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Chapter 10 Inner and East Asia 600 A.C.E.

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Chapter 10 Inner and East Asia 600 A.C.E. 1200 A.C.E. Mr. Quintana AP World History 9th Grade – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10 Inner and East Asia 600 A.C.E.


1
Chapter 10 Inner and East Asia 600 A.C.E.
1200 A.C.E.
  • Mr. Quintana AP World History 9th Grade

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The Sui and Tang Empires, 581755 Reunification
Under the Sui and Tang
  • 1. The Sui Empire reunified China and established
    a government based on Confucianism but heavily
    influenced by Buddhism. The Suis rapid decline
    and fall may have been due to its having spent
    large amounts of resources on a number of
    ambitious construction, canal, irrigation, and
    military projects.
  • 2. The Tang Empire was established in 618. The
    Tang state carried out a program of territorial
    expansion, avoided over-centralization, and
    combined Turkic influence with Chinese Confucian
    traditions.

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Buddhism and the Tang Empire
  • 1. The Tang emperors legitimized their control by
    using the Buddhist idea that kings are spiritual
    agents who bring their subjects into a Buddhist
    realm. Buddhist monasteries were important allies
    of the early Tang emperors in return for their
    assistance, they received tax exemptions, land,
    and gifts.
  • 2. Mahayana Buddhism was the most important
    school of Buddhism in Central Asia and East Asia.
    Mahayana beliefs were flexible, encouraged the
    adaptation of local deities into a Mahayana
    pantheon, and encouraged the translation of
    Buddhist texts into local languages.
  • 3. Buddhism spread through Central and East Asia,
    following the trade routes that converged on the
    Tang capital, Changan. These trade routes also
    brought other peoples and cultural influences to
    Changan, making it a cosmopolitan city.

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To Changan by Land and Sea
  • 1. Changan was the destination of ambassadors
    from other states sent to China under the
    tributary system. The city of Changan itself had
    over a million residents, most of them living
    outside the city walls.
  • 2. Foreigners in Changan lived in special
    compounds, urban residents in walled, gated
    residential quarters. Roads and canals, including
    the Grand Canal, brought people and goods to the
    city. With Chinese control over South China
    firmly established, Islamic and Jewish merchants
    from Western Asia came to China via the Indian
    Ocean trade routes.
  • 3. Large Chinese commercial ships plied the sea
    routes to Southeast Asia, carrying large amounts
    of goods. Bubonic plague was also brought from
    West Asia to China along the sea routes.

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Trade and Cultural Exchange
  • 1. Tang China combined Central Asian influences
    with Chinese culture, bringing polo, grape wine,
    tea, and spices. In trade, China lost its
    monopoly on silk, but began to produce its own
    cotton, tea, and sugar.
  • 2. Tang roads, river transport, and canals
    facilitated a tremendous growth in trade. Tang
    China exported far more than it imported, with
    high quality silks and porcelain being among its
    most desired products.

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Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China,
600907 The Uighur and Tibetan Empires
  • 1. In the mid-eighth century, a Turkic group, the
    Uighurs, built an empire in Central Asia. The
    Uighurs were known as merchants and scribes, had
    strong ties to both Islam and China, and
    developed their own script. The Uighur Empire
    lasted for about fifty years.
  • 2. Tibet was a large empire with access to
    Southeast Asia, China, South and Central Asia.
    Tibet was thus open to Indian, Chinese, Islamic,
    and even (via Iran) Greek culture.
  • 3. In the early Tang, relations between China and
    Tibet were friendly. The Tibetan king received a
    Chinese princess and Mahayana Buddhism was
    brought to Tibet and combined with the local
    religion. But by the late 600s, friendly
    relations had given way to military rivalry in
    which Tibet allied with the southwestern kingdom
    of Nanchao against the Tang.
  • 4. In the ninth century, a Tibetan king attempted
    to eliminate Buddhism, but failed. Tibet then
    entered a long period of monastic rule and
    isolation.

