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Chapter 15: Family Change: Stress, Crisis, and Transition


Chapter 15: Family Change: Stress, Crisis, and Transition Figure 15.1: Stages of Selye s General Adaptation Syndrome Figure 15.3: McCubbin s Double ABC-X Model of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 15: Family Change: Stress, Crisis, and Transition

Chapter 15Family Change Stress, Crisis, and
Family Development Stress
  • Stressor
  • Anything that elicits a physiological and/or
    psychological response a stress response
  • Good stress eustress
  • Negative stress - distress

Categories of Common Stressors
  • Personal
  • Social/family
  • Work
  • Environmental

Family Life Cycle Developmental Tasks
  • Changes in Structure
  • Family structure is dynamic
  • Must adapt to ongoing changes in the system
  • Changes in Family Roles
  • As structure changes, family roles change
  • Changes occur in family boundaries

Family Life Cycle Developmental Tasks
  • Changes in Family Roles
  • As roles change, communication changes
  • Individual growth demands change

Family as a System
  • Family is a system of interrelated parts
  • Family members affect and are affected by each
  • Each family must be viewed as a whole
  • Each familys goal is to maintain homeostasis or

Figure 15.1 Stages of Selyes General Adaptation
General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Describes the physiological responses to eustress
    and distress
  • Stage 1 Alarm Reaction
  • The brain perceives the stressor and signals the
    body to deal with it through neurological and
    physiological means
  • The body reacts to the threat
  • Fight or flight tendency

General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Stage 2 Stage of Resistance
  • The body continues to battle the stressor and
    remains in a state of arousal
  • Increased level of stress steroids alarms the
    bodys organs
  • Energy eventually becomes depleted

General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Stage 3 Exhaustion
  • Chronic unrelenting stress or mismanaged stress
    can cause permanent damage
  • The body over time simply breaks down
  • People under stress may experience a variety of
    symptoms headaches, nausea, depression, crying,
    fatigue, anger, racing heart, inability to eat or
    sleep, and more

Event Based Stress
  • A life change event
  • One that is forever life altering
  • One that requires significant social and
    psychological adjustment

Social Readjustment Rating Scale
  • Identifies association between life events and
    life transitions
  • Identifies the impact of these events and
    transitions on individual physical health and

Transactional Model of Stress
  • The impact of the stressor is wholly dependent on
    our perception and appraisal of the stressor
  • Primary appraisal instinctively evaluate the
    stressor and assess its significance
  • Secondary appraisal assess how controllable the
    stressor is and which resources

Locus of Control
  • External Locus of Control
  • The perception that we cannot control what
    happens to some aspects of our lives
  • Internal Locus of Control
  • The perception that we are in control of our

Coping Efforts
  • Strategies used to bring order to, normalize, or
    regulate the stressor
  • Problem management strategies
  • Aimed directly at attacking the stressor
  • Emotional regulation strategies
  • Help individuals change their perceptions,
    interpretation, and the meaning of the stressor
  • Meaning based strategies
  • Techniques that produced positive emotion

Table 15.2 Types of Family Crises
Four Types of Family Crisis
  • Dismemberment separation of isolation of an
    individual from the rest of the family
  • Accession when turbulence occurs due to the
    addition of a family member
  • Demoralization plus Dismemberment or Accession-
    family is demoralized because of embarrassing
    stressors such as imprisonment or suicide of a
    family member

Figure 15.2 Hills ABC X Model of Family Stress
The ABCs of Family Crisis
  • ABC-X Family Crisis Model Reuben Hill
  • Family crisis is a combination of factors and the
    outcomes of the event
  • The A Factor stress can be normative
    development such as the birth of a child,
    marriage of an adult child, early death of a
    spouse are family specific

ABC-X Model continued
  • The B Factor- refers to the resources the family
    has that will help meet the demands of the
    stressor or crisis communication, problem
    solving, coping strategies
  • The C Factor the definition the family assigns
    to change, transition, stressor, or disruption

ABC-X Model continued
  • The X Factor this is the combination of A, B
    and C and is totally dependent on the resources
    the family has to meet the crisis or stressor

Double ABC-X model
  • Stressors pile up on families
  • 3 types of stressors that lead to the pile-up
  • Initial stressor the first stressor
  • Family life changes and transitions things that
    take place regardless of stressors
  • Stressors those stressors associated with
    familys attempt to cope with circumstances

Double ABC-X model
  • The Double B Factor
  • Resources that family already has minimize
  • Coping resources self reliance, self esteem

Double ABC-X model
  • The Double C Factor
  • The perception of the event or stressor may be
  • The familys perception of the stressor itself
  • The familys perception of the crisis

Double ABC-X model
  • The Double X Factor
  • Possible outcomes of stress
  • Family adaptation return to pre-crisis level of
  • Maladaptive levels of functioning
    low-functioning, ill-functioning, non-functioning
  • Bonadaptive level of functioning may grow and

