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Preserving Earth

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Chapter 16 Preserving Earth s Biological Diversity – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Preserving Earth


1
Chapter 16
  • Preserving Earths Biological Diversity

2
Your Responsibility
  • Read pages 355-360 and take notes (use page 2 in
    your class notes) on the following topics
  • Extinction, background extinction, mass
    extinction
  • State of extinctions today
  • Endangered species vs. threatened species
  • Characteristics of species that make them
    vulnerable
  • Endemic species vulnerability to extinction
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Biodiversity hotspots

DUE NEXT CLASS!!
3
The Story of the Bald Eagle
  • Only 417 nesting pairs in the lower 48 states in
    1963
  • Listed as an endangered species in the ESA of
    1973
  • Factors
  • 1. Clearing forests near lakes/rivers (habitat
    destruction)
  • 2. Hunting (thought to have an impact on
    commercial fisheries)
  • 3. Reproductive Failure (could not reproduce at
    high enough levels to ensure population growth)
  • 1. Result of ingesting food contaminated with
    DDT
  • Caused eggs to be thin shelled cracked before
    embryos were mature
  • Banning DDT (1972) started the recovery process
  • 2. Mercury, lead and selenium were also
    environmental pollutants that harmed
    reproductive health
  • 3. Captive breeding programs, removal of eggs
    from nests in nature, raising baby eagles in
    refuges

4
Results
  • 1994 bald eagle removed from endangered list and
    transferred to threatened list
  • More than 6,000 nesting pairs in 2002

5
  • How Many Species Are There?
  • Estimate gt5-10 million species
  • 1.8 M organisms scientifically
  • named and described
  • 270,000 plant
  • 45,000 vertebrate animal
  • 950,000 insect

6
  • Biological Diversity/Biodiversity
  • Variation among organisms.
  • Genetic diversity
  • genetic variety within all
  • populations of a species
  • Ecosystem Diversity
  • variety of interactions among
  • organisms in natural communities
  • Ecosystem food web as well as
  • the variety of ecosystems on Earth.
  • SPECIES RICHNESS
  • The number of species present in the ecosystem.

7
Why do we need organisms?
  • What do they do for us?
  • Pollinators, weed control, pest control, food,
    antibiotics, medicines, biological processes
    (N2 Fixation)
  • Biological diversity
  • represents a rich untapped
  • resource for future uses and
  • benefits
  • Ecosystem Services Resources
  • FIVE GOOD REASONS WHY
  • WE NEED ORGANISMS..

8
1. Ecosystem Services
  • Important environmental functions that organisms
    within ecosystems provide
  • Maintain the living world and we are completely
    dependent on these services
  • Forests provide lumber for us, but they also
    provide watersheds where we obtain fresh water,
    they reduce the and severity of local floods,
    prevent soil erosion.
  • Flowering plants depend on insects for pollen
    transfer
  • Animals, fungi and microorganisms keep species
  • population in check
  • Earthworms/bacteria maintain soil fertility
    decomposition
  • Removal of organisms from a community
  • makes an ecosystem run less smooth

9
American Alligators Ecosystem Services
  • -Maintain small fish populations by eating the
    gar (eats small fish)
  • -Dig underwater holes that other aquatic
    organisms use during periods of drought
  • -Nest mounds eventually form small islands
    colonized by trees/plants, trees support bird
    populations.

10
2. Genetic Reserves
  • Maintenance of a broad genetic base is critical
    for long term health/survival
  • Ex) Crops- genetic uniformity resulted in
    increased susceptibility to pests/disease
  • Crossing super strains with genetically diverse
    relatives disease and pest resistance can be
    introduced into plants
  • Ex) Corn Blight (1970) brought under
  • control by crossing uniform US varieties
  • with ancestral varieties from Mexico.

11
3. Scientific Importance of Genetic Diversity
  • Genetic Engineering the incorporation of genes
    from 1 organism into another species.
  • Ex) Insulin gene for insulin engineered into
    bacteria
  • We do not have the ability to
  • make genes that encode for specific
    traits...
  • We depend on
  • millions of
  • years of evolution to
  • produce diversity!!!