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Upheavals and Repression, 750879
  • 1. In the late ninth century the Tang Empire
    broke the power of the Buddhist monasteries and
    Confucian ideology was reasserted. The reason for
    the crackdown was that Buddhism was seen as
    undermining the family system and eroding the tax
    base by accumulating tax-free land and attracting
    hundreds of thousands of people to become monks
    and nuns.
  • 2. Buddhism also had been used to legitimize
    womens participation in politics. The most
    significant example of this is the career of Wu
    Zhao, who took control of the government and made
    herself emperor with the ideological and material
    support of Buddhism.
  • 3. When Buddhism was repressed, Confucian
    scholars concocted accounts that painted highly
    critical portraits of Wu Zhao and other
    influential women in Chinese history. The
    crackdown on Buddhism also brought the
    destruction of many Buddhist cultural artifacts.

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The End of the Tang Empire, 879907
  • 1. As its territory expanded and as it was faced
    with internal rebellions, the Tang dynasty relied
    on powerful provincial military governors to
    maintain peace. In 907, the Tang state ended and
    regional military governors established their own
    kingdoms.
  • 2. None of these smaller kingdoms was able to
    integrate territory on the scale of the Tang. As
    a result, East Asia was cut off from
    communication with the Islamic world and Europe.

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The Emergence of East Asia, to 1200 The Liao and
Jin Challenge
  • 1. After the fall of the Tang a number of new
    states emerged in the former Tang territory the
    Liao, the Jin, and the Chinese Song. As the Liao
    and Jin cut the Chinese off from Central Asia,
    the Song developed seafaring and strengthened
    contacts with Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
  • 2. The Liao state included nomads and settled
    agriculturalists. The Liao kings presented
    themselves to their various subjects as Confucian
    rulers, Buddhist monarchs, and nomadic leaders.
    The Liao rulers were of the Kitan ethnic group.
  • 3. The Liao Empire lasted from 9161121. The Liao
    had a strong military and forced the Song to give
    them annual payments of cash and silk in return
    for peace.
  • 4. In order to rid themselves of the Liao, the
    Song helped the Jurchens of northeast Asia to
    defeat the Liao. The Jurchens established their
    own Jin Empire, turned on the Song, and drove
    them out of north and central China in 1127. The
    Song continued to reign in south China as the
    Southern Song Empire (11271279).

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Song Industries
  • 1. During the Song period the Chinese made a
    number of technological innovations, many of them
    based on information that had been brought to
    China from West Asia during the cosmopolitan Tang
    era. Many of these innovations had to do with
    mathematics, astronomy, and calendar making.
  • 2. In 1088 the engineer Su Song constructed a
    huge, chain-driven mechanical clock that told the
    time, the day of the month, and indicated the
    movements of the moon and certain stars and
    planets. Song inventors also improved the
    previously invented compass, making it suitable
    for seafaring.
  • 3. In shipbuilding, the Song introduced the
    sternpost rudder and watertight bulkheads. These
    innovations were later adopted in the Persian
    Gulf.
  • 4. The Song also had a standing professionally
    trained, regularly paid military. Iron and coal
    were important strategic resources for the Song
    military. The Song produced large amounts of
    high-grade iron and steel for weapons, armor, and
    defensive works. The Song also developed and used
    gunpowder weapons in their wars.

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Economy and Society in Song China
  • 1. Song society was dominated by civilian
    officials and put higher value on civil pursuits
    than on military affairs. Song thinkers developed
    a sophisticated Neo-Confucian philosophy, while
    certain Buddhist sects, particularly Chan (Zen)
    continued to be popular.
  • 2. The civil service examination system,
    introduced in the Tang, reached its mature form
    in the Song. The examination broke the domination
    of the hereditary aristocracy by allowing men to
    be chosen for government service on the basis of
    merit. However, men from poor families were
    unlikely to be able to devote the necessary time
    and resources to studying for the rigorous
    examinations.
  • 3. With the invention of moveable type, the Song
    government was able to mass-produce authorized
    preparation texts for examination-takers.
    Printing also contributed to the dissemination of
    new agricultural technology and thus helped to
    increase agricultural production and spur
    population growth in South China.

