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War Erupts! The Civil War

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War Erupts! The Civil War Chapter 16 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: War Erupts! The Civil War


1
War Erupts!The Civil War
  • Chapter 16

2
First Shots at Fort Sumter!
3
  • Southern states began seceding from the Union!!
  • State officials took over most federal forts
    inside their borders.
  • One was Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston,
    South Carolina.
  • It was running low on supplies.

4
  • Lincoln knew that supplying the fort might lead
    to war, but if he withdrew troops, rebels would
    take it.
  • Lincoln decided to send supplies!
  • Confederate leaders responded by attacking the
    fort on April 12th, 1861.
  • Lincoln called on Northerners to put down the
    rebellion.

5
  • Southern states reacted angrily and seceded from
    the Union!
  • The Confederacy was happy to have Virginia
    large and wealthy state. Also home to Robert E.
    Lee, a talented/respected military leader.
    Confederacys capital Richmond, VA

6
Confederate General Robert E. Lee
7
Choosing Sides Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Border states Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and
    Missouri were slave states that bordered the
    North.
  • B/c of their resources and location, these
    states could tip the scales toward one side of
    the war!
  • All four states stayed in the Union.
  • In all 24 states made up the Union.
  • 11 states joined the Confederacy.

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9
Union Advantages (North)
  • More than twice as many citizens than the South.
  • More than 80 percent of the nations factories
    were located in the North.
  • President Lincoln was a very able leader.

10
Confederate Advantages (South)
  • Great generals, including Robert E. Lee.
  • Dedicated soldiers ready to defend their homes
    and families.

11
Confederate Strategy
  • Didnt want to conquer the North! Only wanted to
    be independent!
  • Hoped to win foreign support by using cotton
  • South grew most of the cotton for Europes
    textile mills.
  • Southern planters withheld cotton from the
    market hoping to force France and Britain to
    their aid.

12
  • France and Britain had a surplus of cotton and
    did not help the Confederacy and Europe had NO
    involvement in the war!

13
Union Strategy
  • Goal Bring Southern states back into Union.
  • Anaconda Plan!! North would squeeze the Southern
    economy like a giant anaconda snake smothering
    its prey.

14
Anaconda Plan
15
  • Plan naval blockade of the Souths coastline to
    prevent the transportation of goods or people
    into or out of an area.
  • Also gain control of Miss. river to split the
    Confederacy in two.

16
Battle of Bull Run
  • Summer 1861 Lincoln ordered invasion of
    Virginia
  • Goal conquer Richmond (capital).
  • Battle happened next to river called Bull Run.
  • Confederacy won! Thrilled South! Shocked North!
  • North realized it had underestimated its
    opponent
  • Lincoln began to prepare for a long war.

17
  • Life in the Army
  • Ch. 16, Section 2

18
Who Fought
19
Who Fought
  • In all, about 3 million Americans fought.
  • -Roughly 2 million served the Union.
  • -Just under 1 million served the Confederacy.
  • Majority of soldiers between the ages of 18 and
    30.
  • Majority born in the U.S.

20
  • Immigrants from other countries served both
    sides.
  • Native Americans also served both sides.
  • As conflict wore on, North allowed African
    Americans to serve.

21
Why Did They Enlist?
  • Many were volunteers.
  • Enlisted for a variety of reasons
  • -sought adventure and glory
  • -escape a life of boredom
  • -fought for loyalty
  • -the recruitment money
  • Hours of drills and exercises each day, dug
    trenches, cut firewood, and cleaned camp.

22
  • Union soldiers blue uniforms
  • Confederate soldiers gray uniforms
  • Rations included beef or salt pork, flour,
    vegetables, and coffee.
  • Battlefield more limited. Some soldiers went
    hungry b/c supply trains could not reach them.

23
Hardships of Army Life
  • Fields wet, muddy, and cold.
  • Camps unclean due to piled up garbage and
    outdoor toilets.
  • Soldiers filthy going weeks without bathing or
    washing their clothes.
  • Became overrun with fleas and lice.

24
  • Hygiene conditions and practices that promote
    health was poor during the war.
  • Widespread sickness! Diseases killed more
    soldiers during the Civil War than battle wounds.

25
Changes in Military Technology
  • Military technology advances led to higher death
    rates for both sides.
  • 1. Development of the rifle - gun with a grooved
    barrel causing a bullet to spin giving it more
    distance and accuracy.

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27
  • 2. Minie Ball bullet with a hollow base
    expands upon firing to fit the grooves of the
    barrel.
  • 3. Ironclad warship covered with iron. These
    ships could withstand attack better than wooden
    ships.
  • Union Ironclad Monitor fought the Confederate
    ironclad Merrimack. (no clear winner)

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