12
4. Medicinal, Agricultural Industrial
Importance of Organisms
  • A. Medicinal derivatives of plants play
    important roles in the treatment of
    illness/disease
  • Ex) AZT for treatment of AIDS is a
  • synthetic derivative of a compound from a
    sponge
  • B. Agricultural number of different kinds of
    foods we eat is limited when compared with the
    total number of edible species. Many species that
    provide more nutrition are not commonly used.
  • Ex) Quinoa from the Andes Mts. Looks
  • and tastes like rice but has more protein
  • and is more nutritionally balanced.

13
  • C. Industrial modern industrial technology
    depends on genetic material from organisms.
    Plants are used in many products.
  • Oils, lubricants, perfumes, fragrances,
  • dyes, paper, lumber, waxes, rubber,
  • elastic latexes, resins, poisons, cork, fibers
  • D. Organisms animals with characteristics or
    chemicals useful to humans
  • Wool, silk, fur, leather,
  • lubricants, waxes,
  • transportation,
  • medical research.

14
5. Aesthetic, Ethical Spiritual Value of
Organisms
  • Aesthetic Provide recreation,
  • inspiration spiritual solace
  • Artistry, poetry, writers,
  • architects, musicians
  • Ethical How humans perceive themselves in
    relation to other species
  • Traditionally viewed as superior beings
    exploited other forms of life for their benefit.
  • (Western World View/Frontier Ethic)
  • New view organisms have intrinsic value
  • on earth and humans should protect their
  • existence (Deep Ecology View)

15
  • Go over
  • CLASS ASSIGNMENT
  • Reading RB p. 355-360
  • Address the following
  • Extinction, Background Extinction, Mass
    Extinction
  • The state of extinctions today
  • Endangered Species, Threatened Species
  • Characteristics of species that make them more
    vulnerable to extinction
  • Why are Endemic species vulnerable to extinction?
  • Habitat Fragmentation - why is it a factor?
  • Why are Tropical Rainforests in trouble?
  • What are Biodiversity Hotspots where are they?

16
  • CLASS BRAINSTORM..
  • WHAT ARE SOME HUMAN CAUSES OF SPECIES
    ENDANGERMENT?
  • 1. Habitat Destruction, Fragmentation
    Degradation.
  • - Reduces a species biological range and
    ability to survive.
  • 2. Invasive Species
  • - Foreign species whose introduction can cause
    environmental/ ecological harm
  • ex) Cats of Borneo
  • 3. Pollution
  • - Acid rain, ozone-depleting compounds,
    pollutants etc.
  • 4. Overexploitation
  • - Over hunted or over harvested animals
  • (eradicate pest/predator or illegal commercial
    hunting)

17
Group Foldable Conservation Biology
  • Create your foldable follow my instructions.
  • Everyone does
  • The introduction section
  • Conservation Organizations
  • Split up for the other sections
  • Protecting Habitats
  • Restoring Habitats (part of 366) AND Zoos
    Aquaria (all of 367)
  • Reintroducing Endangered Species
  • Seed Banks
  • Remember you have to know all of it!!!

18
FRONT BACK
INTRODUCTION ZOOS AQUARIA
PROTECTING HABITATS REINTRODUCING ENDANGERED SPECIES
RESTORING HABITATS SEED BANKS
CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS THESE ARE IN THE APPENDIX IUCN (World Conservation Union) WWF (World Wildlife Fund) GREENPEACE NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION NATURE CONSERVANCY SIERRA CLUB
Everyone does Introduction info the
Conservation Groups. Split the others
among 4 people 1. Protecting habitats 2.
Restoring habitats Zoos/Aquaria 3.
Reintroducing Endangered Species 4. Seed Banks
INSIDE Specifics for Introduction DEFINITION GU
IDING CONCEPTS IN-SITU EX-SITU Summarize the
other sections
19
  • Conservation Biology
  • Scientific study of how humans impact organisms
    and the development of ways to protect biological
    diversity
  • Several concepts guide conservation biologists
  • A single large area of habitat is more effective
    at safeguarding species than several habitat
    fragments
  • - Supports greater species richness
  • Areas of habitat that lack roads or are
    inaccessible to humans are better than
    human-accessible areas
  • More effective to preserve intact ecosystems than
    to work on preserving individual species one at a
    time
  • Assign a higher priority to preserving areas that
    are more biologically diverse than other areas

