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Preparing Food Safely

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Title: Preparing Food Safely


1
Preparing Food Safely
2
What is Foodborne Illness?
  • Foodborne Illness sickness that results from
    eating food that is not safe to eat.
  • Can range from mild to very serious- even fatal!
  • Safe food practices are extremely IMPORTANT!

3
Meet the Microorganisms
  • Microorganisms tiny living creatures
    that can be seen only with a microscope.
  • They are the cause of MOST cases of Foodborne
    Illness.
  • Include different types of bacteria, parasites,
    and viruses.
  • Not all Microorganisms are harmful. Some are
    used to make foods such as yogurt, vinegar, and
    some cheeses.

4
How is Food Contaminated?
  • You cant see, smell, or taste microorganisms.
  • They can get into your food at anytime during the
    preparation, serving, or storage.
  • With the right conditions microorganisms can
    multiply to dangerous levels.
  • To survive bacteria needs
  • Food
  • Moisture
  • Right Temperatures

5
Danger Zone
  • The temperature range in which bacteria grow
    fastest.
  • Between 40 and 140F.
  • At room temperature bacteria can double their
    numbers every 30 Minutes!

6
When Foodborne Illness Strikes!What are the
Symptoms?
  • Symptoms vary and many of them are similar to
    those of other illnesses such as the flu.
  • Normally, symptoms occur within 4 to 48 hours.
  • Can occur as early as 30 minutes
    and as late as 2
    weeks after
    eating harmful bacteria.

7
Most Common Foodborne Illnesses
Foodborne Illness Possible Sources Symptoms Timing
E. Coli Raw or undercooked meat Unwashed produce Severe abdominal pain Diarrhea-often bloody, Vomiting 2 to 5 days after eating contaminated food. Lasts about 8 days.
Botulism Canned foods that arent processed or stored properly. Double vision Difficulty speaking Swallowing and breathing Can be fatal if not treated immediately and properly. Can appear 4 to 8 days after eating food. May last years!
Salmonella Raw and undercooked eggs, poultry, meat, fish Nausea Vomiting Abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Headache. Begin 6 to 48 hours after eating food. May last 1-2 days.
Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Prepared foods left too long at room temperature. Nausea Vomiting Abdominal pain Exhaustion Headache Muscle Pain 30 minutes to 8 hours after eating. Lasts about 2 days.
8
When Foodborne Illness Strikes!Who is at Risk?
  • Anyone can suffer from foodborne illness.
  • Those with weaker immune systems area at greater
    risk of becoming sick after eating contaminated
    foods. This includes
  • Infants
  • Young children
  • Pregnant women
  • Older people

9
When Foodborne Illness Strikes!What Should You
Do?
  • Rest and drink plenty of fluids. Call your
    doctor immediately if you have
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Frequent diarrhea and vomiting
  • Stiff neck and severe headache
  • Dizziness or blurred vision
  • High or persistent fever.

10
When Foodborne Illness Strikes!What Should You
Do?
  • If a portion of the food is still available, wrap
    is securely, label it DANGER and refrigerate
    it. If it was packaged save the can, carton, or
    packaging materials.
  • Call your local health department to report the
    incident if the subject food was
  • From a restaurant or other food services facility
  • A packaged food sold at stores or
  • Eaten at a large gathering such as wedding
    reception, or a church or community event.

11
Preventing Foodborne Illness
  • You can fight bacteria and other microorganisms
    that cause foodborne illness by
  • Taking steps to keep harmful microorganisms from
    getting to food or spreading from one food to
    another.
  • Not giving bacteria the time and conditions they
    need to multiply.
  • Destroying harmful bacteria through proper
    cooking.

12
Review
  • T or F Raw eggs, poultry, meat, and fish are
    often contaminated with harmful bacteria?
  • For what groups of people do foodborne illnesses
    pose the greatest risk?
  • What is the temperature range in which bacteria
    grows rapidly?

13
Review Answers
  1. True
  2. Infants, pregnant women, older adults, and people
    with impaired immune systems
  3. Between 40F - 140F

14
Shop Safely Store Food Right!
15
Food Safety When You Shop
  • Look at the dates on packages that tell you about
    a foods freshness.
  • Choose canned goods that are free of dents,
    bulges, rust, or leaks.
  • Place raw meat, poultry, and fish in plastic bags
    to keep their juices from dripping on other foods
    in the cart.
  • Make sure food packages dont have holes, tears,
    open corners, or broken safety seals.

