 orders of soil
  • Subgroups 47
  • Great groups 185
  • Subgroups 970
  • Families 4500
  • Soil series 12620

42
Activity 2 graphic organizer
  • Soil taxonomy

43
Soil Ecosystem
  • An ecosystem is all the plant and animal life
    that lives in the area.
  • Plants
  • Most plants depend on the soil for their
    existence.
  • The soil supports the roots and provides
    nutrients.
  • Root zone area of soil that contains the roots
    is called the rhizosphere. In this area plants
    receives the water and nutrients it needs to
    grow.

44
  • Microorganisms within rhizosphere lives billions
    of microorganisms of different types.
  • Many of these organisms live off the roots of
    plants.
  • Microorganisms help decomposition.
  • Microorganisms help recycle nutrients back into
    soil as part of the carbon cycle.
  • Most common microorganism is bacteria. ( 500
    million per teaspoon of soil.
  • Some bacteria have a symbiotic relationship with
    the plants and roots.
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria- legumes beans, clover,
    peanuts, alfalfa, peas. Convert nitrogen from air
    into form of nitrogen plants can use.

45
  • Soil Profile undisturbed soil that has at least
    4 horizons or layers.
  •  
  • Horizon
  • Name
  • Color
  • Structure
  • O
  • Organic
  • Black
  • Loose, crumbly, well broken
  • A
  • Topsoil
  • Dark brown to yellow
  • Loose, crumbly, well broken
  • B
  • Subsoil
  • Brown, red, yellow, gray
  • Dense, large chunks
  • C

46
  • Fungi are plant-like organisms that contain no
    chlorophyll. Range from microscopic size to
    large mushroom fungi. Play a large role in
    breaking down and decay of plant material.
  • Protozoa are one celled organisms that live in
    moist soil. They are aquatic organisms because
    they live in particles of water in the soil.
    Protozoa feed on bacteria in the soil to help
    manage the bacteria population in the soil.

47
  • Nematodes one of the most important microscopic
    animals in the soil. They are worms in the class
    of Nematoda that have smooth round bodies that
    are not segmented. Soil nematodes are so small
    they can not be seen with the naked eye.
  • In a typical spade full of moist soil, there will
    be more than million nematodes.
  • Fall into three groups
  • THOSE THAT CONSUME (EAT) DECAYING ORGANIC MATTERR
  • THOSE THAT EAT OTHER MICROORGANISMS
  • THOSE THAT EAT PLANT PARASITES.

48
  • Nematodes have a needle-like projection on the
    front end of their bodies that is used to open
    tiny holes in the cells of plant roots. Damaging
    plant? Opening the plant cells to disease?
  • Some crops are very susceptible to nematoes abd
    producers spray pesticied to help control
    population of soil nematodes.
  • Examples strawberries

49
Macroorganisms in the soil
  • Visible to the unaided eye.
  • Play a part in the soil ecosystem.
  • Earthworms
  • Insects many spend larva stage of life within the
    soil. Example grub worms
  • Large animals
  • Prairie dogs, moles, shrews, groundhogs,
    chipmunks
  • Open air and water passages
  • Turn the soil over so organic matter can be
    tilled into soil profile.

50
  • Soil Profile undisturbed soil that has at least
    4 horizons or layers.

Horizon Name Color Structure
O Organic Black Loose, crumbly, well broken up
A Topsoil Dark brown to yellow Loose crumbly well broken up
B Subsoil Brown, red, yellow, gray Dense, large chucks
C Parent material Varies by parent materiel Dense, rocky
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