Figure 15.3 McCubbins Double ABC-X Model of
Family Stress and Crisis Pile-Up
Family Adaptive Tasks
  • To successfully adjust, families must
  • Establish the meaning and understand the personal
    significance of the situation
  • Confront reality and respond to the requirements
    of the external situation
  • Sustain relationships with family members and
    friends as well as with other individuals who may
    be helpful in resolving the crisis and aftermath

Family Adaptive Tasks
  • Preserve a reasonable emotional balance by
    managing distressful feelings in response to the
  • Preserve a satisfactory self-image and maintain a
    sense of competence and mastery

Family Violence
  • Violence perpetrated against family members by an
    offender who is related to the victim
    biologically or legally
  • Batterers current or former spouses, parents,
    guardians, children, siblings, grandchildren,
    aunts and uncles, nephews and nieces

Figure 15.4 Domestic Partner Violence by
Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Domestic Violence Categories
  • Physical Violence hitting, punching, pushing,
    slapping, biting, or throwing something at the
  • Emotional violence controlling the amount of
    contact with others, name calling, criticism,
    controlling spending, excessive rule making

More Domestic Violence
  • Sexual violence marital rape, battering rape,
    and forced sexual acts

Measuring Domestic Violence
  • Measured in two ways
  • Through survey interviews with victims
  • Through statistics gathered by police

The Battered
  • Characteristics of the battered
  • Lower educational levels
  • Teenage parents
  • Women who are single parents
  • Women who have witnessed a parent being battered

Prevalence of Domestic Violence
  • 1 in 4 women have been physically or sexually
    abused by an intimate partner
  • Women are more likely than men to be victims
  • 3/4 of the people who commit family violence are
  • 74 of family violence victims are white, 13.6
    are African American and 10.1 are Hispanic

More Domestic Violence Facts
  • Girlfriends are more likely to be injured by
    their boyfriends during family violence than are
    wives by their husbands
  • 15 of all violent acts between intimate partners
    are perpetrated against men
  • 18 of family murders are siblings who kill

Figure 15.5 Primary Populations Served by
Domestic Violence Shelters
Domestic Homicides
  • Everyday an average of 4 women in the U.S. are
    killed by their intimate partners
  • Of all murders in the U.S., 21.5 are committed
    against family members
  • Intimate partner violence is the leading cause of
    death among pregnant women
  • Whites are more likely to die at the hands of
    their partners than other races

Violence Against Children
  • Each year over 3 million children experience some
    type of maltreatment or abuse by a caregiver
  • 61 are neglected
  • 19 are physically abused
  • 10 are sexually abused
  • 5 are psychologically abused
  • 2 experience medical maltreatment
  • 17 experience abandonment

Figure 15.6 Types of Child Abuse and Neglect by
Percentage of Total Abuse
Figure 15.7 Who Abuses Children?
Violence Against Same Sex Partners
  • 6,523 incidents of domestic violence among same
    sex partners
  • 44 of victims were men, 36 were women and 2
    were transgendered
  • 44 were white, 25 were Latino, 15 were African
    American and 6 were Asian

The Signs of an Abusive Partner
  • The Batterer
  • Low self-esteem
  • Blame others for their behavior
  • Typically extremely jealous
  • Use sex as their weapon of aggression
  • Need to control and dominate and become master

The Cycle of Violence
  • Tension Building victim senses an explosive,
    violent episode is about to occur, fear builds,
    she tries to stay out of his way goal is to
    prevent batterer from becoming violent

The Cycle of Violence
  • Acute Battering Incident destructive, out of
    control, brutal, violence has escalated into an
    acute battering incident, can become deadly,
    verbal abuse, severe beating, possible rape,
    victim does not usually fight back

The Cycle of Violence
  • Respite Phase often called the honeymoon,
    abuser apologizes, may give victim gifts, express
    his regret, victim may have sense of renewed hope

Figure 15.8 The Power and
Figure 15.10 Lenore Walkers Cycle of
ViolenceP. 512
Family Coping and Resilience
  • Major Types of Coping Skills
  • Appraisal focused attempt to understand why
    crisis occurred and attempt to find meaning in
    circumstances that caused crisis
  • Problem focused coping allows family to
    confront the situation by seeking information
    about the crisis

Family Coping and Resilience
  • Emotion focused coping crisis evokes a wide
    range of feelings and emotions
  • Progressive desensitization gradually allow
    increasing exposure to aspects of the stressor
  • Emotional discharge venting of anger,
    frustration, confusion, disappointment
  • Resigned acceptance family ultimately accepts
    the situation, recognizes nothing will change the
    course their family has taken

Family Resilience
  • A familys ability to function during times of
    stress, adversity, crisis, and transition
  • Resilience Processes
  • Family belief system
  • Making meaning of adversity
  • Positive outlook
  • Flexibility
  • Connectedness
  • Communication