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Economy and Society in Song China
  • 4. During the Song period Chinas population rose
    to 100 million. Population growth and economic
    growth fed the rise of large, crowded, but very
    well-managed cities like Hangzhou.
  • 5. The Song period saw the wide use of an
    interregional credit system called flying money
    and the introduction of government-issued paper
    money. The paper money caused inflation and was
    later withdrawn.
  • 6. The Song government was not able to control
    the market economy as closely as previous
    governments had done. Certain government
    functions, including tax collection, were
    privatized, and a new merchant elite thrived in
    the cities, their wealth derived from trade
    rather than land.
  • 7. Womens status declined during the Song
    period. Women were entirely subordinated to men
    and lost their rights to own and manage property
    remarriage was forbidden. Painfully bound feet
    became a mandatory status symbol for elite women.
    Working class women and women from non-Han
    peoples of southern China did not bind their feet
    and had more independence than elite Han Chinese
    women did.

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Chinese Foot binding (Ouch!)
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Chinese Foot binding (Ouch!)
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Chinese Foot binding (Ouch!)
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New Kingdoms in East Asia Chinese Influences
  • 1. Korea, Japan, and Vietnam were all
    rice-cultivating economies whose labor needs fit
    well with Confucian concepts of hierarchy,
    obedience, and discipline. While they all adapted
    aspects of Chinese culture, the political
    ideologies of the three countries remained
    different. None of them used the Chinese civil
    service examination system, although they did
    value literacy in Chinese and read the Chinese
    classics.

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Korea
  • 1. The Korean hereditary elite absorbed
    Confucianism and Buddhism from China and passed
    them along to Japan. The several small Korean
    kingdoms were united first by Silla in 668, and
    then by Koryo in the early 900s. Korea used
    woodblock printing as early as the 700s, and
    later invented moveable type, which it passed on
    to Song China.

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Japan
  • 1. Japans mountainous terrain was home to
    hundreds of small states that were unified,
    perhaps by horse-riding warriors from Korea, in
    the fourth or fifth century. The unified state
    established its government at Yamato on Honshu
    Island.
  • 2. In the mid-seventh century, the rulers of
    Japan implemented a series of political reforms
    to establish a centralized government, legal
    code, national histories, architecture and city
    planning based on the model of Tang China.
    However, the Japanese did not copy the Chinese
    model uncritically they adopted it to the needs
    of Japan and maintained their own concept of
    emperorship. The native religion of Shinto
    survived alongside the imported Buddhist
    religion.
  • 3. During the Heian period (7941185), the
    Fujiwara clan dominated the Japanese government.
    The Heian period is known for the aesthetic
    refinement of its aristocracy and for the
    elevation of civil officials above warriors.
  • 4. By the late 1000s, some warrior clans had
    become wealthy and powerful. After years of
    fighting, one warrior clan took control of Japan
    and established the Kamakura Shogunate with its
    capital at Kamakura in eastern Honshu.

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Japanese Class System
  • The Emperor

Farmers
The Shogun
Artisans
The Daimyo
Merchants
The Samurai
Eta
The Ronin
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Vietnam
  • 1. Geographical proximity and a similar irrigated
    wet-rice agriculture made Vietnam suitable for
    integration with southern China. Economic and
    cultural assimilation took place during Tang and
    Song times, when the elite of Annam (northern
    Vietnam) modeled their high culture on that of
    the Chinese. When the Tang Empire fell, Annam
    established itself as an independent state under
    the name Dai Viet.
  • 2. In southern Vietnam, the kingdom of Champa was
    influenced by Malay and Indian as well as by
    Chinese culture. During the Song period, when Dai
    Viet was established, Champa cultivated a
    relationship with the Song state and exported the
    fast-maturing Champa rice to China.
  • 3. East Asian countries shared a common Confucian
    interest in hierarchy, but the status of women
    varied from country to country. Foot-binding was
    not common outside of China. Before Confucianism
    was introduced to Annam, women there had a higher
    status than women in Confucian China. Nowhere,
    however, was the education of women considered
    valuable or even desirable.

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