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Unit Three Bridging Cultural Gaps Gracefully

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Title: Unit Three Bridging Cultural Gaps Gracefully


1
New College English Book Two
2
Unit 8 Creativity
3
Useful information (1)
  • Creativity is a rather vague ability that usually
    implies originality and imagination. Although one
    normally associates creativeness with artists and
    poets, people of all ages can demonstrate
    creativity in a wide variety of ways.
  • A child can create an imaginary village from an
    odd assortment of sticks and stones.
  • A factory worker can solve a complex mechanical
    problem in an inventive fashion.
  • An advertising agent can think up an inexpensive
    and humorous way to reach a new clientele.

4
Useful information (2)
  • As a general rule, creativity does not
    necessarily require sophisticated skills or great
    intelligence. The creative process often involves
    intuitive perception, "lateral thinking", and
    experimentation by trial and error. In other
    words, a creative person might guess at a
    possible solution, pull in comparisons from
    totally unrelated fields, and accept mistakes as
    a normal part of problem-solving. Are there
    situations or attitudes that inhibit or prevent
    creativity?
  • Teachers who regard energetic and inquisitive
    children as "naughty" probably discourage
    creativity.
  • A boss who feels threatened by employees
    questioning old ways and who calls suggestions a
    "nuisance" is not favoring creativity in the
    workplace.
  • Parents who expect their children to draw or
    paint like great masters will not tolerate
    "messy" or "ugly" artwork.

5
Useful information (3)
  • Education --- Chinese and Western--- involves
    learning skills and acquiring a body of knowledge
    in many fields. This aspect of education does not
    enhance creativity which is generally considered
    to be one of the key aims of Western education.
  • Certainly since the 1960s in the United States,
    Canada and Australia increasing efforts have been
    made to integrate strategies into the educational
    system that help children to learn "by doing", by
    "hands-on" class work and by special "projects".
  • All of these student-centered activities are
    designed to teach children to draw conclusions
    from their own observations or from those of
    their group and especially to learn how to
    research a topic on their own.
  • Science fairs and science Olympics encourage
    middle school and high school students to invent
    all kinds of things.
  • Children are also expected to ask questions and
    to work independently at a very young
    age.Creative writing classes allow children to
    write short stories and novels. The quality may
    be questionable, but the aim is to give students
    total freedom to experiment.

6
Useful information (4)
  • An educational system that fosters creativity
    presupposes the positive value of individualism.
    Cultures that stress collectivism and group
    solidarity may not place great importance on
    individual expressions of creativity.
  • Societies or institutions based on a hierarchical
    distribution of power may regard individual
    creativity as irrelevant and destabilizing.
  • Strategies that encourage children to experiment
    and think for themselves are often criticized
    because they slow down the learning process and
    the acquisition of skills.
  • In other words, they are considered to be
    inefficient. Certainly they do imply a tolerance
    for guess work, errors and imperfection.  

7
Part One Preparation
  • 1. What Is Creativity? Being creative" means
    one can think of things that others cannot.
    "Being creative" means one can solve problems in
    a simple and original way. "Being creative"
    means one can think and do things in an unusual
    way.  
  • Being creative is not limited to scientists or
    artists. Actually, ordinary people also do
    creative work in their lives. It is carried on
    all the time by amateur inventors who find new
    and more convenient ways of doing everyday
    things. For example, the paper clip was invented
    by a man who kept losing his paperwork. Thanks to
    his own invention, he's now very well organized.
     

8
2. Creativity and Inventions
  • The typewriter replaced pens and pencils and
    enabled people to write much more quickly and
    much more neatly.
  • The calculator replaced mental calculations,
    tables and the abacus. The results are more
    accurate, the problems can be done more quickly,
    and complex operations with large sums can be
    done easily.
  • The lightbulb replaced candles, lamps and
    torches. Electricity can be used at any time of
    the day or night. With electric lights, people no
    longer had to depend on sunlight.
  • The ballpoint pen replaced pen and ink. It is
    more convenient, easy to carry and often neater.
  • The refrigerator replaced other ways of
    preserving food such as ice, salt and drying. It
    enables people to keep vegetables and other foods
    fresh for many days.

9
3. What's My Line?
1) ACTRESS
2) WAITER
3) ARTIST
6) ACTOR
  •  

5) BANKER
4) BUTCHER
10
Part Two Listening Activities
  • Listening 1
  • Vocabularyproceed v. ????????? track n.
    ??????? the finish line n.???
    wander v. ?? participant n. ??????
    proficient adj.?????? original
    adj.???????????