20
  • In Situ Conservation
  • includes the establishment of
  • parks, reserves, concentrates on
  • preserving biological diversity in nature.
  • With increasing demands on land, in situ
    conservation cannot guarantee the preservation of
    all types of biological diversity.
  • Ex Situ Conservation conserving biological
    diversity in human-controlled setting.
  • Breeding of captive species in zoos and the
  • seed storage of diverse plant crops

21
Conservation Policies Laws
  • Endangered Species Act
  • Habitat Conservation Plans
  • US Biological Resources Discipline
  • International Conservation Policies

22
1973 Endangered Species Act
  • FWS now can protect threatened/endangered species
  • 1260 species have been listed to date.
  • Illegal to sell/buy any product made from an
    endangered or threatened species.
  • FWS must also select critical habitats and design
    a detailed recovery plan for each species listed.
  • They basically find the same information you
    researched for your brochure.
  • Considered one of the strongest pieces of US
    environmental legislation
  • Species are listed ONLY using biological
    information economics cannot influence the list.

23
the ESA is CONTROVERSIAL!
  • Advocates doesnt do enough for the species!
  • Critics goes too far to hurt private landowners!
  • Can be an impediment to economic progress.
  • Northern spotted owl the timber industry in
    Pacific NW (ch.3)
  • Few endangered species have recovered enough to
    be delisted! (only 8 as of 2002)
  • We ARE expecting several dozen to be delisted in
    the next 10-20 years.
  • Geared more toward saving a few popular species
    rather
  • than the many important less-glamorous species!
  • 1995 more than ½ of the funding went to helping
    just 10 species.
  • Should manage whole ecosystems and maintain
  • complete biodiversity rather than help just 1
    species.

24
Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP)
  • 1982 - Resolved conflicts between protection of
    ES and development interests on private property
  • Landowner may take a rare species if the taking
    doesnt threaten the survival or recovery of the
    species on that property
  • As long as the landowner provides
  • habitat, he is permitted to develop
  • other parts of the property
  • Controversial some say it could contribute to
    extinction!

25
US Biological Resources Discipline (BRD)
  • 1993 now part of US Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Provides information technologies to manage and
    conserve biological resources on federal lands
  • Published report Status and Trends of the
    Nations Biological Resources
  • 1st comprehensive assessment of plants, animals
    and ecosystems in the US.
  • Shows how biological resources are changing
  • Identifies invasive species
  • Details conservation problems that need to be
    addressed

26
International Conservation Policies Laws
  • 1975 Convention on International Trade in
    Endangered Species of Wild Flora Fauna CITES
  • Attempts to control international trade in End.
    Species
  • 160 countries
  • Bans hunting, capturing, and
    selling endangered or
    threatened species
  • Regulates trade of potentially threatened
    organisms
  • Problem enforcement penalties arent universal
    or strong
  • Example African Elephants
  • They can ruin the habitat, but

    should we allow the ivory trade

    again?