16
Food Safety When You Shop (contd)
  • Check that refrigerated foods feel cold and
    frozen foods feel solid. Avoid frozen foods with
    ice crystals or discoloration they may have been
    thawed, and refrozen.
  • Plan your shopping so that you select
    refrigerated foods , frozen foods, and hot items
    from the deli last. That way theyre at room
    temperature for a short time.
  • After you shop take the food home right away and
    store it properly. If it will take longer than 30
    minutes to get home, bring an insulated cooler
    for perishable foods.

17
Storing Food
  • To keep foods safe and fresh at home, you must
    know how to store it!
  • There are 3 basic food storage areas
  • Dry Storage
  • Refrigerator Storage
  • Freezer Storage

18
Dry Storage
  • What it Means
  • A cabinet or other area thats clean, dry, dark,
    and cool (below 85F).
  • Dont store foods under the sink or in cabinets
    next to heat-producing appliances (including the
    refrigerator).
  • Dont store household cleaning products or trash
    in the same cabinet as food.

19
Dry Storage
  • What to Store Here
  • Canned Goods
  • Cereals
  • Crackers
  • Pasta
  • Dry Beans
  • Baking Mixes
  • Vegetable Oil
  • Peanut Butter
  • Make sure to check the label for foods that need
    to be refrigerated after opening.

20
Dry Storage
  • Storage Tips
  • Rotate canned and packaged goods by putting new
    purchases in the back behind older ones.
  • This will help you remember to use the older
    items first.

21
Refrigerator Storage
  • Proper Temperatures
  • Between 32 and 40F.
  • Use a refrigerator thermometer to check.
  • What to Store Here
  • Perishables such as meat, poultry, fish, dairy
    foods, eggs, fresh fruits and vegetables, and
    leftovers.
  • Check package labels for foods that need
    refrigeration after opening.

22
Refrigerator Storage
  • Storage Tips
  • To keep foods from drying out, use foil, plastic
    wrap, plastic bags or airtight containers. This
    will also keep odors from transferring to other
    foods.
  • Leave space between foods to allow room for cold
    air to circulate.
  • Wipe up spills immediately and remove spoiled
    foods.
  • Use door shelves for foods that arent highly
    perishable, such as condiments. Interior doors
    and shelves stay colder than door shelves.

23
Freezer Storage
  • Proper Temperatures
  • 0F or less.
  • Check with a freezer thermometer.
  • What to Store Here
  • Food purchased frozen, as well as foods that can
    be frozen for longer storage. This includes
    meat, poultry, fish, breads, and home-prepared
    foods such as casseroles.

24
Freezer Storage
  • Storage Tips
  • Store foods purchased frozen in their original
    packages.
  • Wrap other foods properly to avoid freezer burn-
    changes in color, flavor, and texture that result
    when food loses moisture in the freezer.
  • Food with freezer burn has areas that look white
    and dried up. It Isnt harmful, but its not
    appealing either.
  • Use freezer paper, heavy-duty foil, plastic
    freezer bags, and airtight containers.
  • Label foods you freeze yourself with the name of
    the food, date frozen, and number of servings.
  • Rotate foods as you store them, putting oldest
    foods toward the front.

25
When Food Spoils
  • Never taste foods that you suspect are spoiled.
  • Some foods will
  • Loose nutrients
  • Go stale
  • Wilt
  • Grow microorganisms

26
Discard Without Tasting
  • Canned goods that leak, bulge, have a foul odor,
    or are badly dented.
  • Jars that are cracked or have loose or bulging
    lids.
  • Any container that spurts liquid when you open
    it.
  • Food that is slimy, mushy, discolored, or just
    doesnt look or smell right.
  • Moldy foods- in most case (see next slide).
  • Leftovers that have been in the refrigerator more
    than 4 days- and the mystery foods that are
    who-knows-how-old!
  • Any food your not sure of- When in doubt throw it
    out!

27
Dealing With Mold
  • On hard cheeses- such as cheddar- you can safely
    cut away small areas of mold. Cut at least 1
    inch around the moldy area. Put the remaining
    cheese in a fresh wrapper or container.
  • Discard all other foods that are moldy.
  • Mold gives off invisible spores- thats how it
    spreads. Wrap moldy food well before you throw
    it out. Check other foods for mold too. Clean the
    container and refrigerator well.

28
Keep it Clean!
29
Keeping Things Clean
  • From the supermarket to your table, one way to
    prevent foodborne illness is by following rule of
    sanitation.
  • Sanitation preventing illness through
    cleanliness.
  • Keeping yourself and the kitchen clean helps get
    rid of some microorganisms.

