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Title: Air%20Pollution,%20Climate%20Change,%20and%20Ozone%20Depletion


1
Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Ozone Depletion
  • Chapter 18 and 19

2
Core Case Study Volcanoes and Climate Change (1)
  • Study volcano to understand climate change
  • Mount Pinatubo 1991
  • Second largest volcanic eruption of 20th century
  • Massive release of air pollution globally
  • Opportunity to test climate models

3
Core Case Study Volcanoes and Climate Change (2)
  • Predictions matched observations
  • Global climate change

4
Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 12,
1991
Fig. 15-1, p. 344
5
15-1 What Are the Major Air Pollution Problems?
(1)
  • Concept 15-1A Three major outdoor air pollution
    problems are industrial smog from burning coal,
    photochemical smog from motor vehicle and
    industrial emissions, and acid deposition from
    coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust.

6
15-1 What Are the Major Air Pollution Problems?
(2)
  • Concept 15-1B The most threatening indoor air
    pollutants are smoke and soot from wood and coal
    fires (in developing countries) and chemicals
    used in building materials and products (in
    developed countries).

7
Earths Atmosphere
  • Troposphere
  • 7580 earths air mass
  • 78 N2, 21 O2
  • Stratosphere
  • Ozone layer

8
Layering of the Earths Atmosphere
9
Temperature
Pressure
Thermosphere
Mesopause
Mesosphere
Stratopause
Stratosphere
Tropopause
Ozone layer
Troposphere
Fig. 15-2, p. 346
10
Outdoor Air Pollution
  • What is air pollution?
  • Stationary and mobile sources
  • Primary pollutants
  • Secondary pollutants

11
Types of Major Air Pollutants (1)
  • Carbon oxides (CO)
  • Nitrogen oxides and nitric acid (NO, HNO3)
  • Sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid (SO2, H2SO4)
  • Particulates (SPM)
  • Ozone (O3)

12
Types of Major Air Pollutants (2)
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Radioactive radon (Rn)

13
Sources and Types of Air Pollutants
14
Primary Pollutants
Secondary Pollutants
CO2
CO
SO2
NO2
NO
SO3
Most hydrocarbons
H2SO4
HNO3
Most suspended particles
PANs
O3
H2O2
Most NO3 and SO42 salts
Sources
Natural
Stationary
Mobile
Fig. 15-3, p. 347
15
Science Focus Using Lichens to Detect Air
Pollution
  • Indicators of air pollution
  • Mine canaries
  • Lichens
  • Isle Royale in Lake Superior

16
Lichens Growing on Slate Rock
Fig. 15-A, p. 348
17
Industrial Smog
  • Burning coal
  • Sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, suspended
    particles
  • Developed versus developing countries
  • Air pollution control in the U.S. and Europe
  • China, India, Ukraine, Eastern Europe

18
Photochemical Smog
  • Photochemical reactions
  • Photochemical smog
  • Brown-air smog
  • Sources
  • Climate effects
  • Urban areas

19
Natural Factors That Reduce Air Pollution
  • Particles heavier than air
  • Rain and snow
  • Salty sea spray from oceans
  • Winds
  • Chemical reactions

20
Natural Factors That Increase Air Pollution (1)
  • Urban buildings
  • Hills and mountains
  • High temperatures
  • VOC emissions from certain trees and plants

21
Natural Factors That Increase Air Pollution (2)
  • Grasshopper effect
  • Temperature inversions

22
Acid Deposition
  • Sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides
  • Wet and dry deposition
  • Acid rain
  • Regional air pollution
  • Midwest coal-burning power plants
  • Prevailing winds

23
Acid Deposition
24
Wind
Transformation to sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and
nitric acid (HNO3)
Windborne ammonia gas and some soil particles
partially neutralize acids and form dry sulfate
and nitrate salts
Wet acid deposition (droplets of H2SO4 and HNO3
dissolved in rain and snow)
Nitric oxide (NO)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NO
Dry acid deposition (sulfur dioxide gas and
particles of sulfate and nitrate salts)
Acid fog
Lakes in shallow soil low in limestone become
acidic
Lakes in deep soil high in limestone are buffered
Fig. 15-4, p. 351
25
Current and Potential Problems with Acid
Deposition
Fig. 15-5, p. 351
26
Harmful Effects of Acid Deposition (1)
  • Respiratory diseases in humans
  • Toxic metal leaching
  • Structural damage
  • Kills fish and other aquatic organisms