27
CITES ISSUES
African Elephants
28
CITES ISSUES
Tigers
Sources TRAFFIC International,
2004 http//www.solcomhouse.com/tigers.htm
29
  • 1980 World Conservation Strategy
  • Created by
  • IUCN (World Conservation Union)
  • WWF (World Wildlife Fund)
  • UN Environment Program
  • Conserves Biodiversity
  • Seeks to preserve the vital ecosystem processes

    on which all life depends for
    survival
  • Develop sustainable uses of organisms and the
    ecosystems they make up

30
  • 1992 Biological
  • Diversity Treaty
  • at the Earth Summit
  • 186 nations signed it
  • Each signed nation must
  • Inventory its own biodiversity
  • Develop a national conservation strategy, a
    detailed plan for managing preserving the
    biodiversity of that country

31
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32
Wildlife Management
33
Wildlife Management
  • Is an applied field of conservation biology that
    focuses on the continued productivity of plants
    and animals.
  • Includes
  • Regulation of hunting fishing
  • Management of food, water, habitats

34
Wildlife Management
  • Often differs from Conservation Biology
  • Focuses on maintaining populations of specific
    species
  • (cons. bio managing whole communities to ensure
    biodiversity)
  • Regulates an area by population control habitat
    manipulation
  • Lack of Predators populations of squirrel,
    duck, and deer can go
    above carrying capacity!!
  • Ex Sport Hunting of Deer (Population Control)
  • Lack of predators has increased the deer
    population wildlife managers keep the high
    population in-check.
  • Ex Prescribed Burning of Forests (Habitat
    Manipulation)
  • Yellowstone Case Study
  • Effectively controlling the stage of Ecological
    Succession

35
Low intensity prescribed burn in the lower App
Mts.
PRESCRIBED BURNING Source www.clemson.edu/rxfire/
pfcglossary.htm
36
Wildlife Management
  • Managing Migratory Animals
  • Require international agreements!
  • Flyways must be protected!
  • Protect wetlands, which are
  • important breeding, resting, and feeding grounds
  • Case-in-Point
  • Arctic Snow Geese

37
Fly-ways
Sources The Nutty Birder SydneyOlympicPark.com.au
38
(No Transcript)
39
Wildlife Management
  • Managing Aquatic Organisms
  • Commercial Fishing
  • Regulate time of year, size of catch, max
    caught
  • Natural habitats are maintained to maximize
    population size
  • Ponds/Lakes/Streams are
    restocked from hatcheries
  • Remember Tragedy of the Commons???
  • Commercial Extinction so few remained that it
    was unprofitable to hunt them (whales)

40
Whaling
  • Many whale species are commercially extinct
    threatened or endangered
  • 1946 International Whaling Commission
  • Set an annual limit on whales taken
  • Populations remained on the decline
  • Finally, a moratorium was enacted in 1986.
  • Its working!
  • Populations of most whales are growing
  • The gray whale has even been reclassified as
    threatened!
  • 1994 Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary (Antarctic)
    was created

41
Whaling
  • Norway Japan continue to whale, despite the
    moratorium designation of the sanctuary
  • Ironic twist
  • Japan found high levels of heavy metals
    pollutants in the whale meat sold in their
    markets
  • Bioaccumulation had been occurring low
    concentrations of pollutants in the water
    increase in concentration inside the whales
    bodies
  • Up to 70,000 times the level of pollutants in the
    water!
  • Occurs in other species as well

42
What can WE do about declining biodiversity??
  • Increase public awareness
  • Support research in
  • conservation biology
  • Support the establishment of an
  • international parks system
  • Control pollution
  • Provide economic incentives
  • to landowners and other local people

43
THE LORAX
  • Assume the little boy is a highly-motivated AP
    student, and has successfully re-created the
    original ecosystem that the Lorax and all his
    friends once loved. Everyones back, and the
    environment is back to its original health.
  • Invite the Once-ler back, but give him strict
    instructions on a sustainable development plan
    that will work without harming the environment.
    Use everything you know about sustainable
    development to create this plan.
  • Relate the following to your sustainable
    development plan
  • Environmental worldviews
  • Optimal level of pollution / marginal cost
  • Natural income, natural capital, sustainable
    yield

44
  • MEDICINE
  • MAN
  • MOVIE
  • Watch Medicine Man relate the information
    presented in the movie to the information learned
    in this unit
  • (Chapters 4, 5, 16, 7).
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