30
Personal Cleanliness
  • YOU can be a source for bacteria.
  • Wash Your Hands!
  • Wash vigorously with warm water soap.
  • Wash front and back, in between fingers, under
    fingernails.
  • Wash for at least 20 seconds!

31
Personal Cleanliness
  • When do you need to wash your hands?
  • Before you begin preparing foods.
  • After handling raw foods.
  • Between handling different kinds of food.
  • After using the toilet or changing a diaper.
  • After touching pets
  • After touching your mouth, nose, hair, or other
    parts of your body while preparing food.

32
More Ways to Keep Clean
  • Dont handle food if you have diarrhea, a fever,
    or other symptoms of illness.
  • Before you begin to prepare food, tie back long
    hair.
  • Wear clean clothing. An apron will help protect
    you against spills and spatters.
  • Cover any cuts or sores on your hands with a
    clean waterproof bandage- or wear clean plastic
    rubber kitchen gloves.
  • Wash gloved hands as often as bare hands.
  • Dont sneeze or cough over food.

33
The Clean Routine
  • Clean kitchen surfaces and appliances- inside and
    out- on a regular basis. Use hot soapy water, a
    disinfectant cleaner, or a mixture of bleach and
    water.
  • Keep the kitchen clean as you work, wiping up
    spills right away.
  • Consider using paper towels to clean kitchen
    surfaces. If you use cloth towels or sponges,
    rinse them well between uses. Wash them often in
    the hot cycle of the washing machine.

34
The Clean Routine (contd)
  • Always use clean utensils and dishes.
  • Keep dirty dishes away from food preparation
    areas.
  • Wash dishes promptly.
  • Wipe the tops of canned foods before opening
    them.
  • Clean the blade of the can opener after each use.

35
Avoiding Cross-Contamination
  • Cross-Contamination occurs when harmful bacteria
    are transferred from one food to another.
  • Keep raw meat, poultry, fish, and their juices
    away from ready-to-eat foods in your shopping
    cart, grocery bags, refrigerator, and while
    preparing foods.
  • Use one cutting board for meat, poultry, and fish
    and another for other foods.
  • Use plastic or other non-porous cutting boards.

36
Avoiding Cross-Contamination
  • Make sure cutting boards are free from cracks and
    crevices- these are perfect hiding places for
    bacteria.
  • Wash everything that comes in contact with raw
    meat, poultry, and fish in hot soapy water
    immediately. This includes utensils, cutting
    boards, dishes, the counter, and your hands.
  • Never place cooked or ready-to-eat foods on an
    unwashed plate or cutting board that previously
    held raw products.

37
Controlling Temperatures
38
Thawing Foods Safely
  • Some frozen foods require thawing before cooking.
  • If these foods are allowed to thaw at room
    temperature, the outer surface may reach the
    danger zone.
  • Bacteria on the surface can grow while the center
    of the food is still thawing.
  • Methods for thawing frozen foods include
  • In the refrigerator
  • In cold water
  • In the microwave oven

39
Thawing in the Refrigerator
  • Place frozen foods on the lowest shelf in a
    plastic bag to collect any juices.
  • This takes planning- many frozen foods take a
    full day or longer to thaw in the refrigerator.

40
Thawing in Cold Water
  • Faster than refrigerator thawing, but requires
    more attention.
  • Place the frozen item in a sink or large bowl
    filled with cold water.
  • Be sure the food is wrapped in a leak-proof
    package or plastic bag.
  • Change the water frequently to make sure it stays
    cold.

41
Thawing in the Microwave Oven
  • Place frozen item in a microwave-safe container
    and defrost on the low or defrost setting.
    Check your owners manual for specific
    instructions.
  • Cook food right away- some areas of the food may
    begin to cook during microwave thawing and its
    not safe to cook food only partially.

42
Cooking Food Thoroughly
  • Foods are properly cooked when they are heated
    for a long enough time and at a high enough
    temperature to destroy harmful bacteria.
  • Always cook food thoroughly, and finish cooking
    once you start.
  • Dont try to roast your turkey for ½ the cooking
    time today and the rest tomorrow- that wont do
    the job.

43
Cooking Food Thoroughly
  • The best way to determine if food is cooked
    thoroughly is by measuring the internal
    temperature with a clean meat thermometer.
  • Color and texture changes are not always reliable
    signs.