27
Harmful Effects of Acid Deposition (2)
  • Leaches plant nutrients from soil
  • Acid clouds and fog at mountaintops

28
Impacts of Air Pollution on Trees and Water
29
Emissions
SO2 H2O2 PANs
NOx
Acid deposition
O3
Others
Reduced photosynthesis and growth
Increased susceptibility to drought,
extreme cold, insects, mosses, and disease
organisms
Direct damage to leaves and bark
Tree death
Soil acidification
Leaching of soil nutrients
Release of toxic metal ions
Root damage
Reduced nutrient and water uptake
Acids
Lake
Groundwater
Fig. 15-6, p. 353
30
Reducing Acid Deposition
Fig. 15-7, p. 353
31
Indoor Air Pollution
  • Often higher concentration in buildings and cars
  • Most time is spent indoors or in cars
  • EPA top cancer risk
  • Sick-building syndrome (SBS)
  • Developing countries
  • Indoor cooking and heating

32
Major Indoor Air Pollutants
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Formaldehyde
  • Radioactive radon-222 gas
  • Very small particles

33
Important Indoor Air Pollutants
34
Tetrachloroethylene Source Dry-cleaning fluid
fumes on clothes Threat Nerve disorders, damage
to liver and kidneys, possible cancer
Para-dichlorobenzene Source Air
fresheners, mothball crystals Threat Cancer
Chloroform Source Chlorine-treated water in hot
showers Possible threat Cancer
Formaldehyde Source Furniture stuffing, paneling,
particleboard, foam insulation Threat
Irritation of eyes, throat, skin, and
lungs nausea dizziness
1,1,1-Trichloroethane Source Aerosol
sprays Threat Dizziness, irregular breathing
Styrene Source Carpets, plastic products Threat
Kidney and liver damage
Nitrogen oxides Source Unvented gas stoves and
kerosene heaters, woodstoves Threat Irritated
lungs, children's colds, headaches
Benzo-a-pyrene Source Tobacco smoke, woodstoves T
hreat Lung cancer
Particulates Source Pollen, pet dander, dust
mites, cooking smoke particles Threat Irritated
lungs, asthma attacks, itchy eyes, runny
nose, lung disease
Radon-222 Source Radioactive soil and rock
surrounding foundation, water supply Threat Lung
cancer
Tobacco smoke Source Cigarettes Threat Lung
cancer, respiratory ailments, heart disease
Asbestos Source Pipe insulation, vinyl ceiling
and floor tiles Threat Lung disease, lung cancer
Carbon monoxide Source Faulty furnaces, unvented
gas stoves and kerosene heaters, woodstoves Threat
Headaches, drowsiness, irregular heartbeat,
death
Methylene chloride Source Paint strippers and
thinners Threat Nerve disorders, diabetes
Fig. 15-8, p. 354
35
Air Pollution and the Human Respiratory System
  • Natural protective system
  • Lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema,
    asthma
  • Premature deaths
  • Fossil fuels
  • Coal
  • Diesel engines

36
Human Respiratory System
37
Epithelial cell
Cilia
Nasal cavity
Goblet cell (secreting mucus)
Oral cavity
Pharynx (throat)
Mucus
Trachea (windpipe)
Bronchioles
Bronchus
Alveolar duct
Right lung
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Alveolar sac (sectioned)
Fig. 15-9, p. 355
38
Healthy and Diseased Lungs
Fig. 15-10, p. 356
39
Premature Deaths from Air Pollution in the United
States
Fig. 15-11, p. 356
40
15-2 How Should We Deal with Air Pollution?
  • Concept 15-2 Legal, economic, and technological
    tools can help clean up air pollution, but
    scientists call for much greater emphasis on
    preventing air pollution.

41
U.S. Outdoor Air Pollution Control Laws
  • Clean Air Acts
  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards
  • Hazardous Air Pollutants
  • Good news
  • Bad news

42
Improving Air Pollution Laws (1)
  • Emphasize pollution prevention
  • Increase fuel economy standards
  • Regulate emissions from two-cycle engines
  • Regulate ocean-going ships
  • Increase regulations at airports

43
Improving Air Pollution Laws (2)
  • Specifically regulate CO2
  • Increase regulations for indoor air pollution
  • Better enforcement of Clean Air Act

44
Using the Marketplace to Reduce Air Pollution
  • Emissions trading (cap and trade) program
  • Proponents cheaper and more efficient
  • Critics companies buy their way out
  • Success depends on cap
  • Good news and bad news

45
Solutions Stationary Source Air Pollution
Fig. 15-12, p. 358
46
Solutions Motor Vehicle Air Pollution
Fig. 15-13, p. 359
47
Solutions Indoor Air Pollution
Fig. 15-14, p. 359
48
What Can You Do?
Fig. 15-15, p. 360
49
Solutions Air Pollution
Fig. 15-16, p. 360
50
15-3 How Might the Earths Temperature and
Climate Change in the Future?
  • Concept 15-3 Evidence indicates that the earths
    atmosphere is warming, mostly because of human
    activities, and that this will lead to
    significant climate change during this century.

