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THE%20GILDED%20AGE

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Title: THE GREAT WAR AND THE ROARING TWENTIES Author: smithh Last modified by: Hunter Smith Created Date: 2/1/2005 5:05:08 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE%20GILDED%20AGE


1
THE GILDED AGE
  • 1880-1914

2
THE NATIVE AMERICAN QUESTION
  • 1860-1890s
  • western tribes forced into reservations
  • Laramie Treaty (Nov. 1868)
  • creates two large reservations
  • Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
  • Dakotas
  • reservations administered by the Bureau of Indian
    Affairs (BIA)
  • Problems
  • lack of promised supplies
  • destruction of wild game by white hunters
  • poverty

3
THE NATIVE AMERICAN QUESTION
  • 1860-1880s
  • constant warfare on varying scales
  • 1875miners violate treaty when white miners
    enter Black Hills in search of gold
  • Sioux rebellion (Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull)
  • Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
  • 1874-1886Apache resistance led by Geronimo
  • 1890Sioux religious revival (Ghost Dance)
  • Wounded Knee (Dec. 29, 1890)

4
SCROUNGING FOR FOOD ON THE RESERVATION
5
GERONIMO AND APACHE WARRIORS
6
GENERAL GEORGE CUSTER
7
SITTING BULL
8
CUSTER AT LITTLE BIGHORN
9
GHOST DANCE
10
WOUNDED KNEE
11
WOUNDED KNEE
12
WOUNDED KNEE
13
THE NEW CAPITALISM
  • emerging technologies
  • new entrepreneurial class (Robber Barons)
  • John D. Rockefeller (oil)
  • Andrew Carnegie/Henry Bessemer/William Kelly
    (steel)
  • J.P. Morgan (banking)
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads)
  • Henry Ford (automobiles)
  • growing supply of cheap immigrant labor
  • Europehuge influx of eastern Europeans (Slavic
    peoples)
  • WestChinese, other Asians, and Mexicans

14
THE NEW CAPITALISM
  • Robber Barron defense of the New Capitalism
  • Adam Smith, social Darwinism, philanthropy
    (Gospel of Wealth)
  • supported by the government
  • expanding consumption
  • new business structures and production methods
  • trusts, corporations, and holding companies
  • vertical integration
  • scientific management and the assembly line

15
ANDREW CARNEGIE
16
CORNELIUS VANDERBILT
17
HENRY FORD
18
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER
19
J. P. MORGAN
20
CHALLENGES TO THE NEW CAPITALISM
  • rise of labor unions
  • Knights of Labor
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL)
  • Samuel Gompers, President
  • strikes and violence
  • Homestead Strike (1892)
  • Pullman Strike (1894)
  • Haymarket Square Riot (1886)

21
CHALLENGES TO THE NEW CAPITALISM
  • populism
  • Grangers and Alliance movement (1870s-1890)
  • Gold vs. Silver debate
  • 1896 Presidential election (Cross of Gold)
  • William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) vs. William
    McKinley (Republican)
  • federal government regulations
  • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
  • regulates railroads

22
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
  • New Manifest Destiny (1890s)
  • seeking new markets
  • white mans burden
  • build-up of naval power (Alfred Thayer Mahan)
  • Hawaii (1898)
  • Spanish-American War (1898)
  • Puerto Rico, Guam, occupation of Cuba and the
    Philippines
  • Samoa (1899)
  • supported by yellow journalism (William Randolph
    Hearst)
  • sensationalism and exaggeration

23
THEODORE ROOSEVELT
24
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
  • Rooseveltian Imperialism
  • Open Door in Asia
  • maintain open markets and balance of power
  • mediates end to Russo-Japanese War (1905)

25
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
  • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)
  • US will military oppose foreign intervention in
    western hemisphere
  • US right to intervention
  • Platt Amendment (1901)
  • US has a right to intervention in Cuba
  • allows US naval bases (Guantanamo Bay)
  • 1908receivership over Dominican Republic
  • 1916Panama Canal completed
  • Tafts Dollar Diplomacy (1909-1913)