11
Tape script (1)
  • In China, education is considered a race.
    Students have to begin as early as possible and
    have to proceed as quickly as possible along the
    track. The education system is considered to be
    successful when many students have reached the
    finish line as quickly as possible. In America,
    we recognize the race too, but we feel that the
    students should have a chance to wander much
    more, even if not all of them reach the finish
    line. As a result of their wandering, some of the
    participants may have more to offer by the end of
    the race.

12
Tape script (2)
  • The advantage of the Chinese way is that more
    students become proficient and reach the finish
    line. The disadvantage is that they may have less
    to say or to show once they get there. The
    disadvantage of the American way is that many
    students never finish the race. The advantage is
    that some who do go all the way have very
    interesting and original things to say when they
    get there. (169 words)

13
Exercise 1
  • Answers 1) race 2) as early as possible as
    quickly as possible 3) wander more to
    offer4)proficient 5) less to say or to show
    6)finish the race 7)have very interesting and
    original things to say
  • Exercise 2 For reference only
  • Yes, I agree. In China, there are so many people
    participating in the race, and it is not possible
    to allow students to follow their own paths.
    Everyone has to take the same examinations, so
    they want the best preparation possible. The size
    of the population, the limited number of
    universities, and the examination system are the
    causes of the differences between American and
    Chinese education.

14
Listening 2
  • Vocabularymistakenly adv. ??? creativity n.
    ?????? efficient adj. ???????? hanger n.
    ????? hook n. ?

15
Tape script (1)
  • Many people mistakenly think that creativity is
    the ability to think thoughts that no one else
    has ever thought. In fact, creativity is just a
    way of looking at the ordinary in a different
    way. Alex Osborn, one of the pioneers in the
    study of creativity and imagination, discovered
    that almost everyone is more creative than he
    thinks. We usually don't recognize our good ideas
    as creativity in action. For example, in a large
    mid-western city a group of thieves had invented
    a very efficient system.

16
Tape script (2)
  • They could go into a clothing store, take all the
    clothes away and be out of the store before the
    police arrived. Then a young man had an idea. He
    told stores to change the way they hung the
    clothes. He told them to place some hangers with
    the hook facing in and some with the hook facing
    out. The next time the police arrived, they found
    the young thieves removing the clothes one at a
    time. Everyday creativity is just looking at
    things from a new point of view. (176 words)  

17
Exercise 1
  • 1) mistakenly 2) thoughts 3) ordinary 4) pioneers
    5) imagination 6) recognize 7) efficient 8) hung
    9) one 10) new
  • Exercise 2 1) It was simple and did not require
    any money. He made a clever observation the
    thieves were able to grab many clothes at once
    because it was easy. So he thought of something
    that made it more difficult for them. 2) Adding
    extra cameras hiring more staff hiring men to
    watch the store at night putting bars on the
    doors and windows to prevent burglaries.  

18
Part Three Reading Activities
  • Pre-reading Reference answers to discussion
    tasks
  • 1. No. They made the decisions and I obeyed. If I
    did not obey, I would be punished. They meant
    well and wanted to teach me the right moral
    values and not to make mistakes. But sometimes, I
    think they should have let me discover things by
    myself. I think that children are very clever and
    should be encouraged to make some decisions by
    themselves.
  • 2. Yes. I could talk freely with the guests of
    our family. If I had not been allowed to speak to
    them, I would have felt like a little child or an
    outsider even though I was not really young, and
    I would not have felt like part of the family.

19
2. Language Point
  • 1) The case for creativityencouraging
    children
  • Case??????????????????????
  • ??Thats not the case .Its not true.
  • ???? there were five cases(five persons
    suffering from) of influenza
  • ???? When will the case come before the court?
    Case book ???????????
  • ?? a dressing case??? suit case book case

Language Point
20
Case ?????????
  • It may rain, youd better take an umbrella
    (just) in case.?????,???????,?????(?????)
  • In case I forget, please remind me of my promise.
  • In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.
  • ??????,?????
  • in this /that case ????/????
  • in no case?? / in any case ????

Language Point
21
Creativity
  • n.??? ?? create v.???? creation n.????????
    creative adj.?????? Creator n.??? creature
    n.???(????)
  • To be an artist involves creativity.??????????
  • ??????????-???????