51
Past Climate Changes
  • Glacial and interglacial periods
  • Measurement of past temperature changes
  • Rocks and fossils
  • Ocean sediments
  • Ice cores from glaciers
  • Boreholes deep in earths surface

52
Estimated Changes in the Average Global
Temperature
53
Fig. 15-17a, p. 361
54
Fig. 15-17b, p. 361
55
Fig. 15-17c, p. 361
56
Fig. 15-17d, p. 361
57
Stepped Art
Fig. 15-17, p. 361
58
Ice Cores Records of Past Climates
Fig. 15-18, p. 361
59
The Greenhouse Effect
  • Earths natural greenhouse effect
  • Natural greenhouse gases
  • Water vapor (H2O)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
  • Enhanced greenhouse effect
  • Global warming

60
Evidence to Support Global Warming (1)
  • 2007 IPCC report
  • Rise in average global surface temperature
  • 13 warmest years on record since 1990
  • Arctic temperatures have risen twice as fast

61
Evidence to Support Global Warming (2)
  • Changes in glaciers, rainfall patterns,
    hurricanes
  • Sea level rise in this century 48 inches

62
Melting of Alaskas Muir Glacier
Fig. 15-19, p. 363
63
Stepped Art
Fig. 15-19, p. 363
64
Average Drop in Arctic Sea Ice (1979-2005)
Fig. 15-20, p. 363
65
Science Focus Scientific Consensus about Future
Global Temperature Changes?
  • Temperature as a function of greenhouse gases
  • Mathematical models
  • Model data and assumptions
  • Predictions and model reliability
  • Recent warming due to human activities

66
Simplified Model to Determine Average Temperature
and Greenhouse Gas Content
67
Sun
Troposphere
Cooling from increase
CO2 removal by plants and soil organisms
CO2 emissions from land clearing, fires, and decay
Heat and CO2 emissions
Greenhouse gases
Heat and CO2 removal
Aerosols
Warming from decrease
Ice and snow cover
Shallow ocean
Land and soil biota
Long-term storage
Natural and human emissions
Deep ocean
Fig. 15-B, p. 364
68
Measured Average Temperatures and Future
Predictions
Fig. 15-C, p. 365
69
Potential Consequences of Enhanced Global Warming
(1)
  • Rate and extent of temperature changes
  • Tipping point
  • Droughts and floods
  • Extinctions
  • Intense storms and hurricanes

70
Potential Consequences of Enhanced Global Warming
(2)
  • Diseases
  • Economic and social disruption

71
Factors Affecting the Earths Temperature
  • Ability of oceans to store carbon dioxide
  • Effects of cloud cover
  • Aerosol pollutants
  • Photosynthesis

72
15-4 What Are Some Possible Effects of a Warmer
Earth?
  • Concept 15-4 Some areas will benefit from a
    warmer climate and others will suffer from
    melting ice, rising sea levels, more extreme
    weather events, increased drought and floods, and
    shifts in locations of wildlife habitats and
    agricultural areas.

73
Beneficial Effects of Global Warming
  • Less severe winters
  • More precipitation in dry areas
  • Less precipitation in wet areas
  • Increased food production for some areas

74
Harmful Effects of Global Warming (1)
  • Excessive heat
  • Drought
  • Decreased food production
  • Arctic ice and snow melt

75
Harmful Effects of Global Warming (2)
  • Rising sea levels
  • Melting permafrost
  • Changing ocean currents
  • Extreme weather

76
Harmful Effects of Global Warming (3)
  • Threat to biodiversity
  • Change location of agricultural crops
  • Threats to human health

77
Rising Sea Levels Threaten Low-lying Islands
Fig. 15-21, p. 369
78
15-5 What Can We Do about Global Warming?
  • Concept 15-5A We can slow the rate of climate
    change by increasing energy efficiency, relying
    more on renewable energy resources, and reducing
    greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Concept 15-5B Governments can tax greenhouse gas
    emissions, subsidize energy efficiency and
    renewable energy use, and cooperate
    internationally, and individuals and institutions
    can sharply reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

79
Difficulties in Dealing with Climate Change
  • Problem is global
  • Long-lasting effects
  • Long-term political issue
  • Impacts are not spread evenly
  • Change can disrupt economies and lifestyles

80
Options to Deal with Climate Change
  • Basic approaches
  • Drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • Develop strategies to reduce its harmful effects
  • Mix both approaches
  • Governments beginning to act

