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Title: Biological%20diversity%20is%20reflected%20in%20the%20variety%20of%20life%20on%20Earth


1
Biological diversity is reflected in the variety
of life on Earth
  • Section 1.0 p. 8 - 25

2
List 10 words or phrases that come to mind when
you hear the word BIOLOGICAL
List 10 words or phrases that come to mind when
you hear the word DIVERSITY
3
Section 1.1 Examining Diversity
  • Pages 9 - 15

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vvGxJArebKoc
http//www.learnalberta.ca/content/seetb/html/unit
_a/index.html?pagefeatures ? Video on diversity
of life
4
Species!!!
  • Biologists have identified more than 1.5 million
    species of animals, and 350 000 species of
    plants.
  • What is a Species??

A species is a group of organisms that have the
same structure and can reproduce with one another.
5
  • Regardless of how unique they may appear, all
    life forms share certain characteristics
  • What are they?
  • All living things are made up of _______.
  • They need _______ to grow and develop.
  • They ___________.
  • Have ___________ that suit them for the
    environment in which they live.

cells
energy
reproduce
adaptations
6
Biological Diversity refers to.
  • All the different types of organisms on Earth.
  • However, scientists dont usually examine the
    entire Earths biological diversity.
  • They examine it in smaller groupings.

7
Diversity Between Ecosystems
  • In an ECOSYSTEM, living (biotic) things interact
    with other living and non-living (abiotic) things
    in a shared environment.
  • Abiotic?? (air, water, sunlight)
  • Biotic (anything living)

8
Diversity Within Ecosystems
  • When members of a species live in a specific area
    and share the same resources, these individuals
    form a POPULATION.
  • Ex school of fish, herd of zebras
  • When populations of different species live in the
    same area, these populations form a COMMUNITY.
  • Ex Africa lions elephants, zebras, giraffes
    all live in the same area

9
Diversity within Species
  • A species is a group of organisms that all have
    the same basic structures.
  • However, if you look closely at any population,
    you will notice that there are subtle VARIATIONS
    between individual members of the population.
  • Look at our class! Were the same species, do we
    all look identical?
  • What about dogs?

10
Genetic Diversity
  • GENETIC DIVERSITY refers to the variations
    between members of a populations.
  • In any population, these variations are for the
    most part, caused by subtle variations in the
    cells of the organisms.
  • Banded Snails have great visible genetic
    diversity. Color, and bands.
  • People not visible, but very different blood
    types.

11
Controlling genetics?
  • In some cases, humans have purposely reduced the
    amount of variation between individual organisms.
  • Why would we do this?
  • So that the individuals who have the same useful
    characteristic reproduce more.
  • Can you think of any?
  • Dog breeding
  • Plants/crops

12
Should we be concerned about people controlling
the genetic diversity of plants and animals? Why
or why not??
Yes, because if a population lacks genetic
diversity, then it might not be able to survive
environmental change and reproduce. Example
genetically identical crops are unable to deal
effectively with changing conditions or diseases
without help. 1916 Spring wheat crops were wiped
out in Canada. 1846 Irish potato famine
13
Species Distribution
  • The species on our planet are not all distributed
    evenly.
  • Areas around the EQUATOR have the greatest number
    of plant species.
  • Because of this, it provides food and shelter to
    a wide variety of organisms.
  • The number of organisms is greatest in tropical
    regions.

14
The TROPICAL rainforests NEAR the EQUATOR contain
the greatest biodiversity.
15
Check and Reflect
  • Page 15
  • Questions 1, 2, 5, 6, 7

16
Classifying Biological Diversity
  • p. 12-13
  • vid

17
What does it mean to classify something?
  • To put into groups or arrangement for a
    particular reason.
  • In our everyday lives, we classify various
    things.
  • Ex In our kitchen food in one area, dishes in
    another. Within each of those areas, we classify
    further
  • Music Country, Rock, Pop, Hip Hop

Why would we classify things?
18
Lets classify the class
  • With a partner, classify the chocolate bars.
  • Must have at least 3 levels of organization.
  • Must be able to individually separate out each
    one.

Lets classify chocolate bars!!
19
Carolus Linnaeus
  • In the 18th century he developed a system for
    naming and classifying organisms.
  • He used Latin.
  • Why??
  • It was the common scientific language of his
    time.
  • Brought world wide consistency to the naming of
    species.

20
Two words name each living thing
  • First word name of the genus (always
    capitalized)
  • Second word the particular species (never
    capitalized)
  • No two species can have the same name.
  • Closely related species can have the same genus
    name but not species name.
  • Ex timber wolf Canis lupis
  • domestic dog Canis familiaris

21
  • Linnaeus arranged species into groups based on
    their physical structure rather than their
    habitat (which earlier systems had done).
  • Because the same Latin names are used worldwide,
    each scientist will know which species another
    scientist is discussing.