22
2) this vital skill in children (line 2)
  • vital adj. ????????????????????
  • be vital to sb./sth.? ?????
  • ?It is vital that???,???????????? (should
    do.)??????????important, necessary,
    essential,desirable, advisable, urgent
  • It is vital that enough money (should)be
    collected to fund the project.

Language Point
23
Vital
  • ??Vitality n.? vitalize(se) v.???? vitally
    adv.??,? ?vitals n.??????? vital force???
  • Environment is vital for a childs growth.
  • ?????????????????

24
3) If Dick Drew., (line 3)
  • practically adv. a.) actually???b). almost
    nearly??
  • ?? practical adj.???practicality n.???
    practicable adj.??? practice(se) n.??v.??
    practiced/practised adj.??? practitioner
    n.???(?????)
  • You can learn practically nothing from your
    experience in that factory.
  • ????????????????

25
mask v. ???? n.????
  • ??masked adj.(?)????
  • He did all his hatred for his master under a mask
    of loyalty.
  • He masked all his hatred for his master under
    loyalty.
  • ?????,??????????
  • ?????1925???????????????,??????????????,?????????
    ??

26
4) At work, (line 5)
  • At work, he developed a sticky-side substance
    strong enough to hold things together.
  • sticky-side substance??(??????????)
  • ?? ????,???????????????????,??????,?????????

27
5) Drew perfected the tape,(line 7)
  • perfect
  • make sth. faultless in every way
  • ?????
  • eg. She needs to perfect her English before
    going abroad.

28
6) It is a strategy that... (line 10)
  • It is a strategy that more and more companies
    are employing and one that experts around the
    country say we ought to be following with our
    children, both at home and at school.
  • ????????????
  • 1) It is a strategy that more and more companies
    are employing.
  • 2) Its a strategy that experts around the
    country say we ought to be following with our
    children, both at home and at school.
  • ????,?????????????????,????(???)???????,?????????
    ??,????????????

29
7) the feeling is that (line 13)
  • the feeling is thatthey will be better able to
    function in tomorrows society.
  • function??????????????????
  • ?the functions of a judge?????
  • the function of education ?????
  • the functions of the nerves?????
    ????????????????
  • ?The telephone was not functioning.?????
  • Some English adverbs function as
    adjectives.???????????????
  • ??????,????????????????,???????????????????

30
8) Creativitys benefits (line 14)
  • Creativitys benefits reach beyond music and
    art.
  • reach??,??
  • ????????????????????
  • 9) a number of ways to approach problems (line
    15)
  • approach 1)??,??,? 2)??,??
  • E.g. New year is approaching.

31
10)  Creativity is not (line 16)
  • Creativity is not something one is just born
    with, nor is it necessarily a characteristic of
    high intelligence.
  • ??nor?????????????????????????????(??????????),???
    ????,???????be????????????,???????
  • Eg. Neither at the meeting nor at the previous
    one did anyone raise the question.
  • She wont leave, nor will she allow him to
    continue threatening her badly.
  • Not until many years later did the whole truth
    become known.
  • Never have I seen such a nice movie.
  • ???????????,??????????????

32
11) Creativity is the matter of(line 19)
  • Creativity is the matter of using the resources
    one has to produce original ideas that are good
    for something.
  • original ideas ????? ?????
  • ??? one has ?????????resources ???that are good
    for something ????original ideas
  • ?????????????????????,???????????????

33
12) With strong emphasis on...(Line 20)
  • With strong emphasis on test scores and the
    development of reading, writing and mathematical
    skills, many educators sacrifice creativity for
    correct answers.
  • Sacrifice v.?? n.????? sacrificial adj.??????
    sacrilege n. ???? sacrilegious adj.?????
    ??????????????
  • ???????????????,????,???????,????????????????????
    ??

34
13) The result is that ... (line 22)
  • The result is that children can give back
    information but cant recognize ways to apply it
    to new situations.
  • ?????????????????,???????????????

35
14) They may know (line 23)
  • They may know their multiplication tables, for
    example, but they are unable to apply them to
    story problems.
  • story problems?(????)???(??200???)
  • ?? ???????????,??????????????

