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Perception, Stereotypes and how they affect Conflict

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Title: Perception, Stereotypes and how they affect Conflict


1
Perception, Stereotypes and how they affect
Conflict
2
So What Do You See?
3
So What Do You See?
4
So What Do You See?
5
So What Do You See?
6
So What Do You See?
7
So What Do You See?
8
The Basics of Perception
  • How we interpret what we see is the unconscious
    process of
  • Separating into figure and background
  • Selecting what we look at or listen to
  • Ordering the environment into a whole that
    makes sense to us

9
What Does He See/Hear/Sense?
Manager/Supervisor
Waiting Line
Facial Expression
inbox of work
fat deposit bag
Other Tellers
Time of Day
Gender
Mood
10
The Perceptual Process
Waiting Line
Manager/Supervisor
Facial Expression
inbox of work
fat deposit bag
So What went on during this Transaction?
Other Tellers
Noise, Education, Prior Experience
Gender
Learning Style, Personality, Culture
Perceptual Bias
Time of Day
11
Perceptual Errors
Stereotyping
Halo Effect
Primacy/Recency
Reflection
12
Learning Style
  • The way a person perceives, interprets and
    responds to information
  • Two key dimensions
  • how you gather information
  • how you evaluate and act on information

13
Learning Styles - Kolb
  • Information Gathering
  • Concrete experience learn through personal
    involvement
  • Abstract conceptualization build theories using
    logic, ideas and concepts
  • Evaluation and Action
  • Reflective observation seek meaning through
    study
  • Active experimentation change situations and
    influence others to see what happens

14
Learning Styles Four Types
  • Accommodating
  • Concrete experience learn through personal
    involvement
  • Active experimentation change situations and
    influence others to see what happens
  • Diverging
  • Concrete experience learn through personal
    involvement
  • Reflective observation seek meaning through
    study
  • Assimilating
  • Reflective observation seek meaning through
    study
  • Converging
  • Abstract conceptualization build theories using
    logic, ideas and concepts
  • Active experimentation change situations and
    influence others to see what happens

15
Accomodating (CE/AE) Best at hands-on
learning Enjoy carrying out plans and involvement
in new, challenging experiences Act on "gut
feeling" more than logical analysis Solve
problems by interacting with others Inclined
toward careers in marketing and sales Prefer to
work in groups to accomplish learning
tasks Converging (AC/AE) Best at finding
practical uses for ideas and theories Prefer
technical tasks and prescribed problems over
social or interpersonal issues Best at solving
problems where one correct solution is
required Inclined toward technical careers
(engineering, computers, etc.) Prefer to learn
via simulations, lab assignments, and assigned
problems Assimilating (AC/RO) Best at arranging
broad range of information into concise,
cohesive, logical form Prefer working through
abstract ideas and concepts to working with
people to solve problems Prefer logical soundness
to practical value Inclined to scientific or
academic careers Prefer to learn through
lectures, readings, models, and thinking
time Diverging (CE/RO) Best at viewing concrete
situations from various perspectives Work best in
situations requiring generation of ideas and
alternative solutions to problems Excel at
creative, inventive activites Inductive thinkers
with broad interests Like to gather lots of
information and engage in brainstorming Prefer to
learn in groups where diverse perspectives are
present Tend to select careers in the arts,
social service, and communication
16
Perceptual Biases
  • Stereotyping
  • Halo
  • Projection
  • Primacy and recency
  • Selective perception
  • Denial
  • Perceptual defense
  • Expectancy
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy

17
Perceptual Biases
  • Stereotyping
  • The application of a standardized impression of a
    (readily discernable) group of people to
    influence our perception of the traits or
    behavior of a particular individual. Basically,
    generalizing about many from one or a few
  • Halo
  • Allowing one characteristic of an individual to
    form our perception of all of that individuals
    characteristics.

18
Perceptual Biases
  • Projection
  • Blaming our problems on others or attributing our
    feelings to other people.
  • Primacy and recency
  • First impressions count the most recent thing
    you see or hear is what you remember.
  • Selective perception
  • The filtering process, including both selective
    attention and selective retention.

19
Perceptual Biases
  • Denial
  • Refusing to acknowledge or act on threatening
    information.
  • Perceptual defense
  • Clinging to the perceptions we have
  • Expectancy
  • Seeing what we expect to see.

20
Attribution How We Form Judgments
  • Internal vs. external attribution
  • Internal behavior/outcome the result of internal
    processes (intention, planning, hard-work, etc.)
    i.e., it is caused by the person
  • External behavior/outcome the result of external
    processes (luck, chance, favoritism, birth,
    etc.) i.e., it is caused by the situation

21
Attribution How We Form Judgments
  • Internal vs. external attribution
  • Internal success through own abilities and
    efforts
  • External success through luck or others help

22
Attribution How We Form Judgments
  • Internal vs. external attribution
  • Internal success through own abilities and
    efforts
  • External success through luck or others help
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