22
5 kingdom system
  • Animalia (animals)
  • Plantae (plants)
  • Fungi (yeasts, molds and mushrooms)
  • Protista (mostly single-celled organisms)
  • Monera (bacteria)

23
Classifying further
  • Each kingdom is classified further into
  • Phyla
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genera (genus)
  • Species
  • Example
  • White spruce
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Phyla Coniferophyta
  • Class Pinopsida
  • Order Pinales
  • Family Pinaceae
  • Genus Picea
  • Species Pincea glauca

24
Pneumonic Devices
  • Used when trying to remember an order of terms of
    facts.
  • How can we remember the order of Kingdom, Phyla,
    Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species?

25
Classifying Pneumonic Device
Kingdom King Kids
Phyla Phillip Prefer
Class Came Cookies
Order Over Over
Family For Fried
Genus Great Green
Species Spaghetti Spinach
26
classification rap ?
27
Biological Diversity under the Sea
  • Coral reefs have been called the amazons of the
    oceans because of the richness of their species
    diversity.
  • Like tropical rainforests, coral reefs support
    different communities of organisms surviving on a
    small amount of nutrients, which are very
    efficiently recycled.

28
Coral reefs
  • Coral polyps form the living layer of the reef
  • Calcium carbonate form the hard parts.
  • They can be massive and thousands of years old.

29
Check and Reflect
  • Page 15
  • s 3, 4, 8

30
Interdependence
  • No species can survive by itself. Each species
    is dependent in many other species in its
    environment.

Symbiosis is the science term for an association
between members of different species. (sym
meaning together, bio meaning life)
31
Commensalism
32
  • Barnacle on the whale
  • Remora on the shark

33
Mutualism
34
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35
Parasitism
36
(No Transcript)
37
The Human Bot Fly Maggot - Eye. Anterior
Orbital Myiasis Caused by Human Botfly in the
Archives of Ophthalmology, detailed the growth of
a bot-fly maggot within this unlucky 5-year-old's
eye orbit. Doctors removed the creature under a
general anaesthetic
38
Interdependence
39
1.2 Interdependence
  • Symbiotic relationship song

Organism 1 Organism 2 Example
Commensalism nothing Clown fish and sea anemone
Mutualism Bumble bee and flower
Parasitism - Mosquito and human or aphids and wasps
40
1.2 Interdependence
  • Green booklet p. 7-8
  • Any specific questions???
  • What is Competition?
  • What is resource partitioning?
  • What is a niche?

41
Variation within Species
  • Sec. 1.3 Pages 20-24

42
  • You already know that the stability of an
    ecosystem relies on the diversity of its
    communities and species and on the interactions
    between species.
  • But even further, there is variation within a
    population of a single species.
  • Variation within a species is called variability.

43
We are all Giraffes!!
  • The only food we eat is high in the trees.
  • Scenario one every giraffe is the same. All have
    short necks. What will happen to the species?
  • They will all die
  • Scenario two Variation Some long some short
    necks. What will happen to the species?
  • Only the long necks will survive and reproduce

44
We are all Rabbits!!
  • We need to be able to hide from predators in both
    the winter and the summer.
  • Scenario one We are all the same. We are brown
    all year round. What will happen to the species?
  • We will get eaten in the winter because well be
    easily spotted by predators.
  • Scenario two Variation some are white all year,
    some are brown all year, some are white in
    winter, and brown in summer. What will happen?
    Why?
  • Only the ones whos fur changes color will
    survive and reproduce, they can hide from
    predators in all seasons.

45
We are all bacteria!!
  • Scenario one We are all identical. A scientist
    randomly chooses one bacteria to study. He/she
    develops an antibody to kill that type of
    bacteria.
  • The doctor administers the antibody to all the
    bacteria. What happens to the bacteria???
  • All of the bacteria will be killed.

46
We are still all bacteria!!
  • Scenario two Variation this time there are
    three variations of the bacteria. A scientist
    randomly chooses one bacteria and develops an
    antibody to kill that bacteria.
  • A doctor then administers the antibody to all the
    bacteria. What will happen to the bacteria?
  • Only the ones that match the chosen one will die.
    The rest will survive and reproduce.

47
Super bugs!!!!
  • Researchers think that the over-prescription of
    antibiotics has allowed bacterial populations
    with variation survive.
  • The few resistant bacteria that are not killed,
    reproduce and now become a whole population of
    resistant bacteria.
  • Creating super bugs!!
  • Most physicians believe that antibiotics should
    only be used when absolutely necessary.

48
Natural Selection
  • Natural selection occurs when the environment
    selects which individuals will survive long
    enough to reproduce.
  • From our demonstration today, explain how natural
    selection occurred in the giraffes, rabbits, or
    bacteria.

49
Check and reflect
  • Page 24
  • Questions 1-5
  • Practice PAT questions
  • SMARTboard
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