36
15)new approaches to teaching (line 26)
  • approach n.?????
  • eg. The enemy ran away at our approach.
  • ????????,???????
  • an approach to perfection????.
  • ? ??????
  • All the approaches to the Palace were guarded by
    soldiers.
  • ????????????????
  • v. ????
  • eg. A boy of 18 is approaching manhood.
  • 18??????????
  • He is rather difficult to approach.???????????

37
16)For example, instead of ...(line 28
  • For example, instead of simply asking When
    Columbus discovered the New World, teachers might
    ask students to think about what would have
    happened if his trip had taken him to New York
    first instead of to the Caribbean area.
  • instead of doing sth.???? WHEN?????? The New
    World ???,??? what would have happened if his
    trip had taken him to New York first instead of
    to the Caribbean area?think about?????,?????,?????
    ???????
  • ????,???????????????????????,?????????????????
    ????????????????

38
17) In the classroom as well as at home,
,experts say. (line 33)
  • as well (as)?????
  • He give me money as well as advice.
  • ?????????,?????
  • He give me advice, and money as well.
  • ??????,??????
  • We shall travel by night as well as by
    day.????????
  • ??????,????????,???????????????

39
18) Then it is up to (line 34)
  • Then it is up to parents and teachers to work
    with the children to develop those thoughts into
    workable ideas.
  • be up to be the duty or responsibility of
    sb.(????)??,??
  • Eg. Its up to us to help those in need.
  • ??????????
  • eg. Shall we go out? Its up to you.
  • Whether he took it or not was up to him.
  • Whether you learn or not is entirely up to you.
  • workable?????
  • ???????????????????,???????????????

40
19) Experts say that ...(line 37)
  • Experts say that it is important to create an
    atmosphere in which there is no risk in being
    creative---a place where wild ideas are honored
    and valued, never scorned or dismissed.
  • scorn v.?despise mock ?????refuse ignore
    ????? n. UC contempt????
  • dismiss v. ? fire sack ????? neglect,
    disregard, ignore ??????????? release,
    free??????
  • ????????????????????????,????????????????????????

41
20) involve children in (line 40)
  • involve in ??????????
  • eg. Dont involve me in solving your problems.
  • 21) When parents show a sense of humor, children
    can see creativity in its purest form.(line 47)
  • ???????????,???????????????

42
22) By its nature, (line 46)
  • By its nature, humor crosses conventional
    boundaries and breaks patterns.
  • by its nature ????????
  • nature ???
  • Eg. Man is engaged in a constant struggle with
    nature.

43
nature ?
  • typical qualities and characteristics of a
    person or an animal????
  • eg. Its human nature that parents should be fond
    of their children.
  • Its his nature to be generous.
  • She has a very sweet nature.
  • ? the main character of sth.????
  • eg. What is the nature of his business.
  • Motor-racing is by nature a dangerous sport.
  • ???????,??????????,???????

44
23) As children grow older, (line 53)
  • As children grow older, ,but not automatically
    help them too much if they make the wrong
    decision.
  • ??????????,????????????????????????????,???????
    ??????

45
24) This is because ...(line 56)
  • This is because one of the most important traits
    of creative people is a very strong motivation to
    make order out of confusion.
  • ????????????????????,????????????????????????

46
Translation
  • 1. I think it is up to him to finish the work no
    matter how long it will take. 2. We decided to
    sacrifice a trip for a new car. 3. He tried not
    to involve his wife in the management of the
    company.4. The education of young people is
    vital to the future of our country. 5. The key
    to this problem is better planning. 6. I am very
    tired. I don' t want to pursue that question now.
    7. He won first prize for his original design.
    8. Through all his life he has made efforts to
    promote the mutual understanding between the two
    countries.

47
Part Four Further Development
  • 1. Case Study Possible solutions -Paint a
    picture of beautiful scenery on the walls of the
    prison. -Put windows on the other side of the
    bungalows(??)to see different scenery. -Move to
    another neighborhood. -Plant flowers, vines and
    trees around the walls.-Buy a computer and
    you'll never be bored. - Work in the prison
    watchtower(???). -Put mirrors to the right and
    left of the wall to reflect the scenery (see
    Figure 1). -Use a concave(???), a convex(???), a
    periscope(???)and steps (see Figure 2).

