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Establishing the Republic

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Establishing the Republic HUM 2051: Civilization I Fall 2010 Dr. Perdigao October 8-13, 2010 Transference Shared cultures Roman names to Greek gods but, more ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Establishing the Republic


1
Establishing the Republic
  • HUM 2051 Civilization I
  • Fall 2010
  • Dr. Perdigao
  • October 8-13, 2010

2
Transference
  • Shared culturesRoman names to Greek godsbut,
    more significantly, cross-cultural contact
  • Zeus
  • Jupiter father
  • Hera
  • Juno queen
  • Athena
  • Minerva wisdom
  • Aphrodite
  • Venus love
  • Hades
  • Pluto underworld
  • Hermes
  • Mercury trade messenger
  • Poseidon
  • Neptune sea
  • Ares
  • Mars war
  • Hephaestus
  • Vulcan fire blacksmith

3
Key Virtues
  • Patria potestas (fathers power) in Roman
    family
  • Virtue (virtus) dignity (dignitas) fame (fama),
    competition for political power and privilege
    (Perry 120)
  • Piety toward gods and family, friends, and state
  • Mos maiorum (the way of the elders)
  • Virtus (virtue) courage, strength, loyaltybut
    also moral purity
  • Faithfulness (fides)

4
Changing of the Guard
  • Foundation of the Republic to counter
    mythological beginnings (509 BCE), begins with
    overthrow of Etruscan monarchy by landowning
    aristocrats (patricians) Empire in 27 BCE with
    Octavian (Augustus) as first Roman emperor after
    500 years of republican self-government (Perry
    118)
  • Inheritances from Etruscansroad construction,
    sanitation, hydraulic engineering (Perry 118)
  • Romerepublic at end of sixth century BCE (509
    BCE) with landowning aristocrats (patricians)
    overthrowing Etruscan king
  • Struggle of the Ordersconflict between
    patricians and commoners (plebeians)
    governmentconsuls, Centuriate Assembly, popular
    assembly controlled by nobility, and Senate
    plebeians won right to own assembly, the Plebeian
    Assembly and later Tribal Assembly (119-120)

5
Foundations
  • Twelve Tables as first Roman code of laws in 450
    BCE (Perry 120)
  • 287 BCE Tribal Assembly gives full civil equality
    and legal protection to plebeians although upper
    class remains in power (Perry 120) class
    struggle remains for two hundred years
  • 146 BCERome as dominant state in Mediterranean
    world uniting Italian peninsula war with
    Carthage where Rome emerges as ruler of western
    Mediterranean subjugation of Hellenistic states,
    contact with Greek civilizations (Perry 122)

6
Evolution of Forms
  • CarthageNorth African city founded by
    Phoenicians in 800 BCE, commercial center (Perry
    123)
  • Wars with Carthage264-121 BCEPunic Wars (First
    Punic War 264-241 BCE, Carthage surrenders Sicily
    to Rome, Rome later seizes Corsica and Sardinia
    Second Punic War 218-201 BCE)
  • Hannibal (247-183 BCE) leading Carthaginian army
    after Hannibals win at Cannae, Romes worst
    days Hannibal eventually defeated by Scipio
    Africanas in 202 BCE in battle of Zama to end
    Second Punic War (Perry 123-124)
  • Second Punic WarRome as greatest power in
    western Mediterranean Philip V of Macedonia
    joins HannibalRome starts First Macedonian War,
    wins in 205 BCE (Perry 124)
  • Roman imperialismThird Punic War in 146 BCE to
    annihilate Carthage (Perry 125)

7
Developments
  • Hellenizationadoption of Greek culture (Perry
    125) with Greeks coming to Rome
  • Contact with Greek cultureFormation of Roman
    culturescience, philosophy, medicine, geography,
    history, poetry, drama, oratory (Perry 128)
  • Plautus playsmodeled on Greeks, with Greek
    characters, settings, style of dress Catullus as
    lyric poet Lucretius, Roman Epicurean
    philosopher Cicero, orator
  • Marius as consul in 107 BCE (Perry 134), Sulla in
    control in struggle with Mithridates, but Marius
    supporters return command to Marius after
    Marius death, Sulla becomes dictator
  • First Triumvirate in 60 BCE, Pompey, Crassus, and
    Julius Caesar,
  • Caesar crossing the Rubicon, civil war in
    Republic, dictator for ten years

8
The Next Chapter
  • Temporary dictatorship made lifelong office
  • 44 BCEMarch 15aristocrats assassinate Caesar,
    including general and orator Brutus (Perry 136)
  • Mark Antony and Lepidus join Octavian to defeat
    Brutus and Cassius Antony and Octavian fight for
    control of Rome, Octavian defeats Antony and
    Cleopatra to emerge master of Rome and then first
    Roman emperor (Perry 137)
  • Move from republican institutions to dictatorship
    (Perry 136) expansion and disintegration
  • Next eraOctavianmove to peace as Augustus
    (backdrop for Virgils text)
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