26
AMERICAN IMPERIALISM
27
PROGRESSIVISM
  • Progressivism (1900-1914)
  • human and government action could promote growth,
    progress, and improved social conditions
  • Muckrakers (journalism, The Jungle)
  • Social Gospel (religious, urban renewal)
  • Settlement House Movement (immigrant transition)
  • Womens Suffrage Movement (192019th Amendment)
  • Temperance Crusade (prohibition)
  • Socialism (economics)
  • Political progressivism
  • Robert LaFollete (Governor of Wisconsin)

28
WOODROW WILSON
29
PROGRESSIVISM
  • Theodore Roosevelt (New Nationalism)
  • regulation of monopolies
  • health and food safety standards
  • natural resource preservation and conservation
  • Woodrow Wilson (New Freedom)
  • break-up monopolies (Clayton Antitrust Act)
  • Federal Reserve System
  • income tax
  • child labor laws (Keating-Owen Act1916)
  • reform of state and local government

30
LIMITS TO PROGRESSIVISM
  • Civil Rights
  • Plessy v Ferguson (1896)
  • separate but equal doctrine
  • legalizes segregation
  • grandfather clauses
  • exempts voters from literacy tests and property
    requirements if they could vote before the Civil
    War

31
LIMITS TO PROGRESSIVISM
  • How should the African-American community
    respond?
  • Booker T. Washington
  • advocated black community, economic, and
    educational development
  • temporary acceptance of Jim Crow
  • W.E.B Dubois
  • advocated immediate fight for equality through
    the legal and political system
  • Marcus Garvey
  • advocated voluntary black segregation (Back to
    Africa) and self-defense

32
LIMITS TO PROGRESSIVISM
  • Nativism
  • rebirth of the Klan
  • Birth of a Nation
  • immigration restrictions

33
WORLD WAR I AND THE ROARING TWENTIES
  • 1914-1930

34
GAVRILO PRINCEPSArchduke Ferdinands Assassin
35
THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM
  • Allied Powers Triple Alliance
  • Britain Germany
  • France Austro-Hungary
  • Russia Ottoman Empire
  • conflict between the established power (Britain)
    and the emerging power (Germany)

36
THE ALLIANCE SYSTEM
37
PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON
38
US ISOLATIONISM
  • Wilsons Neutrality Policy (1914)
  • called on the United States to stay impartial in
    thought as well as deed.
  • reflected tension between internationalists and
    isolationists
  • impossible to enforce and maintain

39
FAILURE OF US NEUTRALITY
  • Ethnic Composition of the United States
  • Irish and German-Americans favored Germany
  • historical ties between US and Great Britain
  • Economic Realities
  • US extensive trade relations with Allied Powers
  • European war created a boom for US industry
  • US factories hired extra shifts
  • farm prices rose to an all-time high

40
FAILURE OF US NEUTRALITY
  • German War Tactics
  • submarine warfareGerman failure to defeat the
    British navy
  • May 17, 1915sinking of the Lusitania off the
    coast of Ireland
  • Wilson demands German respect for American
    neutral rights
  • Sussex Pledge (early 1916)Germans agree not to
    attack passenger liners without warning

41
LUSITANIA
42
US ENTRY INTO WORLD WAR I
  • Wilsons reelection (1916)
  • calls for US involvement to create a new world
    order based on diplomacy and League of Nations
  • resumption of German submarine warfare
  • cut off supplies to Great Britain to coincide
    with a massive offensive on Allied lines
  • Zimmerman telegram
  • proposed a military alliance between Germany and
    Mexico
  • Spring 1917torpedoing of three American trading
    vessels
  • April 6, 1917US declaration of war against the
    Central Powers

43
EUROPE AT WAR
44
THE WORLD AT WAR IN 1914
45
MOBILIZATION OF US
  • Social Mobilization
  • the federal government wielded powers that
    essentially outlawed opposition to the war
  • Espionage Act (1917), Sedition Act (1918)
  • used the post office and justice department to
    silence opposition
  • targeted disloyalty toward the federal
    government
  • Propaganda
  • Committee on Public Information (1916)
  • responsible for selling the war to Americans by
    convincing them they were fighting to save their
    homes
  • The Great Migration
  • massive movement of rural black Southerners to
    the urban north

46
MOBILIZATION OF US
  • Economic Mobilization
  • subordinated individual needs to those of the
    nation and the war
  • the national economy was reorganized,
    centralized, and planned in ways unseen before
  • nationalization of the railroads
  • War Industries Board (WIB)charged with
    centrally-planning economic production for the war