48
2. Everyday Creativity
  • With a ballpoint pen, we could use it -as a
    water gun -to hide messages in -as a lighter
    to light cigarettes -as a weapon to hurt the
    attacker's face. With a piece of chalk, we
    could use it -to absorb ink or water -to clean
    white shoes -to cover a spot on a white wall
    -to wake up a sleeping student -to carve
    something on it. With a pair of glasses, We
    could Use them -to hide our identity after we
    darken the glasses -as a mirror to look at a
    girl/boy behind us -as a mirror to see if our
    hair is neat-to look more mature while wearing
    them -to look educated while wearing them.
    With a blackboard eraser, we could use it -to
    shine our shoes -to powder our faces -as a
    weapon to dust the attacker's eyes with chalk
    powder -to paint squares on a dark wall -to
    polish furniture.

49
3. Letters to Jennifer
  • Sample letter 1Dear Jennifer, I don't know what
    to do. One of my friends often wants me to do
    homework for her. I want to help her because she
    is my friend, but I am spending too much time on
    her work. -Shygirl Sample letter Dear
    Shygirl, The next time she asks you, make a
    whole lot of mistakes and then she won't ask you
    any more. -Jennifer

50
4. Cloze
  • 1) mean 2) include 3) break 4) invent 5) strike
    6) limited 7) able 8) not 9) average 10) reason
    11) that 12) examining 13) Another 14) play 15)
    regard 16) sound 17) because 18) disapproved 19)
    satisfaction 20) but

51
5. Creativity in Education
  • 1) Both are equally important, and no system
    should only emphasize one. Knowledge involves
    facts and skills which are essential, but
    creativity allows you to do original things with
    your knowledge. If I had to emphasize one, I
    would choose creativity since it is more
    important than facts and figures that will be
    forgotten.

52
2) -Reduce the amount of memory work.
  • Memorizing things does not encourage thinking.
    If students are told to memorize, they are not
    encouraged to solve problems in an original way,
    but just to obtain or give back information.
    -Encourage students' curiosity. If students are
    curious, they will explore more and become more,
    interested. -Give homework that tests students'
    ideas and theories rather than piles of work that
    require them to repeat what their teachers do in
    class. -Stop thinking that children are stupid
    and that they must always be told what to do and
    how to do it. -Offer more classes on art and
    music. -Leave students more time so that they
    can go out and observe nature. -Let students be
    teachers from time to time. -Provide more
    chances for students to visit exhibitions and
    have discussions. -Let students talk about their
    interests and realize the importance of their
    interests.

53
6. Writing
  • How Can We Encourage Creativity in Students?
    Sample 1 Success has often been linked to
    creativity. However, more and more evidence
    proves that school education seems to discourage
    creativity in students. First, students should be
    allowed to free then imagination. Students also
    have rights to produce strange drawings and give
    foolish questions, for these can sometimes lead
    to creativity. Don't look down on children's
    tricks and games. Play is an important step on
    the road to the success of the greatest
    scientists and artists. According to research on
    the human brain, the two halves of the human
    brain do different kinds of work in everyday
    life. The left half manages tasks related to
    logical reasoning and language skills. The right
    half controls things such as drawing, music,
    imagination, and even dreams. Of course,
    praising good ideas and encouraging unusual
    points of view are also important ways encourage
    creative thinking. However, the real answer lies
    in encouraging them to think in picture and in
    words and also to express themselves in simple
    drawings. It might be a good way to let the right
    half of their brains do exercises. Besides,
    letting students do imaginative assignments like
    making up stories and encouraging them to
    daydream when they are free are also effective
    ways to wake up their creativity. (208 words)

54
Sample 2
  • First of all, I would like to let my students use
    their hands as much as possible. If the student.
    interested in machines, he can use tools to make
    car models, for example. If a student likes
    clothes, she should have the chance to sew a coat
    for herself. I would like to ask them to design
    something they haven't seen before. In brief,
    they can use their imagination and knowledge to
    do whatever they like. Of course, when they
    encounter difficulties I would help them if they
    need my help. Instead Ii telling them the answer
    right away, I would encourage them to solve the
    problem themselves. If the student manages to
    solve the problem, he will gain a lot because the
    next time he will be more willing and more
    confident to reflect and look for a solution.
    Thus the students will become more and more
    creative. At the same time, my students should
    read, think and have discussions with others as
    much I possible. This process would enable them
    to gain inspiration from other people and from
    their peers. I would encourage them to read about
    famous inventors and examples of creativity. This
    would help create a good atmosphere for creative
    thought. (196 words)
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