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Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction

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Title: Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Section 1 Reproduction


1
Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Section 1 Reproduction
2
Chapter 11 Section 1Reproduction
  • Key Vocabulary Terms

Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
3
Meiosis
  • A special process of cell division that results
    in haploid sex cells
  • The total number of chromosomes decreases to half
    the original number

4
Gamete
  • A reproductive cell a haploid reproductive cell
    that unites with another reproductive cell to
    form a zygote

5
Zygote
  • The cell that results from the
  • fusion of gametes (a fertilized egg)

6
Diploid
  • Describes a cell, nucleus, or organism that
    contains two sets of chromosomes

diploid cell
7
Haploid
  • Describes a cell, nucleus, or organism that has
    only one set of unpaired chromosomes

haploid cell
8
Homologous Chromosomes
  • Chromosomes that have the same order of genes,
    the same structure, and that pair during meiosis

9
Chapter 11 Section 1Reproduction
  • Supplementary Words

Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
10
Reproduction
  • The process of producing offspring

11
Asexual Reproduction
  • A single parent passes a complete copy of its
    genetic information to each of its offspring.
  • An individual formed by asexual reproduction is
    genetically identical to its parent.

12
Sexual Reproduction
  • Two parents give genetic material to produce
    offspring that are genetically different from
    their parents. Each parent produces a
    reproductive cell, called a gamete. A gamete from
    one parent fuses with a gamete from the other
    parent. The resulting cell, called a zygote, has
    a combination of genetic material from both
    parents

13
Binary Fission
  • This process results in the reproduction of a
    living prokaryotic cell by division into two
    parts which each have the potential to grow to
    the size of the original cell.

14
Fragmentation
  • A kind of reproduction in which the body breaks
    into several pieces. Some or all of these
    fragments regrow missing parts and develop into
    complete adults.

15
Budding
  • New individuals split off from existing ones

16
Parthenogenisis
  • A process in which a female makes a viable egg
    that grows into an adult without being fertilized
    by a male.

17
Fertilization
  • A process in sexual reproduction that involves
    the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum)
    gametes (each with a single, haploid set of
    chromosomes) to produce a diploid zygote

18
Germ Cells
  • Cells that are specialized for sexual reproduction

19
Somatic Cells
  • Other body cells that do not participate in
    sexual reproduction.

20
Gene
  • A segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome
    and that codes for a specific hereditary trait

21
Chromosomes
  • In a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in
    the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein
    in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA

22
Autosomes
  • Chromosomes with genes that do not determine the
    sex of an individual.

23
Sex Chromosomes
  • Chromosomes that have genes that determine the
    sex of an individual. In humans and many other
    organisms, the two sex chromosomes are referred
    to as the X and Y chromosomes. The genes that
    cause a zygote to develop into a male are located
    on the Y chromosome. Human males have one X
    chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY), and human
    females have two X chromosomes (XX).

24
Chromosome Number
  • Genes are located on chromosomes. Each
    chromosome has thousands of genes that play an
    important role in determining how an organism
    develops and functions. Each species has a
    characteristic number of chromosomes.

25
Crossing-over
  • The exchange of genetic material between
    homologous chromosomes during meiosis

26
Independent Assortment
  • The random distribution of pairs of genes on
    different chromosomes to the gametes

27
Life cycle
  • All of the events in the growth and development
    of an organism until the organism reaches sexual
    maturity

28
Sperm
  • The male gamete (sex cell)

29
Ovum
  • The female gamete A mature egg cell

30
Chapter 11Section 1 Reproduction
  • Notes

Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
31
Reproduction
  • Asexual Reproduction - A single parent produces
    genetically identical offspring

32
Asexual Reproduction
  • Prokaryotes Reproduce by splitting - binary
    fission

33
Asexual Reproduction
  • Unicellular Eukaryotes
  • Reproduce by mitosis and cytokinesis

34
Asexual Reproduction
  • Multicellular Eukaryotes
  • Reproduce by
  • Fragmentation sea stars
  • Budding yeast, hydra
  • Cuttings - plants
  • Parthenogenesis water fleas, some bees

35
Advantages of Asexual Reproduction
  • Many offspring are produced in a short mount of
    time.
  • Little energy is required for Gamete production
  • Finding a mate

36
Sexual Reproduction
  • Two parents produce genetically different
    offspring

37
Sexual Reproduction Background
  • Types of cells
  • Germ cells cells that produce gametes
  • Somatic cells other body cells that do not
    participate in sexual reproduction

38
Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
  • Genetically diverse populations
  • Variety increases the likelihood that some
    individuals will survive if the environment
    changes.

39
Chromosome Number
  • Each chromosome has thousands of genes.

40
Chromosome Number
  • Each species has a certain number of chromosomes.
  • Mosquitoes 6
  • Chimpanzees 48
  • Humans 46
  • Potato 48

41
Human Chromosome Number
  • Each somatic cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes.
  • Each gamete has one set of 23 chromosomes.
  • When fertilization occurs, the zygote will have
    two sets of 23 chromosomes one from each
    gamete.

23
46
23


42
Haploid and Diploid Cells
  • Gametes are haploid
  • Symbol n
  • Somatic cells are diploid
  • Symbol 2n
  • For humans, n 23 2n 46

43
Homologous Chromosomes
  • Paired chromosomes found in diploid cells.

Chromosome
Chromosome
Centromere
Centromere
Genes
Genes
Chromatids
44
Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes
  • Autosomes Chromosomes with genes that do not
    determine sex

45
Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes
  • Sex chromosomes
  • Chromosomes with genes that determine sex, X and
    Y in humans
  • Boys have an X and a Y
  • Girls have two Xs

46
autosomes 1-22
sex chromosomes 23
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