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CP BIOTECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 13

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Title: CP BIOTECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 13


1
CP BIOTECHNOLOGYCHAPTER 13
2
13.1 What is biotechnology?
  • The use of organisms to
  • perform practical tasks
  • for humans

3
13.1 Biologists Manipulate DNA
  • Today, we mainly manipulate the genomes of
    organisms.
  • We called this act of manipulation DNA technology.

4
13.1 Bacteria Commonly used in Biotechnology
  • because they can acquire new genes in many
    ways!
  • 1. Tunnel-like structure forms between 2 bacteria
    so DNA can be passed-Conjugation
  • 2. Transformation bacteria can take up free
    floating DNA into their own DNA
  • 3. Viruses can carry bacterial genes from one
    bacteria to another- transduction.

5
13.1 Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Definition - technology involving the combining
    of DNA and/or genes from different sources (even
    genes from different species).
  • Uses of DNA technology
  • Make more nutritious crops (ex. Corn)
  • Make medicine in large quantities
  • Help us understand specifically how gene
    sequences work

6
13.2 Engineering Bacteria
  • Bacteria contain plasmids
  • Plasmids are small circular pieces of DNA
    separate from the bacterial chromosome.
  • Plasmids carry genes

7
13.2 Plasmids
  • Scientists can manipulate plasmids to make them
    useful to us and Bacteria can transfer plasmids!!
  • Example
  • Insert a gene to make a medicine into a plasmid
  • Put the plasmid into bacteria
  • When the bacteria reproduce they make many copies
    of the medicine!

8
Process of Making Recombinant Bacterial Cell
9
13.2 How Do They Do It???
Restriction Enzymescissors
  • Cut
  • Use restriction enzymes to cut the desired
    DNA/gene out of a larger chromosome
  • Paste
  • Put the desired DNA/gene fragment into a plasmid
  • Put the plasmid into a bacterium
  • As the bacterium reproduces it makes many copies
    of the desired gene!! (Page 270 Case Study)

10
13.2 Genomic Library Nucleic Acid Probes
  • Genomic Library the complete collection of
    cloned DNA fragments from an organism
  • Nucleic Acid Probe complimentary nucleotides
    labeled with a radioactive isotope used to tag
    single strand of a DNA sequence of choice.

11
13.2 FYI Useful Products Using Genetic
Engineering
  1. Bacteria make chemicals that clean up hazardous
    spills and toxic waste sites
  2. Bacteria are mass-producing useful chemicals like
    pesticides and therapeutic drugs
  3. Pigs Cattle make human insulin hormone in their
    milk for people with diabetes
  4. Recombinant DNA technology is used to develop
    Vaccines Hepatitis B (viral proteins are massed
    produced in yeast cells then used in vaccines)

12
13.3 Genetically Modified Organisms
  • A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any
    organism that has acquired any genes
    artificially.
  • If a species is called TRANSGENIC if it has
    foreign genetic material from a different
    species.

13
13.3 Genetically Modified Plants
14
Do you eat genetically modified organisms?
  • YES NO

15
Just a fewGMO FOODS
  • Honey
  • Cotton
  • Tomatoes
  • Corn
  • Vegetable Oil
  • Peas
  • Potatoes

16
Warm-Up - In Groups
  • ½ the class will use their books to compile a
    list of postive or good reasons/outcomes of using
    genetically modified organisms (plants and
    animals)
  • ½ the class will use their books to make a list
    of negative or unwanted reasons to use
    genetically modified organisms.

17
Heres what YOU think
18
13.3 Genetically Modified Plants
  • Over 50 of soybean and corn crops were
    genetically modified in some way!
  • Most common genetic modifications
  • Genes for herbicide resistance
  • Genes to resist insect and fungi pests

19
13.3 Genetically Modified Animals
  • Goals for GMO animals
  • Produce mass quantities of hormones (insulin)
  • Get animals to market quicker (salmon)
  • Breed animals with better quality products (sheep
    wool)
  • FUN!!

20
Few more examples
21
13.3 The GMO Controversy
  • Although studies to date have shown that eating
    genetically modified foods have no negative
    health affectspeople continue to demand stricter
    regulations.
  • Major Concern
  • GMO food can pose unknown health riskrequest
    strict labeling laws
  • ORGANIC CRAZE

22
13.3 GMO Controversy
23
13.4 DNA Tech Has Many Applications
  • PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction technique can
    mass produce specific sequences of DNA without
    the use of living cells
  • Takes less time than use of living cells
  • Requires less amount of desired DNA initially
  • Used for cloning rare DNA ID small amounts of
    infectious DNA (AIDS)

Thermocycler- machine used for PCR
24
13.4 PCR Techniquemake a lot of DNA from a
small sample
Page 278 figure 13-15
25
13.4 Gel Electrophoresis
  • Used when you want to compare DNA from different
    sources.
  • Produces banding patterns which can be compared
    and analyzed.

26
13.4 Comparing DNA How it works! (Pg 279)
1.Different DNA samples are cut into fragments
by restriction enzymes
Smaller DNA fragments move further
Each sample produces different banding patterns
in the gel so they are easily compared
2.DNA fragments move through gel using electric
current.
27
13.4 Comparing DNA Genetic Markers
  • Genetic Markers are particular streches of DN
    that are variable among individuals.
  • Can be used to ID carriers of certain diseases

28
13.4 Comparing DNA DNA Fingerprint
  • Just like every person has their own unique
    fingerprinteveryone has a unique banding pattern
    produced by their restriction fragments in gel
    electrophoresis.
  • 97 of our DNA is junk or non-coding and is
    extremely different from any other persons junk
    DNA.
  • Forensics!!

29
13.4 Who committed the crime?
Bloodstain evidence from crime scene!
Suspect 1 2 3
4 5 6 7
Using PCR and Gel Electrophoresis, a DNA
fingerprint can be made from a single drop of
blood or from a hair follicle.
DNA is extracted from a small sample and multiple
copies are made using PCR
Gel Electrophoresis of unique genetic markers are
compared
30
13.5 Stem Cells and Homeotic Genes
  • Stem cells cells (early in development) that
    remain undifferentiated and have the potential to
    be any type of cell.
  • Homeotic Genes genes that control development
    of specific locations in organisms.

31
Cloning
  • To make a clone
  • A donor cell is fused with an egg cell
  • The fused cell begins to divide normally to form
    an embryo
  • Embryo is placed in uterus of foster mom
  • Clone is born

32
Cloning
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