47
STATISTICS OF WAR
  • Total 8.5 million dead, 21 million wounded
  • Britain   750,000 dead,1,500,000 wounded
  • France 1,400,000 dead, 2,500,000 wounded
  • Belgium 50,000 dead
  • Italy 600,000 dead
  • Russia 1,700,000 dead
  • United States 116,000 dead
  • Germany 2,000,000 dead
  • Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 dead
  • Turkey 325,000 dead
  • Bulgaria 100,000 dead

48
BRITISH RECRUITMENT POSTER
49
ARTILLERY FIRE
50
WORLD WAR I ERA TANK
51
DESTRUCTION OF WAR
52
YPRES
53
POLITICAL CARTOON OF TRENCH LIFE
54
ASSAULT FROM THE TRENCHLINES
55
TRENCH WARFARE
56
TRENCH RATS
57
TRENCH WARFARE
58
TRENCH FOOT
59
BRITISH AMPUTEES
60
DEATH IN A FIELD HOSPITAL
61
BRITISH GAS MASK
62
SOLDIERS BLINDED BY MUSTARD GAS
63
GERMAN SOLDIERS AFTER A GAS ATTACK
64
GAS BURNS
65
VERDUN
66
VERDUN
67
VERDUN
68
VERDUN
69
FEMALE BUTCHER
70
WOMEN IN INDUSTRY
71
JUSTIFICATION FOR US INVOLVMENT
  • Wilsons Address to Congress (January 8, 1918)
  • Fourteen Points
  • reworking of the political boundaries of Europe
  • Outlines new principles to govern international
    relations
  • freedom of the seas
  • national self-determination
  • free trade
  • open diplomacy
  • arms reduction/control
  • League of Nations
  • facing a new challenge from the Communist Soviet
    Union
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)peace treaty
    between Russia and Germany
  • Wilson sends 7,000 US troops to support
    anti-Bolshevik forces

72
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
  • Representatives
  • Wilson (USA)
  • David Lloyd George (GB)
  • Georges Clemenceau (FR)
  • Problems
  • Wilsons idealism versus national interest of
    Europeans
  • Wilsons alienation of Republicans
  • Wilsons personalization of the peace
  • Unease about the civil war in Russia

73
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • Failures
  • British refuse to discuss free trade and freedom
    of the seas
  • discussion of open treaties, but no agreement
  • self-determination
  • transfer of some German colonies to Japan
  • occupation of Russian territory by Allied troops

74
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • Treatment of Germany
  • create Weimar Republic
  • Germanys military
  • army limited to 100,000 men and no tanks
  • no air force
  • 6 naval ships and no submarines
  • demilitarized the Rhineland
  • Allies occupation for 15 years
  • War guilt Clause/reparations (Clause 231)
  • 64 billion (788 billion in 2010 terms)

75
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • Successes
  • colonies under League trusteeship
  • Mandate System (Middle East)
  • failure of French attempts to break up Germany
  • new nations created from the Austro-Hungarian
    Empire
  • Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
  • approval for the League of Nations
  • Resolve disputes
  • Protect peace
  • Executive CouncilUS, Britain, France, Italy,
    Japan
  • Failed to specifically address enforcement

76
SYKES-PICOT TREATY 1916
77
MANDATE SYSTEM 1920
78
POSTWAR EUROPE
79
SENATE RATIFICATION
  • Sources of Conflict
  • Internationalist vs. isolationists
  • organized political coalitionIrreconcilables
  • Western isolationists and Republicans
  • led by Henry Cabot Lodge (R-Mass) who also hated
    Wilson personally
  • US should look after its own security and work
    out its foreign relations independently
  • American public questions
  • harsh treatment of defeated nations
  • colonial land grabs by Europeans
  • Wilsons personal flaws

80
SENATE RATIFICATION
  • Ratification Process
  • Public opinion favored ratification initially
  • Republican strategy
  • Senate committee hearings for 6 weeks
  • proposal of amendments
  • Wilsons nationwide speaking tour
  • Wilson suffers a major stroke (Sept. 1918)
  • November 19, 1918
  • Wilson orders Democratic Senators to reject the
    treaty with Lodges amendments added and the
    treaty is voted down
  • loss of US public interest
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