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Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe (19th and 20th century)

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Title: Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe (19th and 20th century)


1
Nation and Memory in Eastern Europe (19th and
20th century)
Lecture 6 Polish History II Week 7
2
Why was Poland partitioned and what can be done
to regain independence?
  • Gods Punishment Sins
  • Evilness of Prussia, Austria, Russia Break of
    international law
  • Weakness of old Polish Constitution Anarchy,
    not Liberty
  • Guilt of noble factions - treason
  • Oppression of peasants
  • Polish Backwardness
  • Back to Catholic values, support Catholic Church,
    pray and live virtuous life
  • Uprisings, waiting for international crisis,
    European war
  • Restitution of May Constitution 1791, liberal
    Constitution, stronger government
  • Fight against traitors, replacement of nobility
    in national leadership
  • Liberation of peasants, (National) Education of
    Peasants
  • Modernisation, Polish Middle Class, Organic Work

3
Enlightenment
History of the Polish Nation Teki Naruszewicza
(Collection of Documents of Polish History)
Bishop Adam Stanislaw Naruszewicz, 1733-1796
4
Options/Perspectives
Neutral Ideas Moderates Insurgents
Partitioning
Powers
Collaboration Loyalism Surrender Treason Duty
Resistance Idealism Rebellion Duty Treason
Conciliation Realism Moderation Collaboration Moderation
Emigration
Free after Norman Davies, Heart of Europe The
Past in Polands Present. New Edition (Oxford,
2001), p. 157
5
Outline 1. Poland and the
Napoleonic Wars 2. For our and for your
freedom... 3. Realism vs. Romanticism 4.
Conclusion Problems of Polish nation
building
6
(No Transcript)
7
1813
Suchodolski The death of Józef Poniatowskis at
Leipzig
8
(No Transcript)
9
Autonomy or Semi-Autonomy
Grand Duchy of Warsaw 1807 1815 Kingdom of
Poland 1815 1864 (1831) Grand Duchy of
Posen 1815 1848 Crown Land of Galicia and
1867 1918 Lodomeria
10
Outline 1. Poland and the
Napoleonic Wars 2. For our and for your
freedom... 3. Realism vs. Romanticism 4.
Conclusion Problems of Polish nation
building
11
November Uprising, 1830
12
1831
Finis Poloniae
13
Polish Emigration
  • Conservative-aristocratic (Czartoryski in Hotel
    Lambert)
  • Moderate democratic Polish National Committee
  • Radical Polish Democratic Society (TDP)

14
Romanticism
Joachim Lelewel 1786-1861
Karol Szajnocha 1818-1868
Poland, her History and Affairs Surveyed, in 20
vols, Posen, 1853-1876
Jadwiga i Jagiello
15
Uprisings before 1900
1794 Kosciuszko-Uprising (Russia) Also in
Greater Poland (Prussia) 1806 Uprising in
Greater Poland (Prussia) 1830 November Uprising
(Russia) 1846 Greater Poland (attempt,
Prussia) and Galician Slaughter, Kraków
(Austria) 1848 Greater Poland
(Prussia) 1863 January Uprising (Russia)
16
Polish lands, 1840-1848
17
(No Transcript)
18
Polish participation in European revolutions
1848-1849
19
January Uprising, 1863/64
20
1863
21
Outline 1. Poland and the
Napoleonic Wars 2. For our and for your
freedom... 3. Realism vs. Romanticism 4.
Conclusion Problems of Polish nation
building
22
Realism and Positivism
Cracow School Michal Bobrzynski 1849-1935 A
short history of Poland, 1879 The Birth of the
Polish State, 2 vols., 1914-22
Warsaw School Tadeusz Korzon 1839-1918
23
  • Organic Work
  • Starting point failed insurrections
  • Poland culturally and economically too
    underdeveloped to sustain an independent state
  • New strategy
  • Improve industry and trade in the Polish
    provinces
  • Build towns and railways
  • Organize cooperatives and organize Polish
    peasantry
  • Raise the literacy and the national
    consciousness of the population
  • Important advocates Stanczyk group in Cracow and
    Warsaw positivists

24
(No Transcript)
25
The Polish lands 1863 - 1914
  • Russian Empire
  • Kingdom of Poland becomes Vistula land
  • Russification
  • Discrimination of Catholic Church (Uniate Church)
  • University of Warsaw replaced by Imperial
    University of Warsaw (Teaching in Russian)
  • German Empire
  • Anti-Catholic policy under Bismarck
  • Germanisation of School system
  • School strike after attempt to introduce German
    language in religious instruction
  • Policy to promote settlement of ethnic Germans
  • Discrimination of ethnic Poles

26
Michal Drzymala, his wife and his wagon
27
(No Transcript)
28
Crownland Galicia and Lodomeria, 1910 Population
8 Million
West Galicia in West Galicia in East Galicia in East Galicia in Together Together
Roman-Catholic 2,381,940 88.6 1,349,630 25.3 3,731,570 46.5
Greek-Catholic 86,585 3.2 3,294,420 61.7 3,381,005 42.1
Jewish 213,173 7.9 658,722 12.4 871,895 10.9
Protestant 7,953 0.3 30,371 0.6 28,324 0.5
Orthodox 165 0.0 2,680 0.0 2,845 0.0
29
Austria-Hungary after 1867
  • Crownland Galicia and Lodomeria
  • Polish elite profits from imperial reforms
  • Close cooperation with Polish elites
  • Social, political, economic and cultural
    dominance of Poles
  • Polonisation of administration, education
  • Dominance of Polish language in universities in
    Cracow and Lwów
  • Modern political parties develop,
  • Hundreds of Polish newspapers and journals,
    thousands of books are published
  • Polish politicians (Polish club in Austrian
    parliament) very influential
  • Polish ministers and gouvernors
  • Galicia the Polish Piedmont

30
Outline 1. Poland and the
Napoleonic Wars 2. For our and for your
freedom... 3. Realism vs. Romanticism 4.
Conclusion Problems of Polish nation
building
31
Putzger, Historischer Weltatlas, pp. 106 f.
32
The Making of the Polish Nation
  • PRO
  • Polish language and long tradition of literate
    culture
  • Influence in Galicia since 1867
  • German Empire rule of law
  • Roman-Catholic faith
  • Common history of most of the territory until
    the end of the 18th c.
  • Existence of a numerous, genuinely Polish elite
    the nobility
  • Cultural bonds similar traditions, costumes,
    songs and so on
  • Emancipation/liberation of peasants in Prussia,
    Austria, Russia
  • Paradox creating precondition for Polish nation
    building
  • CONTRA
  • Partitions of Poland no state
  • Living in the Russian Empire, Prussia/German
    Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • No common present
  • Opportunities for educated Poles in the service
    of the Empires
  • Small middle class
  • Sharp social conflict between peasants and
    estate owners
  • Unclear borders
  • Unclear national boundaries (for ex. Polish Jew
    or Jewish Pole)
  • National 'awakening' of Ukrainians, Lithuanias
    etc.
  • Policy of Russification and Germanization
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