81
Solutions to Global Warming
Fig. 15-22, p. 371
82
Removing Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
83
Tanker delivers CO2 from plant to rig
Coal power plant
Tree plantation
Oil rig
CO2 is pumped down from rig for disposal in
deep ocean or under seafloor sediments
Abandoned oil field
Crop field
Switchgrass
CO2 is pumped underground
Spent oil or natural gas reservoir
Spent coal bed cavern
Deep, saltwater-filled cavern
Fig. 15-23, p. 372
84
Government Roles in Reducing the Threat of
Climate Change (1)
  • Regulate carbon dioxide as a pollutant
  • Carbon taxes
  • Cap total CO2 emissions
  • Subsidize energy-efficient technologies
  • Technology transfers

85
Government Roles in Reducing the Threat of
Climate Change (2)
  • International climate negotiations
  • Act locally

86
What Can You Do?
Fig. 15-24, p. 375
87
Preparing for Climate Changes
88
Develop crops that need less water
Waste less water
Connect wildlife reserves with corridors
Move people away from low-lying coastal areas
Stockpile 1- to 5-year supply of key foods
Move hazardous material storage tanks away from
coast
Prohibit new construction on low-lying coastal
areas or build houses on stilts
Expand existing wildlife reserves toward poles
Fig. 15-25, p. 375
89
15-6 How Have We Depleted Ozone in the
Stratosphere and What Can We Do about It?
  • Concept 15-6A Widespread use of certain
    chemicals has reduced ozone levels in the
    stratosphere, which allows more harmful
    ultraviolet radiation to reach the earths
    surface.
  • Concept 15-6B To reverse ozone depletion, we
    must stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals,
    and adhere to the international treaties that ban
    such chemicals.

90
Human Impact on the Ozone Layer
  • Location and purpose of the ozone layer
  • Seasonal and long-term depletion of ozone
  • Causes chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

91
Individuals Matter Banning of Chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs)
  • Chemists Rowland and Molina
  • Called for ban
  • Remain in atmosphere
  • Rise into stratosphere
  • Break down into atoms that accelerate ozone
    depletion
  • Stay in stratosphere for long periods
  • Defended research against big industry

92
Former Uses of CFCs
  • Coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators
  • Propellants in aerosol cans
  • Cleaning solutions for electronic parts
  • Fumigants
  • Bubbles in plastic packing foam

93
Ozone Thinning
  • Seasonal changes
  • More severe over Antarctica than the Arctic
  • Consequences

94
Effects of Ozone Depletion
Fig. 15-26, p. 377
95
What Can You Do?
Fig. 15-27, p. 378
96
Reversing Ozone Depletion
  • Stop producing ozone-depleting chemicals
  • Slow recovery
  • Montreal Protocol
  • Copenhagen Protocol
  • International cooperation

97
Animation pH Scale
PLAY ANIMATION
98
Animation Half-Life
PLAY ANIMATION
99
Animation Nitrogen Cycle
PLAY ANIMATION
100
Animation Sulfur Cycle
PLAY ANIMATION
101
Animation Thermal Invasion and Smog
PLAY ANIMATION
102
Animation Formation of Photochemical Smog
PLAY ANIMATION
103
Animation Acid Deposition
PLAY ANIMATION
104
Animation Effects of Air Pollution in Forests
PLAY ANIMATION
105
Animation Climate and Ocean Currents Map
PLAY ANIMATION
106
Animation Air Circulation and Climate
PLAY ANIMATION
107
Animation Air Circulation
PLAY ANIMATION
108
Animation Greenhouse Effect
PLAY ANIMATION
109
Animation Increasing Greenhouse Gases
PLAY ANIMATION
110
Animation El Nino Southern Oscillation
PLAY ANIMATION
111
Animation Coastal Breezes
PLAY ANIMATION
112
Animation Upwelling Along Western Coasts
PLAY ANIMATION
113
Animation Humans Affect Biodiversity
PLAY ANIMATION
114
Animation Habitat Loss and Fragmentation
PLAY ANIMATION
115
Animation How CFCs Destroy Ozone
PLAY ANIMATION
116
Video Air Pollution in China
PLAY VIDEO
117
Video Clean Air Act
PLAY VIDEO
118
Video China Computer Waste
PLAY VIDEO
119
Video U.S. Earth Summit
PLAY VIDEO
120
Video Melting Ice
PLAY VIDEO
121
Video Global Warming
PLAY VIDEO
122
Video Dinosaur Discovery
PLAY VIDEO
123
Video Desertification in China
PLAY VIDEO
124
Video Ozone Layer Depletion
PLAY VIDEO
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