44
Safe Internal Temperature Safe Internal Temperature Safe Internal Temperature
When Is It Done? F C
Fresh Beef, Veal, Lamb, and Pork Ground Products Other Cuts Medium Well-Done 160 160 170 71 71 77
Poultry Ground Products Breasts, Thighs, Roasts Whole Chicken or Turkey Stuffing (cooked alone or in bird) 170 170 180 165 77 77 82 74
Fish 145 63
Eggs Egg Dishes 160 71
Ham Precooked (to reheat) Not Precooked 140 160 60 71
Leftovers (reheating) Boil sauces, soups, and gravies for at least 1 minutes before eating. When microwaving, cover leftovers, stir, and rotate during heating. 165 74
45
Preventing Accidents
46
Basic Kitchen Safety Rules
  • For General Safety
  • Dont let hair, jewelry, sleeves, or apron
    strings dangle. They could catch fire or get
    tangled in appliances.
  • Pay attention to the task youre doing.
  • Use the right tool for the job.

47
Basic Kitchen Safety Rules
  • To Prevent Cuts
  • Store knives in a knife block, rack, or special
    drawer divider.
  • Dont soak knives or other sharp utensils in a
    sink where you cannot see them.
  • Use a cutting board- dont hold food in your hand
    to cut.
  • Clean up broken glass carefully. Use a broom and
    dustpan or a wet paper towel.

48
Basic Kitchen Safety Rules
  • To prevent bruises, falls, and back injuries
  • Close drawers and cabinet doors after you open
    them.
  • Wipe up spills, spatters, and peelings on the
    floor immediately.
  • Use a sturdy stepstool to reach higher shelves.
  • Store heavy items within easy reach. Lift them
    with care.

49
Basic Kitchen Safety Rules
  • To prevent electrical shock
  • Keep small electrical appliances away from water.
    Dont use them when your hands are wet.
  • Keep electrical chords away from the range and
    other heat sources.
  • Unplug small appliances before cleaning them.
    Dont put any electrical appliances in water
    unless it reads immersible.
  • NEVER insert a fork or other metal objects into a
    toaster or other electrical appliance.
  • Dont plug too many appliances into one outlet.

50
Basic Kitchen Safety Rules
  • To Prevent Burns
  • Keep pot holders and oven mitts within easy
    reach. Use them whenever you handle hot items.
    Make sure they are dry.
  • Turn the handles of pots and pans toward the
    inside of the range to prevent accidental spills.
  • When lifting the cover of a hot pan, tilt it so
    the steam flows out the back, away from you.
  • If you spill something on a hot appliance, wait
    until it cools before wiping up the spill.

51
Basic Kitchen Safety Rules
  • To Prevent Fires
  • Keep flammable items, such as paper towels and
    food packages, away from the range.
  • Watch foods while theyre cooking on the range.
  • Store aerosol cans away from heat.
  • Keep a fire extinguisher handy. Make sure you
    know how to use it.

52
Basic Kitchen Safety Rules
  • To Prevent Poisoning
  • Store household chemicals away from food and out
    of children's reach. Keep the chemical in a
    locked cabinet if possible. Be sure containers
    are clearly labeled.
  • Follow label directions when you use household
    chemicals. Never mix 2 chemicals together.

53
Preparing for Kitchen Emergencies
  • To Prepare Yourself for Emergencies
  • Keep a list of emergency telephone numbers near
    each phone. Include the number of the nearest
    poison control center.
  • Keep a first aid kit and book of instructions
    handy.
  • Learn life-saving techniques. Such as the
    Heimlich Maneuver- a frist aid technique for
    choking and CPR- first aid to use when someones
    breathing and heartbeat have stopped.

54
Preparing for Kitchen Emergencies
  • In an Emergency
  • Stay calm so you can think clearly and respond
    quickly.
  • Call for help if you need to.
  • In case of poisoning, immediately call the
    nearest poision control center. Be ready to
    report the kind of poison, amount swallowed, when
    it was swallowed, and any symptoms. Follow the
    instructions you are given.

55
Putting Out A Kitchen Fire
  • For a fire on the range top or in an electric
    skillet
  • Turn off the heat.
  • Put the cover on the pan- or pour salt or baking
    soda on the flames.
  • For a fire in the oven, broiler, microwave, or
    toaster oven
  • Turn off or disconnect the appliance.
  • Keep the appliance door closed. The fire will go
    out once it runs out of oxygen. Make sure nothing
    else around it can catch fire.
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